US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 3, No 4, January 27, 1992

Title:

Coordinating Assistance to The New Independent States

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Opening address before the Coordinating Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States, Department of State, Washington, DC Date: Jan, 22 19921/22/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Subject: Trade/Economics, Development/Relief Aid [TEXT] (introductory remarks deleted) I just want to give a warm welcome to the United States and to Washington- -our capital--to the many distinguished guests in this room today who include foreign ministers and senior officials from 47 countries, the United Nations, major international financial institutions, and other major international organizations. We come together this morning as partners at a historic time--a turning point in our century and, I think, in modern history. Our mission is to respond together to the dramatic revolution that swept away Soviet communism and left in its place 12 new nations moving to establish their place in the world and struggling with the critical task of feeding, clothing, and housing their peoples this winter, this spring, and beyond. Before you discuss these issues in depth over the next 2 days, I wanted to take a moment to reflect on the meaning of these events in the former Soviet Union for those of us in North America, in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, Asia, the Pacific--in all corners of the globe. For nearly 50 years, throughout most of the adult lives of almost everyone in this room, mankind endured a dangerous global conflict--the Cold War. It divided continents and peoples and held all countries hostage to the possibility of nuclear annihilation. The free world rose up against that threat posed by Soviet expansionism in the decades after the Second World War. We spent hundreds of billions of dollars and sacrificed precious lives and national resources in that great struggle. With the revolution in Eastern Europe in 1989 and in the Soviet Union in 1991, that mortal threat has withered. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself, just last month, we find ourselves at the entryway to a new world--a world of hope for a lasting peace and growing prosperity. Led by a courageous President, Boris Yeltsin, reformers have come to power in the enormous Russian federation. Ukraine has won independence. The Government of President Leonid Kravchuk holds out the promise of a new political and economic order. In Armenia, a former prisoner of conscience, President Ter-Petrosyan, has led an extraordinary national effort to transform his country's economic system and liberate his people from political oppression. In Central Asia, [there are] the same stories, as President Nazarbayev [of Kazakhstan and] President Akayev [of Kyrgyzstan] are leading the fight for reform there. A new day has dawned throughout the Commonwealth of Independent States, with hope for a fundamental transformation in the way people live and work and think. As we begin a new year and chart our course for the rest of this decade, let us bring equal commitment to the challenge of helping to build and sustain democracy and economic freedom in the former USSR, just as we did to winning the Cold War. Let us help the people throughout the independent states to make the leap from communism to democracy, from command economies to free markets, from authoritarianism to liberty. Then, let us pull together to win the peace in this post-Cold War era. We should not underestimate the enormity of this challenge and the difficulty of unraveling economic dislocations resulting from over 70 years of communist economics. Ultimate success or failure rests squarely with the efforts and wisdom of the peoples of Russia and the Ukraine and the Caucasus [and] Central Asia. The battle is really theirs to win. But they cannot win it alone. These 12 new countries will need the hard work, creativity, and goodwill of all of our countries from every continent. That is why we meet today--to assure that our commitment and assistance will be up to the task, well conceived, and efficiently executed. We meet to demonstrate to the peoples in these new states that the international community cares about them and supports their hard struggle to build new societies on the ruins of communism. So, let us join together to give these people a reason to hope. Let us commit ourselves this morning to work in full partnership as we proceed. First, we must continue to act resolutely this winter, this spring, and then throughout 1992 to meet the critical emergency needs of these states--food and medical supplies and energy and shelter. The shortages now evident throughout the 12 states will not soon disappear and will require sustained attention--our sustained attention. Second, we must also meet the challenge of promoting economic growth and development of new free market institutions through a collective international effort to provide technical assistance. Our work will be critically important to help the new states construct banking and taxation systems to provide a healthier environment [and] to promote the rule of law and, yes, nuclear safety. In short, we must support those who are standing up for reform and freedom. We should stimulate concrete investments and expanded trade. President Boris Yeltsin's courageous economic reforms deserve our support, as do efforts in the other states to introduce economic change. Our success or failure will hinge on our ability to work effectively together on this common cause. The challenge is too great for any one nation or group of nations. It is a global challenge requiring the efforts and commitment of nations from all over the world. Your presence here, a truly remarkable presence, is vivid testimony that this is, and must be, a global coalition. Nothing else can work. As we come together during these 2 days--and then certainly in the months ahead--let us do so constructively in the spirit of partnership, avoiding sterile debates over which one of us has done the most or the least and which should lead our response to this historic challenge. All of us have a role and obligation to fulfill. Many of us have already undertaken concrete actions to help. The European Community has shouldered a major and generous share of the burden. Its prompt actions over several years to provide humanitarian support were vitally important, and its commitment to a vigorous technical assistance program is far reaching and most welcomed. Germany alone has assumed enormous responsibility in providing military housing and in channeling credits to the former USSR and now to the federation--to the Russian federation. Other EC governments have made important contributions. The Atlantic alliance stands ready to help with the knowledge that the peoples of the former USSR are moving toward the same values that have sustained NATO since its birth. It is especially satisfying to see here today our friends from Central and Eastern Europe as the pioneers in discarding communism and embracing democracy. You are here as symbols of success. Though you still face problems yourselves, the world applauds your willingness to help freedom elsewhere. The challenges before us require efforts not just from Europe but from other regions and countries as well. Japan has made important contributions [and] commitments and will be critical to this effort. Now other nations in the Far East and the Middle East and Latin America should commit their expertise, their resources, to assure the success of reform. I can assure you today that the United States, which for so long has led the struggle to contain communism, is also contributing its share so that democracy is its permanent replacement. For over 40 years, we have led in the reconstruction and defense of the free world. Now that the torch of liberty has sparked freedom among our former adversaries, the greatest good of our long labor is at last visible. The United States cannot, and will not, falter at the moment that these new states are struggling to embrace the very ideals that America was founded to foster and preserve. Accordingly, as a further US contribution to this urgent worldwide effort, I am proposing that the Congress approve over $600 million for new technical assistance and humanitarian efforts. In addition to the assistance already announced, this will bring to over $5 billion the level of various forms of US assistance to these people in their time of need. In closing, I would like to reiterate the importance of seizing this moment to commit ourselves, individually and collectively, to an opportunity that may not come our way again in our lifetime. The prospect that our former adversaries may become our friends and our partners--this is in the national interest of every country represented around this table and those countries that are not represented around this table. By coordinating our efforts toward common goals, we have a chance to reshape the world for our children and for generations to come. If we do not, we risk the reversal of the historic leap to freedom made by the Russian, Ukrainian, Armenian, and other peoples during these last months. So, let us work together over the next 2 days to promote our national and collective security [and] continued global economic growth and to do what is right for the ordinary people who yearn for a better, free life in these new independent states. Thank you all very, very much for being here. I know it is not easy to make the long trek. It is desperately important. Thank you for this opportunity to speak with you today. And may God bless the peoples of all the countries represented here and the peoples of these new struggling independent states. We have such confidence that we can succeed--all of us working together.(###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 4, January 27, 1992 Title:

New Independent States And Their Capitals

PA Source: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs Description: Opening address before the Coordinating Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States, Department of State, Washington, DC Date: Jan, 27 19921/27/92 Category: Fact Sheets Region: Eurasia Country: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Subject: Trade/Economics, Development/Relief Aid [TEXT] States Capitals Armenia Yerevan Azerbaijan Baku Byelarus Minsk Georgia Tbilisi Kazakhstan Alma-Ata Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Moldova Kishinev Russia Moscow Tajikistan Dushanbe Turkmenistan Ashkhabad Ukraine Kiev Uzbekistan Tashkent (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 4, January 27, 1992 Title:

Provide Hope

Baker Source: Secretary Baker Description: Address at the opening session of the Coordinating Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States, Washington, DC Date: Jan, 22 19921/22/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Subject: Development/Relief Aid, Trade/Economics [TEXT] Ladies and gentlemen, let me echo the President's warm welcome, and thank you all very much for your presence here today. One year and 1 week ago today, a worldwide coalition launched a successful battle against naked aggression. Today, we join together to form a new coalition to fight a new battle, but one with an equally worthy and important cause. We meet today to form a coalition to support freedom and democracy, a coalition to help newly independent peoples to overcome a real human emergency, a coalition to support them as they work to free themselves from the fears and the shadows of their totalitarian past. If this were a war, I suppose we would call it Operation Provide Hope. Yet this is not a war to defeat aggression but a peacetime battle to support democracy and to support freedom. For while the peoples of Russia and the other independent states desperately need food and fuel, and medicine and shelter; even more, I think, they need hope. Hope that they can live their normal lives with bread on their shelves and medicine in their hospitals; hope that there are ways out of this emergency; hope, above all, that comes from knowing that the world cares about their plight and is really ready to help--that is the message that this conference must send. Here in Washington today, 54 nations and international organizations have joined together and have committed to coordinate with one another in freedom's fight. For all of us know that the peoples of Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Byelarus, Kyrgyzstan, and the other independent states are asking for our helping hand so that democracy and free markets can take firm root in their lands. These newly liberated peoples know that the ultimate responsibility for their success really lies in their own hands. They are not trying to evade what President Bush has referred to as "the hard work of freedom." Nor are they seeking charity or welfare. But these peoples do know that we all have a stake in their success, as the President has just said. And they know too, I think, that we all have something to offer. They are only now learning the ways of democracy and the ways of free markets. They look to us--they look strongly to us--for guidance, to show them how to make our democratic values work in their lands. They want to draw on our years, and decades, and even centuries of experience with free markets and democracy so that they, too, can take their rightful place in the global community of free nations. For the collapse of the Soviet Union has left the rubble of communism everywhere, and we need to help lift communism's dead weight so that these new democracies have a chance to grow and have a chance to take hold. We need to help them deal with the legacy of command economies, of excessive militarization, and societal deterioration. They need our help, and they need it in all sectors. In the nuclear area, for example, the United States and others are working hard to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction. President Bush has sent a team of experts to Moscow, to Minsk, to Kiev, and to Alma-Ata to discuss how the United States can support the secure control and the swift disablement and destruction of nuclear weapons. This is a mission in which we all have a great interest and in which we all have, as well, a great stake. This mission includes "brain gain" proposals--that is, ways that American scientists from our weapons laboratories might work jointly with their counterparts in Russia and elsewhere to advance scientific knowledge instead of designing weapons. We hope that others will contribute to this effort. But the nuclear arena is only an example. Across the board, the peoples of the new independent states want the world's advice--especially through on- the-ground experts who can show them the way to a better future. Most of us are doing that in one way or another, and we need to redouble our efforts. But as the international financial institutions work with the Russians and others to devise credible long-term reform plans, and while individual nations support political and economic reform through technical assistance, the world now needs to focus on the very real emergency that the peoples of Russia and the other independent states face today. In the last few months, life in Russia and the other independent states has deteriorated at a dangerously accelerating pace. We have seen Uzbeks die in bloody price riots, Russians shiver in bread lines, hospitals without vaccines, Aeroflot planes grounded by a fuel shortage, and military officers continuing to protest the lack of adequate housing. This humanitarian emergency encompasses lands that cross 11 time zones and occupy one-sixth of the world's land mass. This emergency affects close to 300 million people. So it is, without a doubt, a global emergency. And it will require global collective engagement to forestall further deterioration and to support conditions for the success of democratic and market reform. Our response, as the President has said, must be global because no other approach is going to work. The problems of the new independent states are too large for any one region or any one nation to try to solve alone. The EC [European Community] Commission and EC member states, and especially Germany, again as the President has noted, have taken a leading role in supporting reform and in offering help. The nations of Central and Eastern Europe--struggling themselves with building democracy and economic freedom--have joined us here today because they know that democracy in Russia, Ukraine, Byelarus, Moldova, and elsewhere will support their democracies, too. They know, too, that our commitment to their future is unshakable, and that we do not intend to lessen our assistance to them. But this emergency in the new independent states has profound repercussions beyond Europe that are obvious to all. As a global emergency, it has global effects and, again, demands a global effort. Our response must be collective because that is how we can best use our resources. We need to divide our labors to help meet their needs. Working together, we can multiply our individual strengths to better coordinate and thereby accelerate and expand the emergency assistance that we can provide. For example, in the last month, German milk powder was shipped via Canadian planes to Russia. Working together, we can target our emergency assistance where it is needed most and where it can have the most impact. And, in this way, we can avoid duplication of effort. Our response must embrace the people, the people there and here. Our collective effort must invoke the invaluable spirit and experience of our private sector and our voluntary organizations. Those who need our help are making a revolution from the grassroots to the highest councils of government, and we need to help them from the grassroots to the highest councils of governments. Public-private partnerships--as we have learned through President Bush's medical initiative--can leverage contributions, multiplying the value of our efforts. That is why we have asked our Citizens Democracy Corps to hold a parallel conference today and tomorrow to energize our non-governmental and voluntary organizations. Above all, our collective response must aim to engage the Russians and Ukrainians, Kazakhs and Kyrgyz, Armenians and Byelorussians, and all of the others to carry the crucial message of hope that I discussed earlier. As Maxim Gorky wrote to Herbert Hoover in 1923, "It is not only the physical help which is valuable but also the spiritual succor to the minds of mankind." In short, ladies and gentlemen, we must send spiritual support along with the food and medicine. We have called this conference to coordinate, to accelerate, and expand our efforts. In our view, this conference is just one step along a path of continuing commitment to supporting these new states. It is not intended to overtake or to replicate the efforts of others. It is intended to bring together those most capable of contributing to this emergency effort and to improve the coordination among us. Throughout the conference, we will be presenting-- all of us, I hope--new ideas about how together we can best meet emergency needs and how, through technical assistance, we can build a "bridge" to long-term democracy and free markets. We encourage everyone to propose their ideas. What should matter to everyone in this room is what we get done, not who gets the credit for it, because too much is at stake for us to follow any other course. Results are what matter. Providing emergency assistance to the peoples in need can give them hope in the future. It can give them faith in the democratic leaders who have embarked on this courageous path, leading them to that new future, and that is what is at stake here today and tomorrow. As we focus on these next 2 days, I think two goals are paramount. First, the working groups should produce "work plans." By "plan," we do not mean a fixed blueprint or a static document. Rather, we expect working documents that the working group co-chairs and the other participants can use as guides for action. Second, we must identify appropriate follow-up mechanisms. However organized, we need to ensure that coordination will continue into the immediate future. Let me close with the following. To the peoples of Russia and the other independent states, we say: Stay the course, because freedom does work. Democracy and economic freedom are not experiments but your only path to a better future. History calls on your heroism once again to steel you against new adversity. Working together with each other and the world, democracy, freedom, and a better life can be yours. To the peoples of Europe and the Americas, Asia and the Persian Gulf, we say: Together, we can achieve what individually we cannot achieve. To the American people, Republicans and Democrats alike, we say: Together, we can be a source of hope. Let us avoid the isolationist slumber that threatens to allow history to repeat itself. Let us pledge instead to tackle the challenges both at home and abroad. As Martin Luther King, a great American leader whose birth we remember here in this country this week, once said: "The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy. The true neighbor will risk his position, his prestige, and even his life for the welfare of others. In dangerous valleys and hazardous pathways, he will lift some bruised and beaten brother to a higher and more noble life." We are all neighbors to the peoples of Russia and the new independent states. So, ladies and gentlemen, let us all get to work, because it can be done. Thank you very much. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 4, January 27, 1992 Title:

Closing Statement at Coordinating Conference

Baker Source: Secretary Baker Description: Remarks at the press conference concluding the Coordinating Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States, Washington, DC Date: Jan, 23 19921/23/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Subject: Development/Relief Aid, Trade/Economics [TEXT] Ladies and gentlemen, I'd like to begin with a statement before turning to each of the co-chairs of this conference for statements of their own, and, after our opening comments, we will, of course, take your questions. Please feel free to direct your questions to any one of the 54 heads of delegation that are seated here. Let me begin by saying that our discussions have been productive, and they have centered on concrete and coordinated actions. In our meetings, 47 nations and 7 international organizations have rolled up their sleeves, they've gotten down to work, and they've produced some tangible results. Let me review some of these with you. First of all, we have agreed to propose to the new independent states that a contact group of conference participants meet in Minsk next week to review the working group action plans. These independent states have already provided us with preliminary assessments of their priority needs, along with lists of city and oblast level official and voluntary officials who can serve as points of contact for our future efforts. Next week's meeting will begin more systematic follow-through between international donors and the new independent states themselves. Secondly, as the EC [European Community] announced yesterday, the EC will host a follow-on conference in Lisbon within 90 to 120 days to assess how the work coming out of the conference here is proceeding in dealing with the emergency, where we need to expand our efforts, how we might further improve international coordination, and my colleague from Portugal will probably have more to say about that during the course of his presentation in just a moment. We also welcome Japan's offer to host a possible third conference. Third, the working group co-chairs have produced detailed plans of action in food, medicine, shelter, energy, and technical assistance. These plans of action are intended to be working documents that will guide the co-chairs as they take concrete steps to coordinate emergency assistance and to interact with the new independent states. My co-chair colleagues will perhaps go into more detail with you concerning these, but we are summarizing these action plans for you, and we will distribute fact sheets as soon as we possibly can, and I hope it's shortly after we conclude here. Fourth, I would like to say that Ambassador Richard Armitage will serve as the operational on-the-ground coordinator of emergency assistance for the United States. He has already begun consultations with other participants to the conference on how best to mesh operational plans for emergency shipments and how best to reduce the danger of food and medical shipments being diverted. NATO in particular has offered to provide logistic support. Other participants are also appointing counterparts to Mr. Armitage. Fifth, many participants have made a number of proposals, not only for international coordination but also relating to their individual contributions. The European Community has already demonstrated its deep commitment to this effort and has made it clear that it will continue to do so. I have been told that over half the participants yesterday and today presented some new idea of initiative to meet emergency humanitarian needs. Most importantly, proposals came from Latin America and the Persian Gulf, as well as Asia and Europe, including the Nordic countries, the Central and Eastern Europeans, and others, as well as the European Community. So I think it's fair to say that we truly have a global effort. In this respect, this conference is just the start of a continuing effort to intensify and to coordinate a global response to this emergency. Expert level discussions focusing on specific aspects of this emergency will continue in the weeks ahead. And, finally, ladies and gentlemen, let me take off my hat as host for just a moment to briefly mention some specific US initiatives that have emerged as a result of this conference. And, again, we will provide you with a list as soon as it has been compiled and, hopefully, shortly after this press conference. These initiatives include such things as shipping appropriate Department of Defense excess medical stocks, establishing partnerships between US hospitals and their counterparts; providing logistics support to US private sector groups who wish to ship medicine or food; putting up to 3,000 farm volunteers on the ground; establishing housing advisers on the ground; creating a training program for grassroots democracy with up to 500 participants; establishing a Eurasian foundation for democracy, free enterprise, and training in leadership and management. Putting these initiatives into practice will be made easier by the diplomatic missions that we are establishing in the new independent states. By the end of next week, the United States will have diplomats on the ground in Minsk, Alma-Ata, Yerevan, and Bishkek, in addition to those that are already in Moscow and Kiev. We also look forward to creating missions in the other states once we have established diplomatic relations with those states. Now, before turning to my co-chairs, I'd like to announce one additional initiative. Beginning on February 10 and for 1 or 2 weeks thereafter, the United States will undertake an airlift of critical emergency assistance shipments. During this time, the US Air Force will fly 54 sorties of critical medical and food shipments to cities in Russia and the new independent states. The first C-5s will leave on February 10 from Rhein-Main Air Base in Frankfurt. We hope to airlift food and medical supplies to each of the 12 new independent states, provided the determination is made that they can be delivered safely. To ensure shipments are adequately managed, distributed, and monitored, the United States will deploy immediately teams consisting of Department of Defense, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, and Agency for International Development personnel and others. These teams will manage the delivery to targeted groups and locations, including, for example, orphanages and hospitals. Of course, no airlift could ever come close to meeting all the needs of the people of the new independent states. But this airlift that we are calling Operation Provide Hope can help deliver the food and medical supplies that are critically needed. Above all, Operation Provide Hope can vividly show the peoples of the former Soviet Union that those that once prepared for war with them now have the courage and the conviction to use their militaries to say, "We will wage a new peace." (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 4, January 27, 1992 Title:

Initiatives To Assist the New Independent States

PA Source: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs Description: Fact sheets released at the Coordinating Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States, by the Department of State, Washington, DC Date: Jan, 23 19921/23/92 Category: Fact Sheets Region: Eurasia Country: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Subject: Development/Relief Aid, Trade/Economics [TEXT]
Operation Provide Hope
At the Coordinating Conference on Assistance to New Independent States, the United States announced Operation Provide Hope--a major, short-term airlift of emergency humanitarian assistance to the former Soviet Union. The objective of Operation Provide Hope is to accelerate rapidly the disbursement of critical food and medical supplies. The United States Air Force will fly 54 sorties of medical and food shipments to cities in Russia and the other new independent states. The sorties will consist of C-5A, C-141, and possibly C-130 transport aircraft- -the largest and most advanced transport aircraft operating in the United States Air Force. The aircraft will carry Department of Defense excess food and medical stocks, critically needed by the peoples of the former Soviet Union. Operation Provide Hope will begin February 10 and continue for 1-2 weeks thereafter. Operation Provide Hope aims to airlift food and medical supplies to each of the 12 new independent states, provided they can be delivered safely. It is the responsibility of the civil governments of the new independent states to ensure safe conditions for emergency humanitarian relief shipments and efforts. Ambassador Richard Armitage will serve as the US operational coordinator to ensure shipments are adequately managed, distributed, and monitored. The United States calls on other participants in the Conference and members of the international community to join in this effort to help meet critical medical and food needs. The United States calls on others either to contribute their own planes to this effort or to help fill American planes with food and medicine shipments. The United States will be working with others to coordinate this effort.
US Government Initiatives
Medicine
Department of Defense Medical Supplies. The US Government will ship excess medical supplies (non-war reserve stocks) to regions in critical need and provide distribution through the assistance of private voluntary agencies. The Department of Defense: -- Is prepared to make available excess Desert Storm stocks including the equivalent of five C-5 aircraft-loads of medical supplies (gauze, syringes, catheters, etc.), from stocks located in Oakland, California. -- Will also supply $8.7 million of Desert Storm stocks of multi-purpose oral antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin)--which represents more than 1 million doses and a sixth C-5 load of medical supplies--stored in Pirmasens, Germany. -- Has also identified 58 sea containers of excess medical consumables stored in California that can be shipped to the new independent states. -- Is continuing to assess its inventory of excess medical stocks that can be used for emergency assistance. Emergency Medical Program. This program will help to alleviate critical shortages of essential medicines and medical supplies including antibiotics for the treatment of respiratory and other infectious diseases, vaccines to immunize children and the elderly against life threatening diseases, drugs to treat cardiovascular diseases and cancers, and disposable gloves and syringes to prevent the spread of infections. -- Through leveraging private contributions, the United States expects that this program will lead to over $50 million in medicines and medical supplies for the new independent states. -- Over 50,000 children will be treated or vaccinated through this program. The program is expected to begin Summer 1992. Medical Airlift. The US Government will provide logistics support (that is, air crews and planes) for one C-5 or equivalent-sized shipment of medicines and medical supplies donated by any or all of the Conference participants to the new independent states. Nations in Hospital Partnerships. With other conference participants, the United States will support the establishment of "hospital partnerships" with comparable facilities in the new independent states to improve sanitation, surgery, hospital administration, and equipment. The US goal will be to establish up to seven such hospitals by end of 1992. The first such partnership will be established between Norfolk Medical Center and the Children's Hospital in Moscow to help improve the quality of care offered in childhood infectious diseases and hematology. Promoting US Trade and Investment in the Medical Sector. The system for producing and delivering medicines, vaccines, and medical supplies has deteriorated dramatically. The US Government, in partnership with American business, will help these new independent states move from dependency on donated medicines and supplies to the development of their own privatized productive capacities. We will: -- Field US industry audit teams to identity quick fixes to problems limiting production. A side-benefit should be the purchase and installation of US equipment and the creation of markets for the US health industry. -- Undertake activities to encourage private American business, including convening business roundtables, trade and investment missions, pre- investment services, and support for private sector participation in health services. This component would be carried out in conjunction with the Department of Commerce, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, and TDP.
Food
American Food For Freedom Partnerships. The US Government will support private sector and non-governmental organization (NGO) efforts to donate food and low-cost agribusiness equipment, through the provision of logistical support, transportation, and expertise. Examples include offers to donate flour, dairy products, processed foods, and other items from US farmers, churches, and private voluntary organizations and businesses. Farmer-to-Farmer Program. Over the next 3 years, the United States will provide up to 2,000 farm volunteers for periods of 30-90 days to work directly with private farmers in the independent states to help them increase farm production and income. This program will initially target Armenia, Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan starting this spring. Low-Cost Food Storage. The US Government will help alleviate one of the most serious problems in the food production chain in the former Soviet Union by helping to fund the installation of low-cost storage systems to reduce the amount of food wastage. US Agriculture Extension Services. The United States will expand its current extension service program in Armenia to Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan to teach basic skills to private farmers and improve food distribution and market information. Delivering Desert Storm Stocks. The Defense Department is making available approximately 38.4 million lbs. of Desert Storm food stocks. This represents $44.8 million worth of food and can provide 16 million meals. These stocks can help alleviate some of the food shortages in the Donbass, Volga, Urals, and Kuzbass industrial regions as well as St. Petersburg, Moscow, Arkhangelsk, Murmansk, and Petrazavodsk. $165 million in Food Aid. The United States has already announced its intention to deliver up to $165 mil-lion in grant food aid. In part, this money is already being used to fund: -- Food Deliveries to St. Petersburg--The United States will work with local authorities to deliver 400 tons of dry milk to St. Petersburg over the next 4 months. -- Food Deliveries to Armenia. Via the Armenian-American Church, the US Government will provide 10,600 tons of butter, butter oil, and wheat bulgur to Armenia.
Energy
Energy Efficiency Project (Home Heating). US experts will help repair and increase the efficiency of central heating plants for residential districts and also demonstrate how to save energy in industrial plants. This program will focus on refineries, large-heating plants, and residential energy efficiency in the new independent states. Coal Mine Safety Project. This initiative consists of support for an expanded "Partners in Economic Reform" program, an initiative of the US coal industry, several US railroads, and the AFL-CIO. The "Partners" program helps to relieve logistical bottlenecks, and provide training in mine safety.
Shelter
International Resident Advisor Program. These advisory teams would work actively with local and national officials in the newly independent states as well as entrepreneurs to help resolve short and long-term housing problems. The United States, for its part, would provide international resident advisor teams in 5 provincial cities and 1 capital, plus 5 person-years of visiting specialists. We expect this program to be developed in coordination with our conference partners.
Technical Assistance
Democracy-in-Practice Training Program. The United States will initiate a program offering technical assistance in public policy and training at all levels of government. The program will provide training in the United States for newly elected state, regional, and local government officials. It will also include a technical assistance program linking cities and states in America with counterparts in the independent states. This initiative will involve at least 500 participants. Eurasian Foundation for Democracy, Free Enterprise, and Training in Leadership and Management. The United States will establish a foundation that will be broadly constituted to promote and strengthen market economies and institutions concerned with representative government, effective legal systems, human rights, and responsible media. Special emphasis will be given to the development of a vital private sector by providing technical assistance for privatization and management training. The foundation will be uniquely equipped to provide immediate, quick-start, on-the-ground assistance throughout the states of the former Soviet Union, in partnership with American private voluntary and non-governmental organizations. Defense Conversion Demonstration Projects. The US Government will consult on a priority basis, with local civilian and military authorities to identify key defense conversion demonstration projects which are feasible and meet our mutual objectives. These would include the re-direction of weapons scientists to research on civilian projects, conversion of military bases to transport hubs and industrial parks, and civilian-izations of the industrial base through restructuring, retraining, and promotion of new investments.
Energy Assistance
The Problem Oil, coal, and electricity production have significantly decreased in the new independent states, due to lack of internal investment, dislocations in the equipment supply system, and general economic decline, including strikes in energy-producing sectors. The lack of a satisfactory legal regime has hindered foreign investment. Decreased production and disruptions in the distribution system have caused severe energy shortages in several regions of the new independent states. Adequate supplies of energy are crucial to sustaining the democratic and market economic reform movements in the new independent states. Activities The framework for the successful implementation of these actions must include: -- Full cooperation with authorities of the new independent states, both in identifying and meeting urgent needs; -- Involvement of the commercial sector to the fullest extent possible; and -- Compatibility with the fundamental restructuring of the energy sector in a market-oriented direction, in line with the commitments under the European Energy Charter as agreed in December 1991 by 45 signatories. The Energy Working Group is planning the following actions, which will have short- and medium-term results: 1. Starting immediate consultations with the new independent states to agree on priorities. Experts from industry will participate. Full use will be made of experiences in the former socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. 2. Assuring adequate and prompt fuel supplies for the transport of food and medical assistance from ports of entry to points of consumption. NATO could contribute to this effort. 3. Supporting the efforts of coal miners in the Donetsk, Ukraine, and Kuznetsk, Russia, basins to improve productivity, ensure supplies for power generation, increase health and safety conditions, and raise the quality of life. 4. Seeking to increase the energy efficiency of heating districts in large cities of the new independent states, with a particular emphasis on assuring improvements in home heating and critical industries, such as food processing. 5. Working with the new independent states to anticipate and respond to fuel and electricity needs for agriculture and food processing for 1992 spring planting and fall harvest. In addition, developing a regional approach to meet fuel problems in the fishing and fish-processing industries in the Far East. 6. Beginning a dialogue with the energy-producing new independent states to encourage adequate supply to areas with significant shortfalls in fuels, such as Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. 7. Promoting private industry efforts, with the assistance of international financial institutions, to overhaul pipelines and gas compressor stations in Russia, Ukraine, and Byelarus, with the objective of cutting transmission losses. Immediately offering technical expertise in the management, maintenance, and operation of pipelines under market conditions. 8. Working with private industry to provide spare parts and essential equipment, management skills, and resources to rapidly restart production in existing petroleum fields. Encouraging the new independent states to open fields for the private sector. Also, providing assistance to improve energy efficiency of existing refineries. Next Steps -- Working Group co-chairs will collect, assess, and distribute information on existing bilateral programs. -- Immediately following the consultative mission, the Working Group will meet to evaluate results and finalize [a] plan of action, including implementation mechanisms. -- A briefing of the new independent states on the conference results will be undertaken by the co-chairs in cooperation with the contact group in Minsk next week.
Food Assistance
Nature of the Problem: Food shortages due to shortfalls in agricultural production, distribution failures, and hoarding are causing hardship in the new independent states--especially in large industrial cities and remote areas. Vulnerable groups include the elderly, infants and children, the sick, unemployed, and refugees. Emergency humanitarian food aid is needed, as well as immediate technical assistance programs to help reform the agricultural/food production and distribution systems and improve prospects for next winter. Many countries and the European Community have committed food aid, both in grants and credits. While much of this has been delivered, assistance in these forms will continue to be necessary. There is an underlying need to help the new independent states to mobilize and organize their own agricultural resources. Plan of Action The program of humanitarian food assistance and follow-on programs will focus on three areas: Deliver, Distribute, and Monitor Humanitarian Food Aid. Nearly $500 million of food grants remain available for distribution. In partnership with the new independent states, the aim is: -- Over the next 3 months, to reduce hardship among vulnerable groups by providing wheat, dairy products, baby food, cooking oil, meat, and other foods, for example, to pensioners, schools, orphanages, and hospitals. -- To develop techniques to make food grants available for sale in ways which reinforce market structures and generate funds for social purposes. -- So as to ensure efficient delivery, to monitor aid distribution to the point of sale or use. Countries neighboring the new independent states encourage the maximum use of their transport and storage facilities. Assistance through Credit Facilities. About $5 billion in food credits remains available to be drawn. The aim is: -- To continue to use credits and credit guarantees to improve overall food and feed supply situation in the new independent states. -- To promote, where feasible, triangular trade transactions between the new independent states and traditional trading partners--particularly those in the process of economic transition. Technical Assistance in the Food Sector. Technical assistance is needed to promote the reforms which will make emergency assistance unnecessary in the future. The priorities are: -- Encouraging competition and improving productivity throughout the food sector; -- Improving processing, transport, distribution, and the operation of food markets; and -- Promoting better farming practices and more efficient storage. An increasing number of countries, together with the EC and international institutions, are engaged in technical assistance programs in the food sector, covering policy design, pilot projects, model farms, farmer-to- farmer initiatives, extension services, and establishing markets in major cities.
Next Steps
From now on, the Working Group will: -- Establish contacts with the new states; -- Ensure implementation of the Plan of Action; -- Build up links with the international institutions involved in assisting the new states; and -- Contribute to the preparation of the Lisbon Conference.
Medical Assistance
Nature of the Problem: Medical needs represent a serious short- and medium-term problem for the new independent states. This results from: -- High disease and death rates, particularly infectious diseases. Deaths from influenza and pneumonia are up to 10 times higher than in the Western world; -- Shortages of critical medicines (including vaccines) and medical supplies; and -- A pharmaceutical industry unable to meet standards as well as produce needed quantities. Plan of Action We propose a four-point program to meet this challenge: Coordinated provision of medicines and basic medical supplies. The focus of this effort will be on immediate delivery of antibiotics, vaccines, and medical supplies to meet acute humanitarian needs. Those countries who have already initiated deliveries will undertake to intensify their efforts. Seek ways in which to utilize triangular trade arrangements. Encourage hospitals and health care institutions to participate in the "Nations in Partnership" program. (i.e., linking international hospitals/institutions in one-on-one relationships with hospitals/institutions in the new independent states). Our goal is to begin to increase such "Partnership Hospitals" throughout the new independent states by the end of 1992. Encourage private sector involvement in order to reestablish indigenous pharmaceutical, medical supply, and health care services. Encourage private sector pharmaceuticals and medical supply companies to conduct business missions to the new independent states to identify basic equipment and other manufacturing problems for immediate fixes and business joint ventures. Coordinated technical assistance programs in health care. At this point, most governmental technical assistance programs should be directed at the regulatory structure for health care, including pharmaceutical quality control, hospital accreditation, approval of pharmaceuticals for public use, health care financing, and systems for monitoring disease control. Next Steps -- Brief new independent states--part of a broader conference follow-up. -- Follow-up on immediate needs for medicines/supplies, possibly leading to further consultation with the new independent states. This could be accomplished by sending a coordinated mission to the independent states, composed of various countries and international organizations, for development of programs and ongoing assessment of needs. -- Within 2 months, the Working Group will meet to: -- Review progress on immediate medical needs and emergency responses; -- Refine logistics requirements and bottlenecks to be overcome; -- Share experience on monitoring and agree on a clearing house mechanism; -- Review progress on the hospital partnerships idea; and -- Review progress on private sector initiatives. -- Encourage contingency planning on emergency needs. This may be done under UN auspices, other disaster relief agencies, and in close consultation with the food and shelter working groups.
Shelter Assistance
Nature of the Problem: The independent states are facing, and will continue to face, long-standing problems in housing. These problems include an enormous shortage of housing and significant inadequacies in existing housing. The industry, in 1991, built roughly 1.2 million units; in 1992 it may slump to half that. These problems can be corrected at their root only through a fundamental transformation of the economies of the independent states. In addition to these, new housing problems were created by the rapid transformation during the last months, especially concerning military officers and their families. These problems will only be corrected in the longer-term. However, in order to ensure the stability necessary for continuing political and economic reform, work should begin now to: -- Alleviate the most critical and potentially destabilizing shortage of housing; -- Coordinate planning for immediate emergencies; and, -- Initiate, through technical and other assistance, the longer-term process of structural reform of the housing sector. Plan of Action In an effort to achieve these outcomes, the Shelter Working Group agrees on the following plan of action: -- To consult immediately with the independent states to define the most urgent housing needs on which to concentrate common financial and technical resources to support stability and reform. -- To take into positive consideration the appointment at an early stage of international resident advisors. -- To involve multilateral donors to provide financial assistance, especially for short-term needs. -- To encourage nations or local authorities to take responsibility to provide assistance to particular cities with the republics. -- To develop a program of technical assistance to enhance productivity of the housing sector. -- To assist in developing contingency plans for possible external immediate emergency assistance. Next steps Building on the experience obtained at the Washington conference, the [Shelter Working] Group will organize itself to implement the program of action under the following headings: -- Operational priorities; -- Technical assistance programs, including the reform of the housing sector; and -- Contingency planning for refugee emergencies. The group will meet as soon as possible to take forward the work initiated by the Conference and in preparation for the Lisbon Conference.
Technical Assistance
Nature of the Problem: Technical assistance will be required in the short term to raise efficiency of the new independent states and avert severe shortages of food, medicine, shelter, and energy. Technical assistance is unique in that it is designed to help people learn to help themselves. The primary purpose of technical assistance, however, is to support and encourage sustained, comprehensive political and economic reform. In the absence of technical assistance, the new independent states lack the necessary institutions and training to sustain and, in some cases, begin reform. Effective provision of technical assistance will require identification of assistance priorities, sharing of information among donors, and active on- the-spot coordination without creating new bureaucratic structures. Active exchange of information can enable donors to focus on their respective areas of comparative advantage as assistance providers. Plan of Action Technical assistance will be designed to support and encourage the process of political and economic reform, taking into account how the independent states approach the reform process. Technical assistance priorities were identified and elaborated in the action plan. These include: -- Support for creation and development of a democratic political system and institution building; -- Support for development of a free market economy through privatization and development of small and medium enterprises, financial sectors, commodity exchanges, communication, institution building in public and private management, and social safety nets; -- Support for conversion of human and industrial resources in the military industrial complex to civilian purposes; -- Improvements in food production and distribution, and transportation; -- Promotion of energy efficiency, nuclear safety, and environmental improvement; and, -- Improvement of conditions for expanded trade and investment and increased market access through integration of the new independent states into the international trading system. Some donor states--individually or jointly and in consultation with the new independent states--may wish to identify demonstration projects which can serve as examples of successful and replicable transformation. In order to take full advantage of the experience of Central and Eastern Europe, we envision triangular operations in the provision of technical assistance. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) can play an important role as the information clearinghouse on technical assistance, working with the EC and international organizations such as the United Nations. Such a clearinghouse for information can mitigate duplication of effort. For purposes of compiling requests for assistance in-country, some donors may choose to set up information networks. For example, the EC is establishing business communications centers to serve this purpose, and others may wish to take advantage of this or other comparable systems. Every advantage should be taken to share the results of assessments already made in the new independent states; where new assessments are required, donors may consider undertaking joint missions without prejudicing separate bilateral efforts. Technical assistance should be used to build an indigenous capability to effectively manage incoming assistance. The new independent states are encouraged to appoint coordinators to work with governmental and non- governmental donors, international financial institutions, and multilateral organizations. Next Steps The co-chairs, as members of a contact group, will discuss the results of the conference with the new independent states and obtain their reaction. In the context of the preparations for the Lisbon Conference, the Working Group agreed on the need for a follow-on meeting, in a month or two, to exchange information on planning, implementation, and monitoring of technical assistance programs. Through such early, expert-level coordination, donor states can learn from each other and plan their assistance efforts more effectively. In advance of such a meeting, participants would provide information which has become available with regard to their evolving technical assistance programs. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 4, January 27, 1992 Title:

Support for Haiti

Einaudi Source: Luigi R. Einaudi, US Permanent Representative to the Organization of American States (OAS) Description: Address before the OAS Special Session of the OAS Permanent Council, Washington, DC Date: Jan, 21 19921/21/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Caribbean Country: Haiti Subject: Refugees, Development/Relief Aid, Trade/Economics, Democratization [TEXT] We are at a critical moment in our efforts to help Haitians restore their democratic constitutional order. Let me summarize what to me seem the key points of the two excellent reports we have heard this morning. First, Secretary General Joao Clemente Baena Soares has again made clear the democratic principles that motivate our action: In the Western Hemisphere today, coups are not an acceptable way of resolving political differences. The Secretary General notes that the months since the September 30 coup have brought little progress on the central issue that unites the international community--and I say international community, because it is useful to remember that the United Nations has endorsed the leadership of the Organization of American States (OAS) in this matter--the restoration of constitutional democracy and the return of Jean-Bertrand Aristide to the presidency. The Secretary General recommends--correctly, I believe--that the ministers who set our original course should consider meeting again. I have no instructions from my government to seek a ministerial before the current negotiations are exhausted, but it also seems clear to us that the passage of time suggests it might, indeed, be useful to bring together our decision- making authorities, if only to be able to better induce progress and reward it if it comes. Being a seasoned diplomat committed to a solution in Haiti, the Secretary General also stresses that he is willing to make whatever personal effort is necessary in the meantime to advance our search for a just and lasting solution. We welcome his leadership. Augusto Ramirez Ocampo--who as the Secretary General's personal representative has traveled with various of the distinguished members of his OEA-DEMOC [OAS-Democracy--a joint venture between the OAS and member states to promote democracy in and give humanitarian aid to Haiti] mission to Caracas, Cartagena de Indias, and Washington as well as Port au Prince in multiple efforts to facilitate a political solution--reports that he believes the current negotiating track has not yet been exhausted. Certainly, acceptance among the most varied of sectors of Rene Theodore as a compromise choice for prime minister can only be seen as a sign of progress. Indeed, the US Embassy in Haiti reports that despite many differences--some of them still major--the desire to seek a dignified and negotiated agreement with the international community is widespread. I would like to comment, if I may, from two perspectives. First, I had the privilege in a personal capacity to be an observer, invited by President Aristide, at the meetings, January 7 and 8, in Caracas. The agreement among the President of the Republic and the Presidents of the legislative branch to submit the name of Rene Theodore to a vote for the position of Prime Minister was, as has been noted earlier, an important breakthrough. That Caracas meeting was a privilege to observe because, without exception, those who participated demonstrated notable qualities of mutual respect, flexibility, and discretion. One notable absence from the meeting was the war of press releases, which has on other occasions both typified and damaged the negotiations. As one deeply committed to supporting any arrangement reached among Haitians to restore the democratic order interrupted violently on September 30, I was genuinely encouraged by the atmosphere in Caracas. Second, let me say a word explicitly as the representative in this Council of the United States. For my country, Haiti involves major human and material interests as well as questions of principle. Concerned by the interruption of democracy; the presence of major human rights and humanitarian issues; problems of joblessness, trade, and displaced persons, the United States seeks the return of President Aristide to Haiti in a manner compatible with the Haitian constitution and as part of a durable and stable solution that will enable Haitians to work with dignity and hope. We believe the objective of the international community should be to provide constructive support and guarantees for a democratic solution agreed to among Haitians. This support must include the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, the Humanitarian Mission, and in addition, the new democracy supporting measures that OEA-DEMOC will have to negotiate with the Haitian authorities. From these considerations, I suggest a few simple conclusions. One is obvious but needs to be repeated because of the climate of suspicion and doubt that has clouded most discussions of Haiti: The principles that have galvanized our unprecedented solidarity against the interruption of Haitian democracy must be applied with the most absolute respect for Haiti's culture, people, and welfare. The "how" of the restoration of constitutional democracy to Haiti is fundamentally a Haitian decision for Haitians to make. Our goal can only be, as the ministerial resolutions make clear, to help create the conditions in which that decision may be taken successfully. My second conclusion is, in a sense, the obverse of the first: a political settlement--whatever particular shape it takes in Haiti's particular circumstances--will not conclude our common involvement in Haiti. Rather, it will set the stage for us to help address long unmet needs of the Haitian people. Our ministers had the foresight to exempt humanitarian assistance from the embargo which the United States fully supports and respects despite the serious leaks that have taken place. The Secretary General's Humanitarian Mission has made clear the increasing urgency of health and other concerns. The increasing OAS commitment to Haiti has created a framework that has enabled many countries, including my own, to understand the importance as well as the urgency of Haiti's humanitarian and developmental needs. As Ambassador [Deputy US Permanent Representative John F.] Maisto reported in my absence on January 8, the US Agency for International Development has already responded to the OAS Humanitarian Mission's report and begun heightened food relief for Haiti's neediest. We will be pleased to contribute to the OAS shipment of medicine and food that is being made possible by the generosity of Chile. But my real point is that we look forward to the day when the embargo will be lifted, when Haitian and foreign businesses will be able to function in an atmosphere of peace and stability, and when developmental as well as humanitarian aid flows can resume. The sooner Haitians resolve their political crisis, the sooner the international community will be able to move to support this vision. I am not talking about a return to the status quo ante. I am not talking about a return to business as usual. I am talking about a better future for Haiti. It is that vision that fortifies us in our present efforts amidst uncertainty. My final point is this: We cannot and we will not be deterred from our support for democracy in Haiti. This is a time for statesmanship. Coups unfold in hours. Violence spends itself in hours. But it will take time to put things right. Reconciliation takes time. Bridging deep social divisions takes time. Building and rebuilding institutions takes time. Developing new and positive relationships among civilian and military institutions takes time. This is a time for the peacemakers to step forward in Haiti. Elected and unelected leaders must talk, listen, and build bridges to those who have opposed them, even at the risk of rebuke from their bases of support. Every sector of Haitian society must join in dialogue. None can be excluded. The Washington Post noted editorially January 19 that the progress made in Central America toward ending violent conflicts came about not only because of the end of the Cold War but also because of the stubborn commitment of the United States to democracy. You will find that the United States will stubbornly support the process of reaching a settlement in Haiti. We are stubbornly engaged, stubborn in our commitments to Haiti's struggle for democracy, stubborn in our solidarity with the democracies of the OAS. As Secretary of State James A. Baker, III, said in San Salvador last Friday, the United States seeks "a hemisphere in which democracy is the only legitimate form of government, the rule of law is respected, and human rights are secure." (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 4, January 27, 1992 Title:

One Year After the Gulf War

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Statement, Washington, DC Date: Jan, 16 19921/16/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Kuwait Subject: Military Affairs [TEXT] One year ago tonight I spoke to the American people at the moment an international coalition acting under UN authority went to war to end Saddam Hussein's brutal occupation of Kuwait. We can all take pride in the results of that effort--Kuwait is liberated and the legitimate government restored, the fires set by Saddam's retreating army are extinguished, the flow of oil from the Gulf is secure from political and economic blackmail, much of Iraq's arsenal is destroyed, and what remains is now under international supervision, and the United Nations has been greatly strengthened. The determination and strength demonstrated by the United States and its coalition partners has had lasting dividends throughout the region. A critical region of the world vital to its economic well-being is secure. Thanks in large part to our efforts, direct peace talks between Arabs and Israelis are underway for the first time, multilateral negotiations on regional arms control have begun, and America's hostages in Lebanon are home. The coalition fought a limited war for a limited but vitally important purpose. It prevailed. Saddam's Iraq is weak and isolated, unable to impose its extremist policies on the region or the peace process. Nevertheless, the American people and I remain determined to keep the pressure on Saddam until a new leadership comes to power in Iraq. As was the case from the outset, our quarrel is not with the people of Iraq but with the dictator whose misrule has caused terrible suffering throughout the Middle East. We will maintain UN sanctions and keep Saddam's regime isolated, a pariah among nations. We will work to ensure [that] adequate food and medicine reach the Iraqi people under international supervision while denying Saddam the means to rebuild his weapons of mass destruction. We salute the efforts of thousands of brave Iraqis who are resisting Saddam's rule both inside and outside of Iraq. The United States reiterates its pledge to the Iraqi people and the Iraqi military that we stand ready to work with a new regime. A new leadership in Baghdad that accepts the UN resolutions and is ready to live at peace with its neighbors and its own people will find a partner in the United States, one willing to seek to lift economic sanctions and help restore Iraq to its rightful place in the family of nations. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 4, January 27, 1992 Title:

Zaire Government Cancels National Conference

Boucher Source: State Department Deputy Spokesman Richard Boucher Description: Statement, Washington, DC Date: Jan, 21 19921/21/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Zaire Subject: Regional/Civil Unrest, Democratization [TEXT] The United States Government has closely followed the establishment and progress of the national conference of Zaire. In our contacts with Zairian officials and in our public statements we have made it clear that we share the widespread view that the national conference has become the best means by which national reconciliation and a peaceful transition to democracy can be achieved. Until recently, we had been encouraged by the assurances given us by Zairian officials at every level, including assurances directly from the President and Prime Minister, that they were committed to the success of the national conference. We do not see how the decision of Janu- ary 19 to suspend the national conference can be reconciled with these assurances. The Government's tactics, inter alia encouraging the curtailment of conference funding, call into question the commitment of the Government to Zairian democratization. We believe that the vast majority of Zairians want the national conference to resume its work without further interference and intimidation. We call on the Government to reopen the national conference immediately. Its suspension offers little prospect for national reconciliation and democracy. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 4, January 27, 1992 Title:

UN Security Council Resolution Condemns Libyan Terrorism

UN Source: The United Nations Description: Resolution 731, New York, New York Date: Jan, 21 19921/21/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Libya Subject: United Nations, Terrorism, Trade/Economics [TEXT] Security Council Resolution 731 January 21, 1992 The Security Council, Deeply disturbed by the world-wide persistence of acts of international terrorism in all its forms, including those in which States are directly or indirectly involved, which endanger or take innocent lives, have a deleterious effect on international relations and jeopardize the security of States, Deeply concerned by all illegal activities directed against international civil aviation, and affirming the right of all States, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and relevant principles of international law, to protect their nationals from acts of international terrorism that constitute threats to international peace and security, Reaffirming its resolution 286 (1970) of 9 September 1970, in which it called on States to take all possible legal steps to prevent any interference with international civil air travel, Reaffirming also its resolution 635 (1989) of 14 June 1989, in which it condemned all acts of unlawful interference against the security of civil aviation and called upon all States to cooperate in devising and implementing measures to prevent all acts of terrorism, including those involving explosives, Recalling the statement made on 30 December 1988 by the President of the Security Council on behalf of the members of the Council strongly condemning the destruction of Pan Am flight 103 and calling on all States to assist in the apprehension and prosecution of those responsible for this criminal act, Deeply concerned over the results of investigations, which implicate officials of the Libyan Government and which are contained in Security Council documents that include the requests addressed to the Libyan authorities by France1, 2, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2, 3, and the United States of America2, 4, 5 in connection with the legal procedures related to the attacks carried out against Pan American flight 103 and Union de tranports aerens [UTA] flight 772; Determined to eliminate international terrorism, 1. Condemns the destruction of Pan American flight 103 and Union de tranports aerens flight 772 and the resultant loss of hundreds of lives: 2. Strongly deplores the fact that the Libyan Government has not yet responded effectively to the above requests to cooperate fully in establishing responsibility for the terrorist acts referred to above against Pan American flight 103 and Union de tranports aerens flight 772; 3. Urges the Libyan Government immediately to provide a full and effective response to those requests so as to contribute to the elimination of international terrorism; 4. Requests the Secretary-General to seek the cooperation of the Libyan Government to provide a full and effective response to those requests; 5. Urges all States individually and collectively to encourage the Libyan Government to respond fully and effectively to those requests; 6. Decides to remain seized of the matter. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0). 1S/23306. 2S/23309. 3S/23307. 4S/23308. 5S/23317.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 4, January 27, 1992 Title:

US Position: UN Security Council Resolution Condemns Libyan Terrorism

Pickering Source: Ambassador Thomas R. Pickering, US US Permanent Representative to the United Nations, UN Security Council, New York City Description: New York, New York Date: Jan, 21 19921/21/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Libya Subject: United Nations, Terrorism, Trade/Economics [TEXT] In passing this resolution, the Council has again demonstrated the important role it should play in this new and hopeful era of international relations. Its responsibilities for international peace and security are paramount, and it has shown again that it takes such responsibilities with the utmost seriousness. The Council has been confronted with the extraordinary situation of a state and its officials which are implicated in two ghastly bombings of civilian airliners. This is a situation for which standard procedures were clearly inapplicable. The effects of such conduct on international peace and security are clear and inescapable. The Governments of France, the United Kingdom, and the United States have presented this Council with the reports of investigations which implicate officials of the Libyan Government in the bombings of Pan Am 103 over Scotland and UTA 772 over Niger. Four hundred and forty-one completely innocent people from 32 countries, including seven of the members from this Council, were murdered in an act of blatant, cold-blooded terrorism. The issue at hand is not some difference of opinion or approach which can be mediated or negotiated; it is, as the Security Council has recognized, conduct threatening to us all and directly a threat to international peace and security. The mandate of the Security Council requires that the Council squarely face its responsibilities in this case. It must not be distracted by Libyan attempts to convert this issue of international peace and security into one of bilateral differences. The resolution just adopted responds to a special situation that has been brought before this Council. It makes a straightforward request of Libya: that it cooperate fully in turning over its officials who have been indicted or implicated in these bombings and that it take concrete actions to conduct itself as a law-abiding state. It also calls upon the Secretary General to add his efforts to those of the many states encouraging Libya to comply fully and effectively with this resolution. The resolution makes it clear that what the Council is seeking is to ensure that those accused be tried promptly in accordance with the tenets of international law. The resolution provides that the people accused be simply and directly turned over to the judicial authorities of the governments who are competent under international law to try them. Until now, Libya has refused to respond to these requests and has sought to evade its responsibilities and to procrastinate. While Libyan efforts to obscure the nature of the issue before the Council have included explicit agreement that its nationals may be tried elsewhere, those efforts also involve tortured attempts to identify or create venues that would reduce and even negate the value of the evidence so painfully collected by long and thorough investigations by the requesting states. In passing this resolution, the Council has responded in a careful and prudent manner to a unique situation involving clear implications of state- sponsored terrorist attacks on civil aviation. The Council has clearly reaffirmed the right of states, in accordance with the Charter, to protect their citizens. The resolution makes clear that neither Libya nor any other state can seek to hide support for international terrorism behind traditional principles of international law and state practice. The Council was faced, in this case, with clear implications of government involvement in terrorism as well as the absence of an independent judiciary in the implicated state. Faced with conduct of this nature, the Council had to act to deal with threats to international peace and security stemming from widescale terrorists' attacks, and it did so with firmness, dignity, determination, and courage. The Council action, thus, sends the clearest possible signal that the international community will not tolerate such conduct. We now hope that Libya will respond effectively and do so rapidly. The voice of the international community, in this regard, is clear and determined. The Council expects Libyan compliance with the resolution which it has just passed. The enormity of the crimes committed and the onslaught against international peace and security demand no less. The Council will be watching carefully how Libya responds. The Council will proceed in a step-by-step manner, I am sure, to maintain its commitment to international peace and security. It will continue to assure that its voice and its decisions do all that is possible to dissuade Libya, and any other states that might be motivated in the future to act as Libya has, to cease such actions now and in the future. If further action should be necessary, and we hope it will not be, we are convinced that the Council is ready on a continuing basis to face up to its full responsibilities. (###)