US Department of State Dispatch Supplement VOL. 3, NO 7

Title:

Material Relating to the London Conference (August 26-27, 1992) and the Crisis in the Former Yugoslavia.

Eagleburger Perkins Baker Bolton Niles Bush Source: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs Date: Sep, 15 19929/15/92 Category: Chronologies Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Category: Fact sheets Category: Resolutions Category: Reports Region: Whole World Country: Yugoslavia (former), United States, United Kingdom, Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Slovenia, Croatia Subject: Human Rights, Regional/Civil Unrest, State Department, Resource Management, Immigration, Military Affairs, Trade/Economics, Development/Relief Aid, United Nations, International Organizations, Refugees, International Law, Cultural Exchange

Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Intervention at the London Conference On the Former Yugoslavia

[Intervention on August 26, during the conference held August 26-27, 1992, London, United Kingdom] We have gathered here today because, as members of the family of nations--East and West, Muslim, Christian or Jew--we are compelled to help the peoples of the former Yugoslavia in their hour of suffering and need. But the decisions we make in London on their behalf will have consequences beyond the crisis at hand. For what we accomplish--or fail to accomplish--cannot help but influence the future of Europe and the shape of the post-Cold War international system. Just 3 years ago, mankind began anew its long-interrupted march toward freedom, enlightenment, and the rule of law. We had every reason then to hope that all nations liberated from communism would join not only the Western circle of democracy, but also the circle of peace created by the reconciliation of historical enemies. We envisaged, in short, an enlarged commonwealth of democracies poised to enter the 21st century, having transcended the hatreds and rivalries which had so blighted the century we were about to leave. Those hopes remain undiminished, but, in the meantime, events in the former Yugoslavia have confronted us with the specter there of history not transcended but relived and of the vision of that land's future as a re-enactment of its tragic past. Indeed, there is a chilling echo today in the former Yugoslavia of some of Europe's darkest moments--of previous examples of racially inspired repression, aggression, and territorial expansion. However, history teaches that the conquests of past ethnic cleansers have tended to be short-lived and that peoples in whose name their crimes were committed have tended to enjoy an unhappy fate. True friends of the peoples of the former Yugoslavia must acknowledge that history did not begin there yester-day, and that the tragedy now unfolding has ancient and complicated roots. They are aware, in particular, that the people of Serbia were one of World War II's principal victims, and they sympathize with their suffering which is still fresh in the minds of many. I represent a government, in fact, which historically has enjoyed a special relationship with the people of Serbia. And I recognize that in the ongoing Yugoslav turmoil, crimes have been committed on all sides. But it is Serbs, alas, who are most guilty today of crimes which mimic those of their former tormentors, and which violate the sacred memory of ancestors who suffered at their hands. And it is the Serbs who face a spectacularly bleak future unless they manage to change the reckless course their leaders chose for the new nation. I make this prediction without satisfaction, but I make it because we must be absolutely clear: The civilized world simply cannot afford to allow this cancer in the heart of Europe to flourish, much less spread. We must wrest control of the future from those who would drag us back into the past, and demonstrate to the world-- especially to the world's 1 billion Muslims--that the Western democracies will oppose aggression under all circumstances, not oppose it in one region and appease it in another. To be sure, we will not settle this conflict here today in London. But neither will we acquiesce in the de facto constitution of a greater Serbia. What we will do, I hope, is to establish a coordinated, integrated, and ongoing process of negotiations which will culminate in a reversal of Serb aggression and the integration of the former Yugoslav republics into the wider framework of a democratic Europe. Here at this conference, we should offer leaders throughout the former Yugoslavia the choice of cooperating with the international community or paying what we will ensure is an unacceptable price for aggression. And we should, here at this conference, place squarely before the people of Serbia the choice they must make between joining a democratic and prosperous Europe or joining their leaders in the opprobrium, isolation, and defeat which will be theirs if they continue on their present march of folly. In brief, the United States expects this conference to undertake the following specific tasks.
Humanitarian Relief
First, the delivery of humanitarian relief to the victims of this conflict, and the granting of immediate, complete, and unimpeded access to all detention camps. With winter approaching, our immediate priority is to address urgently the task of housing and feeding the hundreds of thousands who have been left homeless in Bosnia, Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, and Macedonia. We must also funnel humanitarian assistance to hundreds of thousands more who are besieged inside Bosnia, so that they do not become the next wave of refugees. It will require the opening of safe corridors to accomplish this goal. The international community must have unimpeded access by ground and air to deliver humanitarian relief. And while we seek to cooperate peacefully with all sides, we must be prepared to use all means necessary to ensure that help reaches its destination. To date, the United Nations and the ICRC [International Committee of the Red Cross] have helped deliver some $500-million worth of assistance to the war zone. But the UNHCR [UN High Commissioner for Refugees] has now called concerned governments to meet again on September 4 [1992] to implement a concrete plan for expanding convoys into Bosnia and meeting the winter shelter needs of refugees everywhere in the former Yugoslavia. The United States will make an initial contribution of more than $40 million and an additional contribution after October. Beyond direct financial assistance, our support will include food, medicine, shelter materials, transportation, and technical assistance. Let me say, parenthetically, that we are aware of the risk that humanitarian assistance could, if we are not careful, help consolidate the land-grab in Bosnia and the political cantonization which the United States categorically opposes. Therefore, we believe it is not too soon for the international community to begin addressing the issue of how we will assist refugees to return to-- and to rebuild--what is left of their homes and villages. This is an issue which will have to be part of any political settlement of the present crisis which obtains the support of the United States, and it will require another substantial infusion of international assistance. Finally, we must insist upon an end to the abuses being committed in detention camps throughout Bosnia, and the disbandment of those camps. The international community must receive full access to all such camps at once and on a continuing basis. The ICRC should do all it can to accelerate its ongoing inspections and be joined in its efforts by rapporteurs from the UNHRC [UN Human Rights Commission] and CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe].
A Negotiating Process
Our second task here is to seek a definitive halt to the violence inflicted day after day on the people of Bosnia. As a first step, I call upon the Serbian forces to lift the sieges of Sarajevo, Gorazde, Tuzla, Bihac, Mostar, and other Bosnian cities--a step which must be part of a larger diplomatic process. Toward this end, we must create a durable international negotiating mechanism, one that will operate permanently with all the relevant parties present to achieve a just and lasting settlement. I emphasize the words "just and lasting." The Government of Serbia has stated its willingness in London to negotiate peace. But we must make certain that in agreeing to a negotiating mechanism, all parties agree as well to negotiate on the basis of principles enshrined in the UN Charter and CSCE--namely, a commitment to the peaceful resolution of disputes; respect for the territorial integrity of other states; rejection of efforts to change borders by force; guarantee of fundamental human rights, including the rights of minorities; safe return to their homes of populations victimized by "ethnic cleansing;" and mandatory compliance with efforts to deliver humanitarian assistance. Only by agreeing to a peace process based on these principles can we ensure that negotiations do not become a vehicle for consolidating the fruits of aggression.
Punishing and Quarantining Aggression
But successful negotiations will require us, above all, to raise the costs now for those who perpetuate the violence and continue to hold territory acquired by force. Thus, we believe the third task of this conference is to reaffirm the international community's resolve to tighten comprehensive economic sanctions against Serbia- Montenegro and to maintain its political isolation until all relevant [UN] Security Council resolutions are complied with. At the same time, we should make all other parties to the conflict aware that we will impose sanctions against them, too, if they act with similar viciousness. We understand that tightening sanctions will impose hardships on the traditional trading partners of Serbia-Montenegro, and we encourage efforts to help compensate those states whose strict compliance with the sanctions is causing them undue pain. But we must resolve no longer to tolerate continuing and flagrant violations of the sanctions regime. Several steps are necessary. One, the UN Sanctions Committee transshipment guidelines must be strengthened to include strict documentation and inspection procedures. Two, in agreement with the Government of Romania, we will move quickly to place multinational sanctions monitors in Romania. The United States is ready to contribute experts and equipment to this operation. Similar arrangements should also be established in other areas bordering Serbia-Montenegro, including Hungary, Bulgaria, Albania, and Macedonia. Three, we must implement new measures to eliminate violations occurring via the Danube River.
Preventive Diplomacy
The fourth task for this conference must be in the realm of preventive diplomacy--namely, to ensure the conflict does not expand into areas and countries not yet directly affected by the fighting. The immediate step must be to implement decisions taken 2 weeks ago by the CSCE to insert continuous human rights monitors into those areas of Serbia--Kosovo, Vojvodina, and the Sandzak--that could become the next targets of aggression. Further, Serbian leaders have expressed their readiness to permit international observers on their territory, including along the Bosnian-Serbian border, and at airbases in Serbia and Montenegro. Now is the time to turn these words into effective action by deciding, here today, to place observers along that border and at those airbases. These monitors must be complemented by others in the states and regions bordering Serbia. Their function would be to serve both as a deterrent to an expansion of the fighting and as an "early warning" of its imminent occurrence. The European Community (EC) is actively working with Albania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Greece to put into place such monitoring teams. We applaud these efforts, urge that they be completed as soon as possible, and stand ready to help as we can. At the same time, the United States is making efforts to put monitors on the ground in the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, and we will cooperate with the EC to provide the residents of this region with economic help as well.
Conclusion
I began by describing the tragedy in the former Yugoslavia in terms of the seemingly endless cycle of violence and vengeance which has characterized that region for so many centuries. But in truth, there is nothing fatalistic about what is going on in those lands. The fact of the matter is that the conflict was willed by men seeking to perpetuate Europe's last communist regime by manipulating age-old hatreds and fears. The fact of the matter is that the peoples of the former Yugoslavia can still refuse to drink the lethal brew which their leaders have put before them. If they should so refuse, they will be able to join a democratic Europe in a process of integration which is rendering obsolete traditional notions of sovereignty, and which is enhancing the interests of minorities across the continent. The world's democracies--most certainly including the United States--will welcome the Serbs to their midst, and offer them greater security than they could ever hope to enjoy under the law of the jungle now prevailing. But those peoples who choose the irrational path of hatred and aggression cannot expect membership in the newly enlarged community of democratic nations. We will simply not allow them to make a mockery of the more humane and rational future that the collapse of communism and the end of the threat of nuclear holocaust promise.

London Conference Documents

[Texts of statements approved August 26-27, 1992, at the London Conference on Yugoslavia, London, United Kingdom. The Conference was co-chaired by UK Prime Minister Major as the Head of State/Government of the Presidency of the European Community and by UN Secretary General Boutros-Ghali.]
Statement of Principles
The London Conference has endorsed the following principles as the basis for a negotiated settlement of the problems of former Yugoslavia: (i) the imperative need that all parties and others concerned should cease fighting and the use of force, should respect agreed ceasefires and restrain those who commit or seek to provoke breaches of them; (ii) non-recognition of all advantages gained by force or fait accompli or of any legal consequences thereof; (iii) the need for all parties concerned to engage actively, directly or through intermediaries, in negotiations on the basis of these principles; (iv) respect for the highest standards of individual rights and fundamental freedoms in a democratic society, as embodied in the International Covenants of the United Nations on Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights and its protocols and other instruments of the United Nations, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe [CSCE] and the Council of Europe; (v) implementation of constitutional guarantees of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of persons belonging to ethnic and national communities and minorities, the promotion of tolerance and the right to self determination in accordance with the commitments entered into under the CSCE and in the EC [European Community] Conference on Yugoslavia; (vi) total condemnation of forcible expulsions, illegal detentions and attempts to change the ethnic composition of populations, and effective promotion of the closure of detention camps, and of the safe return to their homes of all persons displaced by the hostilities who wish this; (vii) compliance by all persons with their obligations under international humanitarian law and in particular the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and the personal responsibility of those who commit or order grave breaches of the Conventions; (viii) the fundamental obligation to respect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of all states in the region; and to respect the inviolability of all frontiers in accordance with the UN Charter, the CSCE Final Act and the Charter of Paris. Rejection of all efforts to acquire territory and change borders by force; (ix) the requirement that a final settlement of all questions of succession to the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia [SFRY] must be reached by consensus or by arbitration and the commitment of all parties to recognise each other mutually, to respect each others' status and rights under any such settlement and to share the duties and responsibilities of successor states; (x) the obligations on all states and parties concerned to comply in full with all UN Security Council Resolutions [UNSCR] on the crisis in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and to do their utmost to secure their implementation; (xi) the vital need for humanitarian aid to be provided and, under appropriate protection and with the full cooperation of the local authorities, to reach the populations in need, with special consideration for the needs of children; (xii) the obligation on all parties to cooperate wholeheartedly in the international monitoring, peacekeeping and arms control operations in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and to contribute constructively to the suppression of violence throughout the area; (xiii) the need to provide international guarantees to ensure the full implementation of all agreements reached within the framework of the International Conference.
Specific Decisions by the London Conference
1. Acting under the principles set out in the relevant Conference documents, all parties at the Conference formally accept and agree to cooperate in a number of actions.
Cessation of Violence
2. The overall aim is an effective and durable cessation of hostilities in the whole of the former SFRY and in particular in Bosnia-Herzegovina in order to facilitate the negotiation of a lasting political settlement. This requires urgent action including: --early lifting of the sieges of towns and cities --international supervision of heavy weapons --bringing all forces, including irregulars, under central control --withholding of direct or indirect military assistance to self- proclaimed governments and the internal components of neighbouring states --the progressive reduction of weapons in the region under international supervision. 3. Participants agreed confidence-building measures including: --the notification of all mortars and heavy weapons to the UN within 96 hours as a prelude to their disengagement from the conflict, which will be the first item in negotiations --a ban on military flights --early setting up of hot lines between local commanders and HQs [headquarters] --improved contact through liaison visits --the identification of HQs and commanders of all armed units, including para-militaries --the posting of observers on the Bosnian/Serbian and Bosnian/Montenegrin borders --the deployment of observers in Bosnia to monitor heavy weapons. 4. Further confidence-building measures, covering military movements, arms limitation and verification will be urgently examined.
Humanitarian Issues
5. The Co-Chairmen have agreed a programme of action with the parties to the conflict. This includes: Effective delivery of humanitarian aid i) Full collaboration in delivery of humanitarian relief by road throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina, with the following specific steps: --progressive development of relief missions and road convoys from Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro into all areas of Bosnia where relief is required --priority to repairing the road and railway between Ploce, Mostar and Sarajevo --parties to designate local representatives with whom practical arrangements for relief missions and road convoys can be made --acceptance of and arrangements for international monitors. ii) Parties to exercise authority over undisciplined elements in their areas. Refugees iii) Progressive return of refugees to their homes and response to the needs identified by the UN. Dismantling detention camps iv) Unconditional and unilateral release under international supervision of all civilians detained, and the closure without delay of the detention camps. v) Parties to take responsibility for security and protection of those detained until freed under international supervision. vi) International community to be given immediate access in order to monitor the situation of those in detention . vii) Pending release and return home of those detained, urgent action by humanitarian organisations to examine temporary options. Safe areas viii) Further examination of options including neutral zones for safe areas.
International Action
6. In order to promote these objectives all governments and international organisations will: --collaborate fully with the Secretary General of the United Nations in providing to him information in implementation of UNSCR 771 --ensure the compliance by all persons with their obligations under international humanitarian law --take all possible legal action to bring to account those responsible for committing or ordering grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions --draw up a register of verified breaches of international humanitarian law --set up the monitoring missions called for by the CSCE in the territories of the former SFRY and in neighbouring countries --not consider help for the reconstruction of the Serbian economy before Serbia has complied with the demands of this Conference --provide the means for: -- passage and protection of humanitarian convoys at the request of the United Nations; -- control and monitoring of heavy weapons in Bosnia-Herzegovina under the auspices of the United Nations.
Sanctions
7. The relevant governments have agreed that they will: --implement an agreed action plan to ensure the rigorous application of sanctions --enforce sanctions on the Danube, consistent with their view that riparian states have the authority and obligation to do so --provide practical advice, man-power and equipment to help neighbouring countries to enforce sanctions rigorously --contribute experts to advise on the application of sanctions in all neighbouring countries to take part in the monitoring missions which will be established in the neighbouring countries to ensure full implementation of sanctions --ask the Security Council to: -- take necessary measures to tighten up the application of sanctions in the Adriatic; -- prevent illegal transfers of financial assets to Serbia and Montenegro; and -- eliminate diversion of goods in transit. Conference parties have asked the European Community and the CSCE to coordinate all necessary practical assistance to all neighbouring countries.
Violations of International Humanitarian Law
8. The Co-Chairmen have undertaken to carry forward a study of the creation of an international criminal court.
Statement on Bosnia
The participants in the London Conference on the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia condemn the continuing violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the attempts to gain territory by the use of force. They reject as inhuman and illegal the expulsion of civilian communities from their homes in order to alter the ethnic character of any area. They welcome the adoption by the United Nations Security Council of Resolution 771 and other Security Council Resolutions, and the Resolution of the UN Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. They undertake to collate substantiated information on violations of international humanitarian law and to make this information available to the United Nations. They reaffirm that persons who commit or order the commission of grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions are individually responsible in respect of such breaches. A political settlement in Bosnia and Herzegovina must include the following provisions: a) a full and permanent cessation of hostilities and an end of all violence and repression, including the expulsion of populations; b) recognition of Bosnia-Herzegovina by all the former Yugoslav Republics; c) respect for the integrity of present frontiers, unless changed by mutual agreement; d) implementation of guarantees for the rights of persons belonging to all national communities and minorities in accordance with the UN Charter and CSCE provisions; e) just and adequate arrangements for people who have been forcibly expelled from their homes including the right to return and compensation for their losses; f) democratic and legal structures which properly protect the rights of all in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including national communities and minorities; g) assurances of non-intervention by outside military forces whether formed units or irregulars, except as provided for in relevant UN Security Council Resolutions; h) respect for all international Treaties and Agreements; i) restoration of trade and other links with neighbouring countries. Further urgent steps are now required to achieve a settlement. The participants in the London Conference urge all parties immediately and without preconditions to resume negotiations on future constitutional arrangements within the framework of the Conference. All parties involved must participate in these negotiations with a genuine will to secure peace and a respect for the interest of the other parties. The negotiations will also need to cover the following arrangements: a) a genuine and lasting end to the conflict throughout the Republic, and return of territory taken by force; b) the cessation of all outside interference, in terms of personnel or material support, in the present conflict; c) the grouping of heavy weaponry under international control; d) the demilitarisation of major towns and the monitoring of them by international observers; e) the establishment of refugee and relief centres for those citizens of Bosnia-Herzegovina who have lost or been expelled from their homes, pending their return; f) the extension of humanitarian relief to all areas of Bosnia- Herzegovina where supplies are needed, with the cooperation of local parties; g) an international peacekeeping force under UN auspices may be created by the UN Security Council to maintain the ceasefire, control military movements, and undertake other confidence building measures. As and when parties are ready to reach a settlement on the above basis, the International Community will join with them in a major reconstruction programme to cope with humanitarian needs and to restore economic activity. At a meeting with FCO [Foreign and Commonwealth Office] Minister of State Douglas Hogg, Drs. Karadzic and Koljevic representing the Bosnian Serbs signified their agreement to the following: i) That the Bosnian Serb side would notify to the UN within 96 hours the positions of all heavy weaponry to be grouped around the 4 towns of Sarajevo, Bihac, Gorazde and Jajce, this grouping to be completed within a period of 7 days. The weaponry once grouped would be put under the continuous supervision of permanent UN observers. The Bosnian Serb side would expect the Bosnian Government to take reciprocal action, but would not impose this as a precondition for their own action, which would be unilateral. The Bosnian Serb side further undertook with immediate effect not to initiate fire from any of this heavy weaponry. ii) That the Bosnian Serb side recognised that in negotiations between the three Bosnian parties, they would agree to withdraw from a substantial portion of the territory now under the control of their forces.
Co-Chairmen's Paper On Serbia and Montenegro
We welcome the fact that all participants in the Conference have subscribed to the Statement on Bosnia-Herzegovina. All participants must fulfil the obligations to which they have agreed. In particular, Serbia and Montenegro face a clear choice. They have undertaken to: --cease intervention across their borders with Bosnia and Croatia; --to the best of their ability restrain the Bosnian Serbs from taking territory by force and expelling the local populations; --restore in full the civil and constitutional rights of the inhabitants of the Kosovo and Vojvodina and also to ensure the civil rights of the inhabitants of the Sandjak; --use their influence with the Bosnian Serbs to obtain the closure of their detention camps, to comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law and in particular the Geneva Conventions, and to permit the return of refugees to their homes. The Bosnian Croats and Muslims have given similar undertakings; --fully observe the relevant resolutions of the UN Security Council; --declare that they fully respect the integrity of present frontiers; --guarantee the rights of ethnic and national communities and minorities within the borders of Serbia and Montenegro in accordance with the UN Charter, the CSCE and the draft convention of the EC Conference on Yugoslavia; --work for the normalisation of the situation in Croatia, for implementation of the Vance Plan and for acceptance by the Serbs in the Krajina of special status as foreseen in the draft convention of the EC Conference on Yugoslavia; --respect all relevant international treaties and agreements. If, as suggested by Mr. Panic's recent letter to the President of the Security Council of the UN, Serbia and Montenegro do intend to fulfil these obligations in deed as well as word they will resume a respected position in the international community. They will be enabled to trade, to receive assistance and to enjoy the full cooperation of all members of the international community. If they do not comply the Security Council will be invited to apply stringent sanctions leading to their total international isolation.
Work Programme Of the Conference
International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia 1. The International Conference on the former Yugoslavia will remain in being until a final settlement of the problems of the former Yugoslavia has been reached. It will build on the work already done by the EC Conference on Yugoslavia, especially the documents already produced, and will be guided by the provisions of the statement of principles agreed today. The Permanent Co- Chairmen will be the Head of State/Government of the Presidency of the European Community and the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Conference will be re-convened in plenary session by the Permanent Co-Chairmen on the recommendation of the Co- Chairmen of the Steering Committee.
Steering Committee
2. A high-level Steering Committee will be set up. The Co-Chairmen will be a representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and a representative of the Presidency of the European Community. It will include representatives of the Troika of the European Community, the Troika of the CSCE, the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, and one representative from the OIC [Organization of the Islamic Conference], two representatives from the neighbouring States and Lord Carrington [EC special mediator on the Balkan crisis]. It will meet at the request of the Co-Chairmen to guide the work of the Conference and to coordinate its work with related work in other organizations.
The Office of the Co-Chairmen
3. The Co-Chairmen of the Steering Committee will be assisted by the Chairmen of the Working Groups (on which see below). They will work in continuous session at the Office of the United Nations in Geneva. The Co-Chairmen will direct the Working Groups and prepare the basis for a general settlement and associated measures. They will also meet as necessary with representatives from the former Yugoslavia, who will attend meetings without preconditions. 4. There will be six Working Groups in continuous session at the Office of the United Nations in Geneva: (a) Bosnia-Herzegovina Working Group. The Group's task is to promote a cessation of hostilities and a constitutional settlement in Bosnia-Herzegovina; (b) Humanitarian Issues Working Group. The Group's task is to promote humanitarian relief in all its aspects, including refugees; (c) Ethnic and National Communities and Minorities Working Group. The Group's task is to recommend initiatives for resolving ethnic questions in the former Yugoslavia. A special group on the former autonomous province of Kosovo will be set up; (d) Succession Issues Working Group. The Group's task is to resolve succession issues arising from the emergence of new states on the territory of the former Yugoslavia; (e) Economic Issues Working Group. The Group's task is to address the economic issues arising from the emergence of new states in the territory of the former Yugoslavia; (f) Confidence and Security-building and Verification Measures Working Group. The Group's tasks are to develop confidence-building measures covering military movements, arms control and arms transfers and limitations, and measures for their monitoring and verification.
Arbitration Commission
5. The Conference will seek the continued assistance of the Arbitration Commission.
Secretariat
6. A small Secretariat will be established at the Office of the United Nations in Geneva. It will be headed by an Executive Director. It will be staffed by personnel from the United Nations and from the European Community.
Costs
7. Participants in the Conference agree to bear the costs related to the administrative implementation of this Work Programme and the provision of the Secretariat, with a scale of contributions to be approved by the Steering Committee.

Acting Secretary Eagleburger: London Conference To Galvanize International Action

[Excerpts from news conference following the London Conference on Yugoslavia, London, United Kingdom, August 27, 1992] As I said yesterday, this conflict is truly a cancer in the heart of Europe. Its causes and consequences are complex. It will not be cured overnight. And it must be addressed in all its dimensions if we are to defuse it, contain it, and, in the end, bring it to an end. So we wanted to use the conference to galvanize international action across all of those dimensions: to alleviate the humanitarian nightmare in Bosnia; to support the negotiating process; to punish the aggressors and tighten the economic and political isolation of Serbia and Montenegro; to quarantine and contain the conflict and prevent its widening; and, ultimately, to bring peace to the peoples of the former Yugoslavia. We come out of this conference, I believe, with a strong consensus and a concrete plan of action in each of these areas. First, we wanted this conference to support the territorial integrity of Bosnia-Hercegovina and the legitimate Government of Bosnia- Hercegovina and to ensure that the conference did not become a forum for endorsing partition or cantonization. The conference has sent a clear political signal that the international community will not reward aggression; that Bosnia's sovereignty, independence, and integrity will be upheld; and that negotiations must proceed in line with fundamental CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] principles. Second, we wanted to create a permanent negotiating forum that could work full time to defuse the crisis and manage the process toward a political settlement. We believe the process we've created--co-chaired by the UN and the EC [European Community], based in Geneva and guided by strong principles--will provide the forum to bring the parties together to help defuse the current conflict; end the bloodshed; and, ultimately, to craft a negotiated settlement. To facilitate this negotiating process, the United States has offered $3 million to help with start-up costs. Third, we wanted to move beyond agreement on principles and a negotiating structure to develop an international plan of action to deal with this crisis. As I think you've seen in the Co-Chairmen's [UK Prime Minister Major and UN Secretary General Boutros-Ghali] statement on specific decisions taken at the conference [see p. 4], we have outlined a number of concrete actions the international community is taking to provide humanitarian relief, increase pressure on the aggressors, and contain the conflict. Let me highlight several of them. We've launched a massive humanitarian relief effort for this winter, including pledges for the September 4 UNHCR [UN High Commissioner for Refugees] meeting. Let me add here, as I mentioned in my statement to the conference yesterday, that we will begin now to plan with others in the international community to assist refugees to return to--and to rebuild--what is left of their houses and their villages. As [UK] Prime Minister Major has indicated, we have agreement to expand and strengthen UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force] in support of UN humanitarian operations in Bosnia. We're strengthening the sanctions regime by introducing international monitors in neighboring states, stopping sanction leakage via the Danube, and helping compensate neighbors hardest hit by strict sanctions compliance. And we are engaging in preventive diplomacy. We are placing continuous human rights monitors in the Kosovo, Vojvodina, and Sandzak [areas] and "early warning" monitors in neighboring states and regions, including Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary. Another area where we've made progress is with the parties themselves. As you may know by now, the leader of the Bosnian Serbs--Mr. Karadzic--has agreed to consolidate heavy weapons under international monitors. We expect him to follow through on this agreement. We believe consolidation and control of heavy weaponry has the potential to do much to reduce the level of bloodshed. In addition, the Government of Bosnia has agreed to rejoin the negotiating process. We also have pushed the parties hard to take other concrete steps, many of which are also included in the Co-Chairmen's statement. In particular, we've stressed the need to do several things. -- Lift the sieges and withdraw forces from chokepoints around Sarajevo, Tuzla, Gorazde, Bihac, and Mostar, and other Bosnian cities. -- Accept international monitors on Bosnia's borders with all its neighbors to prevent military supply of ethnic forces in Bosnia. We expect UN agreement to supply these monitors by sometime next week. -- Respect the lives and safety of UN forces and ensure safe passage for humanitarian assistance to all areas of Bosnia- Hercegovina, including unimpeded access by ground and air for humanitarian relief. -- And, finally, to allow continuous international access to all detention camps and their quick dissolution. I know it is customary to be polite--to say nice things about the host. I am not just being polite. Let me say, with absolute sincerity, that Mr. Major and Her Majesty's Government have done, I think, a real thing in the cause of peace for what was Yugoslavia. This conference, I think, has set us on a new course. We will not solve this problem overnight, but I think we have established a substantial process. We have put in place, I think, a number of important steps, and they could not have happened without the organizing genius and the really superb management that the Prime Minister demonstrated at this conference in the last 2 days. I'll be glad to try to answer your questions. Q: Mr. Secretary, you said that the conference had reached agreement to prevent the partition or cantonization of Bosnia, but the last item in the statement on Bosnia--the one that was signed-- says the Bosnian-Serb side recognized that in negotiations between the three Bosnian parties, they would agree to withdraw from a substantial portion of the territory under the control of their forces. This seems to imply that they're going to get to keep some of what they have obtained by force. Is that correct? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: No, not at all. What that says is that the Bosnian-Serb side said that they are prepared to withdraw from substantial portions but not all. But the conference has made it clear that that is not sufficient, and, certainly, in our statement, I made it clear that the United States will accept no settlement that does not return to the previous owners, if you will, the lands that have been taken. So Mr. Karadzic and the Bosnian-Serbs may have agreed to go a certain distance, but that is not adequate, in our judgment, and, in the end, as I indicated, we won't accept anything other than a return to the status quo ante. Q: My question relates to the same issue. If the idea is to return to the status quo ante, it would seem that the issue of refugees-- which is the fundamental political issue here and related to any future constitutional settlement--has been not only separated from the discussions in the working group with constitutional issues but also has been downgraded from an individual issue on its own to one of humanitarian aid. This again raises--would raise, seemed to raise--very grave doubts about the ability to reverse cantonization and division. Acting Secretary Eagleburger: I'm not sure I understand how you've come to that conclusion. But, look, what we've said in the conference and what has been agreed and certainly what I said in my statement yesterday is [that] we have an immediate problem of hundreds of thousands of refugees and a winter coming. Some of those are in Bosnia. Many of them are outside Bosnia in other parts of what was Yugoslavia. We [are] going to have to--and the UNHCR will have a pledging conference in early September to try to raise money to deal precisely with that question of what you do to try to help these refugees in the shorter term, and the United States has pledged the equivalent of $40 million of assistance to that particular effort and more after October. But as I had said in my statement yesterday--I said again here today, that what the international community is also going to have to do is examine and, in the end, come up with money to assist these refugees to return to their homes--or what is left of their homes-- and to provide adequate assistance to rebuild those homes and to provide them shelter. The fundamental point here is [that] we have to deal with the immediate issue of refugees and their getting through a winter. But it is clearly our intention--when I say "our," I mean the United States, and I think we have agreement from the others--that the principle must be that they will then be returned to their homes. We are not about to create refugee camps that 20 years from now are still refugee camps. These people must be returned to their homes, but, in the meantime, we have the immediate problem of taking care of people who have been driven from their homes and are, at this point, refugees. Q: I have two questions. One comes immediately based on that. Is it realistic to expect people to return to villages where the neighbors have raped your wife or killed your father or massacred your children? And the second question is that the specific decision said "the notification of all mortars and heavy weapons to the UN within 96 hours." The question is: 96 hours from when? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Let me take--with regard to the first question, you know, it may not be realistic to expect that all people will return to their homes. But, you know, the only alternative is to, in effect, say that they cannot return to their homes, and then we are precisely in the problem that the gentleman just raised, which is, under those circumstances, dealing with the refugees that way, we have, in fact, acquiesced in ethnic cleansing and the cantonization. The point must be that the international community is prepared to assure that these people can return to their homes with some assistance if they wish to return. We can't make them go back if they don't want to. And the 96 hours from when? I would be--I'm reluctant to try to give you a specific answer to that. I would rather leave that--it's not immediate. It's 96 hours from when the process begins, and I don't know when that is. So I can't answer that question. Q: Mr. Secretary, both you and the Prime Minister said that the detention camps would be closed, hopefully soon. But in the paper on Serbia, they said only that they would use their influence with the Bosnian-Serbs to obtain the closure of these detention camps. Do you have any idea when they will be closed, and did they give you any stronger commitment to that? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: The Serbs, you mean? Q: Yes. Acting Secretary Eagleburger: No, other than that they would use their influence. Again, please, let's try to make one thing clear here. What the Serbs may have agreed to, or what the Bosnian Serbs may have agreed to, is a start in the right direction, perhaps. But this conference and the members of the conference decided on some things that were more explicit than that. It is the same issue, fundamentally, as the question of whether the Bosnian Serbs are prepared to withdraw from all of the territory that they have taken in Bosnia. We have a commitment from the Serbs that they will use their influence. We have the conference itself saying [that] these camps must be open and open fast--and, indeed, I must say, on the basis of the report from the ICRC [International Committee of the Red Cross], they are getting access to the camps on a fairly quick basis, but there is still much left to do--but that the camps must be open, and, indeed, they must be disbanded as soon as possible. I can't give you a specific timeframe. I can only tell you again that one of the points of the conference is that there are now some benchmarks, and we will, in fact, judge their performance--Serb and Bosnian Serb, Muslim and Croatian--on the basis of how fast they meet the demands of the conference. Q: I want to stick to the case of Kosovo. What was done inside in this conference to stop a possible bloodshed in Kosovo when everyone there fears that a possible conflict is quite near with armed Serbs and Serbia ready to use military force against them? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: What was decided at this conference was to put monitors into Albania and as soon as possible. You have a perfectly legitimate issue, and one of the issues that has concerned me, for some time, and a number of us is the dangers with regard to the Kosovo. By moving the monitors in, we are at least beginning a process, I hope, of assuring that, in fact, outside forces will not be able to intervene in the Kosovo. We have warned not only in this conference, but the United States, certainly, and others, I am sure, as well, have made it very clear to the government in Belgrade that they must be very cautious with regard to the Kosovo. Q: Again about Kosovo--journalist from Kosovo Pristina--you know, in Kosovo, 2 million Albanians, and you have [a] Serbian minority with heavy guns and heavy artillery and Albanians without any guns. Do you--is it a possibility to keep peace in his area? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Well, you know, with all respect, there is peace in the Kosovo at this point. It may not be the peace that the Albanian majority particularly enjoys, but it is, nevertheless, peace, and the fundamental point now is that this must not become another area of conflict in what was Yugoslavia. The Serbs are under no doubt whatsoever of the view of the US Government with regard to that. My profound hope is that the monitors that we are putting in will assist in assuring that it remains peaceful, and it is the view of the US Government and has been for some time that it is incumbent on the government in Belgrade to return Kosovo to its previous status within the federation. Q: Precisely how you can realize this? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: There are lots of things that I can't tell you how we can realize at this point. We are engaged in a process, and one of the fundamental points at this stage is how do we realize bringing peace to Bosnia-Hercegovina and establishing a process that brings peace and security to all of what was Yugoslavia. I cannot give you a specific answer other than to say I think we are well down a new road which I think and devoutly hope will, in fact, produce that result over time. Q: Mr. Secretary, what kind of pressure can be brought on Mr. Karadzic, considering that he doesn't control institutions, governments--the kinds of things that you can put sanctions on and that sort of thing? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Well, the question was asked a little bit differently to the Prime Minister, and I wouldn't want to try to go beyond him. But let me make a couple of points that I think indicate that there are some means of pressure. First of all, I believe, and I think with substantial reason, that while Karadzic can be a semi-independent actor given the weapons and so forth he now has, he cannot be a completely independent actor, and I do not believe he is. Supply of petroleum products and so forth is essential to his ability to continue to conduct his operations, in my judgment. By putting the monitors that have been agreed by both sides now along the Bosnian-Serbian border and, indeed, along the Croatian-Bosnian border, we have introduced into the process a means of checking on what supplies, if any, are going from Serbia into Bosnia. That's one of the things that I think can apply some pressure. The second point is that, to the degree you believe, as I do, that he continues to receive support from Serbia, one of the factors [that] I think is most critically important out of this whole conference is the fact that we have together agreed that the sanctions are going to be tightened. I believe that there have been too many weak spots in those sanctions--not the least of which is the Danube River--and the sanctions, as they are tightened and squeeze the Serbian economy, I think, at the same time, have an effect on Serbia's ability to support Mr. Karadzic. So, those are just two additional items. . . . Q: Mr. Secretary, question from the Sunday Times newspaper in London. It just touches on this last point that you've made. The Prime Minister [UK Prime Minister Major] did describe some of the pressure that was put on Mr. Karadzic to reach the agreements that we have seen today. Can you shed any light on that process? What were the mechanics of this? What was said to him? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Well, again, you've put me in an awkward spot, because the Prime Minister was fairly careful how he answered the question. I can only tell you that there were clearly some discussions with Mr. Karadzic. There were some discussions with Mr. Izetbegovic [Bosnian President] and Mr. Silajdzic [Bosnian Foreign Minister]--not together, I emphasize. And, in fact, British representatives were involved in both of those and were, I think, quite successful in reaching this agreement, and I would prefer to leave it, therefore, to Her Majesty's Government to be specific about what went on. Q: Mr. Eagleburger, what do you think the reaction tomorrow morning is going to be in Sarajevo to the results of this conference, especially when allied aircraft are flying down to south Iraq to protect the Shiites? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Well, I don't know what aircraft flying in Iraq will do to attitudes in Sarajevo, but let me tell you what I think the attitude in Sarajevo ought to be. But I preface this by saying I understand the agony that is going on in Sarajevo, and I understand that since it has--this conference will not have stopped every evil thing that is going on in Sarajevo; people are not going to view this conference as immediately having solved their problem. But I think there are a couple of points to make, the first of which is if Mr. Karadzic--your and my close friend--does, in fact, perform on his commitment on heavy weapons and mortars, we will see fairly quickly, I believe, a substantial diminution in the shelling with regard to Sarajevo. I think that, in a period of not too much time, ought to provide some solace to the people of Sarajevo. Secondly, it would seem to me that, so long as the assistance flights can continue to come in, and, indeed--hopefully as a result of the agreements in this conference--be increased, that should provide some additional support to their view that this conference has begun to change things. And, fundamentally and not overnight, but I deeply believe that what we have begun today here with a new process that is in place 24 hours a day in Geneva headed by [co-chairmen of the steering committee] Cyrus Vance [representative of the UN Secretary General] and Dr. [David] Owen [representative of the presidency of the European Community]--and I can assure you [that] Cyrus Vance will be deeply engaged in this on a day-to-day basis, based on the additional measures that have been taken here, including tightened sanctions on Serbia, the monitors that are going to be put in place, and so forth, the long list of things that have been agreed--I think we will begin to see a change in the situation in Sarajevo and not just in Sarajevo. I mentioned the other cities in Bosnia that are also under severe pressure. I think we will see, over time and not tomorrow morning, a substantial change in their situation. That may not be enough to meet all of the demands-- legitimate demands--of the people of Sarajevo, but it is more than a beginning, I think. Q: Mr. Secretary, you said that we--you--are helping the refugees. As a friend of Macedonia and called--so-called--Lawrence of Macedonia in 1977 Time magazine, could you help Macedonia in supplying help for 40,000 refugees from Bosnia-Hercegovina to Macedonia, because we are under pressure of the embargo, [and] because we are complying [with] the embargo sanctions against Serbia? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Let me make a couple of points here with regard to that general question. First of all, the UNHCR refugee pledging sessions in early September, including the $40 million we have already promised we will provide at that session, is not exclusively for refugees in one particular place--Bosnia, or Croatia, or wherever. It will be in order to assist Macedonia in its refugee problem as well. So, what I am saying is [that] the international community is going to be providing assistance to Macedonia. I want to make another point to you, which is that while issues of recognition and UN membership are yet outstanding issues, the United States has before and will continue to provide technical and other kinds of assistance to Macedonia. We have sent in fairly large quantities of medicine and food. We will continue to do that and, indeed, as I informed people here yesterday, the President of the United States has decided to grant GSP--and I'll explain that in a second--to Macedonia as well as to Slovenia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, and Croatia. What that means is a Generalized System of Preferences. Let me simply say to you that what that means is that exports from Macedonia to the United States, under certain circumstances, will have preferential treatment. We understand the problems in Macedonia. We are trying to do what we can to help. Q: Based on past experience, what gives you confidence that Mr. Milosevic will live up to his end of the bargain? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: I don't have any particular confidence that he will live up to his end of the bargain based on his philanthropic attitudes, but what I am trying to say is what we have here--it may not be perfect--but what we have here is a substantial change from the past. We have a permanent negotiating process headed by two distinguished people that will be located in Geneva and bringing these parties together day after day to deal with these questions. Mr. Vance has assured me, in addition, that he will be actively engaged in making sure that the sanctions-tightening is proceeding and rattling cages as necessary, if, in fact, those sanctions are not- -the tightening is not proceeding as it should. So that we have their process of squeezing the Serbian economy, and I think it will make a substantial difference if we can close down the Danube which is particularly a problem in terms of petroleum supplies to Serbia. We have monitors that we didn't have before on the Serbian-Bosnian border [and] the Croatian-Bosnian border. We have monitors in Romania to help assure that the sanctions are being complied with. We want to put them in other neighboring countries. I can't say to you that we have solved the problem overnight, but what I am saying is [that] I think we have created a structure which provides substantially enhanced ability to force, over time, Mr. Milosevic, if he doesn't want to cooperate, into cooperating. This is not something that is--this conference did not come out with an outcome that is solely based on his good will. We knew better than to rest on that.

Results of the London Conference

[Statement by White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater, Washington, DC, August 28, 1992.] The President met this morning with Acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger to discuss the results of the London Conference on the former Yugoslavia. The conference has given us a better foundation to defuse, contain, and bring to an end the conflict in former Yugoslavia. It has established a new, permanent negotiating forum, co-chaired by the United Nations and the European Community, in Geneva. The United States has offered $3 million to help with start-up costs of the conference. The conference developed an international plan of action to deal with this crisis. As a result, the international community is taking a number of concrete actions to provide humanitarian relief, increase pressure on the aggressors, and contain the conflict. These include a massive humanitarian relief effort for this winter, a strengthening of the sanctions regime by introducing international monitors in neighboring states, and the placing of human rights monitors as well as "early warning" monitors in neighboring states and regions. The conference also made progress with the parties themselves. The leader of the Bosnian Serbs has agreed to consolidate heavy weapons under international control and the Government of Bosnia has agreed to rejoin the negotiating process. The causes of this conflict are complex; it will not be ended overnight. We thank [UK] Prime Minister Major and [UN] Secretary General Boutros-Ghali for organizing and running this conference, which has succeeded in galvanizing international action to alleviate the humanitarian nightmare in Bosnia, to support the negotiating process, to punish the aggressors, and to quarantine the conflict.

Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Agreements Reached At the London Conference

[Remarks on the "MacNeil/Lehrer Newshour," Washington, DC, August 28, 1992] Q: Is it disheartening to come back to Washington and realize that just a few hours after the big meeting in London, they were killing people again in Bosnia? Ten people have died; the fighting is as severe as it's ever been. Acting Secretary Eagleburger: It's disheartening, because people are being killed. But I must say to you, I did not expect when we went to that conference or when it finished that at that point the killing would stop. I am not surprised that the fighting continues, and I don't think that the fundamental points of the conference were aimed at trying to bring a direct end to the fighting the day after the conference was over, despite the fact that we would certainly hope that this would have been the consequence. Q: Well, then, let's go through, what was agreed to around that big, square table in London? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Lots of things were agreed to. But let me start with the things that I think the United States went there trying to get, that we got, and that I think are important. We got agreement, first of all, that the sanctions must be stringently enforced. There is no question that-- Q: This is against Serbia? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Against Serbia. There is no question, for example, that there's great leakage through the Danube River. A number of things, particularly petroleum, are getting into Serbia. The sanctions have not been tightly enforced. I think there is clear agreement that they now will be, and we're going to take steps to make sure that they are. That's the first point. Secondly, what we got was agreement on the establishment of a permanent process aiming toward peace. We have [co-chairmen of the steering committee] Cy Vance [representative of the UN Secretary General] and David Owen [representative of the presidency of the European Community] permanently located in Geneva [and] working groups on each of the issues involved with the Yugoslav crisis able to bring the parties together there to negotiate to try to deal with each of the specific issues. That's a permanent process now. We've had episodic efforts at it but never permanent. We got agreement on monitors along the Serbian-Bosnian border, the Croatian-Bosnian border to make sure that we can now see and hopefully stop whatever leaks in to the Bosnian Serbs from Serbia. We've got monitors agreed in all of the neighboring countries, in the Kosovo, which is one of the areas where we're worried that things may blow up. So we have a number of those things agreed on. I think they are all important over the longer term to bring this thing to an end. Sanctions are critical in that regard. In addition, we got, for example--the Bosnian Serbs said they would collect their heavy arms and turn them over to supervision by the United Nations within 96 hours--a number of those kinds of agreements, a number of agreements from the Serbs in Bosnia as the Bosnians agreed to go back to the negotiating table. There is a whole list of these; all of which will be nice if, in fact, the parties perform on them. But we have a long history of earlier agreements where the parties were supposed to perform, and they didn't. For example, I did not believe--still don't believe--it was useful to try to go to that conference and get an immediate agreement on a cease-fire. We would have walked out of the conference, and on the basis of past history, within a day or two, the cease-fire would have been broken. What we have established now, that I think is critical, is a longer term process to try to force the parties, and particularly the Serbs, to the negotiating table and to some conclusions. Q: I'm sure you saw, or were told if you did not see the headlines in the papers back here, that all that came out of this conference was talk and nothing with any bite, nothing with any meat. Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Well, I don't happen to think that's true, and as I say, I think the things that I described that we got agreement on--from 40 different countries, not the warring parties, but from the rest of the civilized world, as to what they're going to do to try to squeeze these people--are, in fact, important. We also got some agreements, as I say, from the warring parties. But there's a point I need to make here. Unless you start from an assumption that this is a conflict that can be ended one way or another by some application of outside force--and I'll be glad to talk to you about that--I think it's wrong as an assumption. But, unless you start with that assumption, then what you have to be looking for, to try to deal with what all of us will admit is a terrible, horrible human tragedy is the kind of structure that will force these contending parties over time, to end this war. I am, in fact, horrified by what I see in the press in the United States and in Britain. I must say, these day[s], about all of these arm-chair strategists and generals who are prepared to say we must use some form of force, [that] they aren't the ones that have to worry about the Americans getting killed if we get into a situation in that part of the world from which we cannot easily extract ourselves. Q: Well, George Kenney who worked for you--Yugoslav desk of the State Department--resigned in the last 48 hours because he thought US policy was wrong. And he wasn't suggesting use of US force; he was saying why don't we arm the Bosnians so they can defend themselves against the Serbs. Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Well, in the first place, there is, in my judgment, from what we can tell, substantial evidence that the Bosnian Muslims are, in fact, being armed from outside. They do have substantial arms. Is the purpose to this thing to add more weapons to an already overburdened area of the world as far as weapons are concerned? I don't believe that that's the way you're going to solve the problem, by giving arms to the Bosnian Muslims, aside from the fact I think they already have an adequate quantity. The thing with Kenney, if I could talk about it for a second. Q: Sure, sure. Acting Secretary Eagleburger: To me, this is a classic case, and it's a tough one to deal with. Here is a young man in the Foreign Service who saw this horror going on [and who] did not think we were doing the right things with it. And I must say, having been a Foreign Service officer, having lived through that kind of situation myself, [he] showed remarkable courage in, at least, saying, "I don't like it, I'm going to quit, and I'm going to talk about it." Too many don't like it, don't quit, and talk about it. So I-- Q: Did he talk to you about it before? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: No, no. I don't think I've ever met him, but I certainly didn't talk to him about that. Q: Okay. Acting Secretary Eagleburger: But having said that, here again, he sees one piece of this. He sees the human tragedy; he sees the US Government not acting in what he would consider to be an appropriate way to bring it to an end, not being actively enough engaged. I disagree with that, but I come back to saying again--to be seeing it from that perspective as against a perspective that George Bush, Jim Baker, and, indeed, I have to worry about, and certainly Dick Cheney [Secretary of Defense] and General Powell [Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff] have to worry about, which is the degree to which the United States involves itself militarily in a process for which there is no clear purpose and no clear end. Because, you see, in my judgment, Kenney is also saying military involvement on our part was, in the end, essential. That process leads you into the kind of situation that got us into Vietnam. And I'm not prepared to accept arguments that there must be something between the kind of involvement of Vietnam and doing nothing, that the New York Times and the Washington Post keep blabbing about, that there must be some form in the middle. That's, again, what got us into Vietnam--do a little bit, and it doesn't work. What do you do next? Q: But they also say--the New York Times and the Washington Post and others say, and you sat right here for the news summary just now: We showed film of US airplanes taking off from an aircraft carrier to fly air cover for the Shiites in Iraq--why can't we do that for the Bosnians? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Fly air cover against what? The war in Bosnia, while there is some air activity, the war is not being fought fundamentally in the air; it's being fought on the ground. The comparisons between Iraq and Bosnia, it seems to me, are totally incorrect. The proper comparison with regard to Iraq, as far as I'm concerned, is the fact that the President stopped at a point. He didn't go chasing after Saddam Hussein through all of Iraq and getting us tied down; that there is a fundamental difference between the kind of activity that went on in Iraq, including the Iraqi invasion of another country. And what I continue to say is, in a sense, a civil war--not that these aren't different republics and different countries now, but it is inter-ethnic conflict; it is massively mixed up; it is in territory that is extremely difficult to fight in. And the one thing we have decided clearly [that] we were going to do is [that] we will use all necessary force to get humanitarian supplies in to these people, and that is critically important. What we have also said is [that] we are not going to involve ourselves militarily in trying to make peace and force this conflict to an end. And I understand Mr. Kenney's concerns. He doesn't have to make the kind of tough decisions in the last analysis that others have to make. And, again, I'm not attacking the young man, but he never set foot in Yugoslavia as far as I can understand it. And until you've been there, until you've seen what kind of country it is, until you understand the terribly complex relationships between people in Yugoslavia, it is very dangerous to look for simplistic solutions. Q: Okay. Let's go back to the solution that you outlined at the very beginning, that was agreed to in London. Let's say that everything that you all put in place works. Acting Secretary Eagleburger: There's no time, and it will take time. Q: Okay, okay. There's no precedent for that, but let's say it does this time. How long will it take before the killing stops? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Let me remind you, there is also no precedent for the kind of situation we see in Yugoslavia right now. Q: Okay, right. Acting Secretary Eagleburger: And I don't know how long it will take. I will say this. Q: Excuse me. What I meant was, you said it yourself; there has been deal after deal after deal, and nothing happens. Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Yes, and it's also quite clear that very often sanctions as an instrument of bringing somebody to change his policy--you cannot guarantee they're going to work. The fact of the matter is that imperfect as the sanctions have been against the Serbs so far, it is clear they have made some real impact on the Serbian economy. The Serbs are looking at a winter that's going to be tough. If, in fact, those sanctions are really clamped down, there is, at least, some, I think, substantial reason to believe that that's going to force real change in the attitudes of the Serbian Government and, hopefully, the Serbian people. And there is no question. Q: By when? Acting Secretary Eagleburger: I don't know. I can't tell you how long. Q: Okay. Acting Secretary Eagleburger: This is not an issue that's going to be settled next week or next month. It's going to take time. And that's tragic, and it's terrible. It's better than having 100,000 troops in there and not knowing how to get them out again. Q: Well, you have been to Yugoslavia before. You were the US ambassador to Yugoslavia. It's a country you've always cared about. You're now the number one man at the State Department, the number one man in this government on foreign affairs below the President. Were you able to, in a private way in London, to look any Serbian leader in the eye and say, "Hey, fellows, this is for real, we're going to get you eventually if you don't stop this?" Acting Secretary Eagleburger: We have to do it privately. We had this table, and the Serbs were sitting over there. And I think I gave the toughest speech of anybody at the conference. And I said to them, and they sat there, and they heard it, and hopefully, we're going to get the same thing into Serbia itself: You people need to understand that the choices you make and have made determine whether you're going to be accepted into the civilized world for years to come. You are isolating yourselves from the rest of the world. We're not going to forget what you're doing, and you're going to pay a price for many, many years into the future, if this doesn't all stop. And my point again is, I think they understand that at one level. It is difficult to explain, but this war is not rational. There is no rationality at all about ethnic conflict. It is gut; it is hatred; it's not for any common set of values or purposes; it just goes on. And that kind of warfare is most difficult to bring to a halt. I am more than inclined to--I strongly believe that, without Serbian support from Belgrade to the Bosnian Serbs, over time, it withers. But I keep coming back to saying, it's over time. I hate that. People are dying every day; I understand that. It is the alternatives that have to be looked at. And from my point of view--and I think from the President's, since he supported me in all of this--the fact of the matter is, the only way to deal with this issue is, one, over time, squeezing down as we can, making it clear that we are going to get humanitarian supplies in to starving people; that we're going to break up those detention camps; we're going to get people out of them; we're going to take care of the refugees. And also one other thing that's critically important is I said the United States will never accept a peace settlement in that part of the world with Bosnia that, in fact, recognizes ethnic cleansing, that is, having driven Muslims out of areas taken over by Serbs; that those people are going to have [to] be permitted to go back to their homes; that there will be no cantonization, that is, against separating people out; and that the refugees have to be permitted to go back where they are. So one of the things that is also clear is, there isn't anybody on the Yugoslav side who doesn't understand that the United States will not accept a conclusion to this mess that doesn't permit the Bosnian Muslims, for example, to go back to their homes, to provide some support rebuilding their homes. It may take a long time, but I personally don't see any other solution to it. And I'm not alone in that--Dick Cheney doesn't; the generals don't; the President doesn't. Massive use of force to try to bring about a peace settlement here is just far too dangerous, and a lot of people who loosely write about using force had better think about the fact that they don't have to worry about the young Americans that may or may not come back from something like that.

US Coordinator Named for Geneva Conference on Former Yugoslavia

[Statement by Department Spokesman Richard Boucher, Washington, DC, September 1, 1992.] In order to follow up quickly on the results of the London Conference on former Yugoslavia and to participate actively in the Geneva talks beginning September 3, Acting Secretary Eagleburger has appointed Ambassador Warren Zimmermann as US coordinator and US representative on the steering committee of the conference. Ambassador Zimmermann's new designation underlines the importance the United States attributes to the obligations of the London Conference on all participants and the active role the United States will continue to play to encourage a just and peaceful outcome to the Yugoslav crisis. Ambassador Zimmermann, who has extensive experience both with Yugoslavia and the CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe], will be devoting his full-time efforts to ensuring the follow-up to the London conference. He will retain his position as Director of the Bureau of Refugee Programs; however, during his tenure as coordinator, Priscilla Clapp, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, will be in charge of the day-to-day activities of the bureau.

Chronology: Developments Related to the Crisis in Bosnia, March 10-September 22, 1992

March 10, 1992
The United States and the European Community (EC) issue a joint declaration in support of ongoing efforts by the United Nations and the EC to achieve a political settlement to the crisis among the republics of Yugoslavia. April 7 The United States recognizes the independence of Bosnia- Hercegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia. April 27 Serbia and Montenegro proclaim the dissolution of the Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslavia and the establishment of a new state, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The United States does not recognize this new state. May 6 At a Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) meeting in Helsinki, the United States condemns perpetrators of violence in Bosnia-Hercegovina and urges that Serbian representatives be excluded from all CSCE activities. May 12 After delivering a strong warning, the US Ambassador in Belgrade is recalled to Washington, DC, for consultations. May 14 The State Department Spokesman expresses concern about allegations of "ethnic cleansing" in Bosnia-Hercegovina. May 20 The United States suspends landing rights for Yugoslav National Airlines. A CSCE Committee of Senior Officials calls for urgent action to provide humanitarian relief in Bosnia-Hercegovina. May 22 Secretary Baker, in London, announces diplomatic sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro because of the "humanitarian nightmare." With US support, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia become members of the United Nations. May 24 Secretary Baker, in Lisbon, announces that the United States has initiated discussions at the United Nations on Chapter VII sanctions. He states that "before we consider force, we ought to exhaust all of the political, diplomatic, and economic remedies that might be at hand." May 28 The White House announces a $9-million contribution to assist refugees in Bosnia-Hercegovina. May 30 The United Nations adopts Resolution 757, co-sponsored by the United States, imposing immediate sanctions against Serbia- Montenegro, including a trade embargo, the freezing of assets abroad, the prohibition of services related to aircraft and weapons, the prohibition of air traffic, the reduction of diplomatic staff, a ban on participation in official cultural and sporting events, and suspension of scientific and technical cooperation. President Bush freezes Yugoslav assets in the US. June 1 A UN-mediated cease-fire in Sarajevo takes effect. It lasts only 2 hours. June 4 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) condemns continuing violence in Yugoslavia, criticizing Serbia and Montenegro. June 5 President Bush issues an executive order imposing a trade embargo on Serbia-Montenegro. June 8 The UN Security Council (UNSC) adopts Resolution 758 authorizing 60 observers to secure Sarajevo's airport for the delivery of humanitarian relief once a cease-fire is in place. June 10 The CSCE establishes an 11-nation task force on Yugoslavia. June 23 In testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Secretary Baker announces that he will recommend that the President refuse ambassadorial recognition from Belgrade, close the Yugoslav consulate in Chicago, and support suspension of Serbia- Montenegro as participants in international organizations. June 26 The UN Secretary General tells the Security Council that a new Serb military offensive threatens the feasibility of UN forces successfully reopening Sarajevo airport. He suggests the Council consider alternative means of aiding Sarajevo. June 27 An EC declaration refuses to recognize Serbia-Montenegro as the successor state to Yugoslavia. The declaration does not exclude support for military action by the United Nations to achieve humanitarian objectives. June 29 The UNSC adopts Resolution 761 authorizing deployment of additional forces to ensure functioning of the Sarajevo airport and delivery of humanitarian aid. Thirty-four UN peacekeepers officially assume control of the airport from Serbian forces. June 30 The UNSC unanimously adopts a resolution establishing a joint commission to monitor restoration of Croatian authority in zones outside UN-protected areas. The resolution urges Croatia to withdraw to positions held prior to its June 21 offensive and urges the Serb territorial defense forces in Croatia to withdraw and disarm. Department of Defense Secretary Richard Cheney says the United States is prepared to provide air and naval escort protection to humanitarian relief convoys en route to Sarajevo if explicitly authorized by the UNSC. July 1 In a meeting with the leader of the Serbian Democratic Party, Mr. Micunovic, Deputy Secretary Eagleburger emphasizes that Serbia can only end its international isolation by complying with all relevant UNSC resolutions and CSCE principles. July 3 The UN begins coordinating an airlift of relief supplies to Sarajevo. July 7 The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) re-establishes its presence in Bosnia-Hercegovina and renews its efforts to visit detention centers. July 8 The CSCE Committee of Senior Officials decides not to allow attendance by Serbia or Montenegro at the CSCE summit meeting in Helsinki or at future meetings. July 9 A CSCE summit declaration condemns Serbian aggression and calls for an end to violence. July 10 Secretary Baker meets with Serbian Prime Minister-designate Milan Panic in Helsinki and spells out the steps needed for compliance by Serbia-Montenegro with UNSC resolutions. NATO, in coordination with the Western European Union, agrees on a maritime operation to monitor enforcement of sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro. July 13 The UNSC authorizes an increase in UN personnel in Sarajevo from 1,100 to 1,600. July 16 In the Adriatic Sea, NATO's Standing Naval Force Mediterranean begins monitoring of compliance by Serbia-Montenegro with UN sanctions. July 19 A cease-fire negotiated at meetings in London on July 17 is broken. July 27 EC-sponsored peace talks resume in London. July 28 The United States grants 1-year temporary protection to residents of Bosnia-Hercegovina already in the United States. July 29 Participants in EC-mediated peace talks agree to establish a coordinating committee to discuss cease-fire arrangements, refugees, and humanitarian aid in Bosnia-Hercegovina. August 4 Acting Secretary Eagleburger instructs US missions to press for immediate ICRC access to any places of detention. The UNSC President demands unimpeded access to detention centers in Bosnia-Hercegovina by international organizations, including the ICRC. August 5 Acting Secretary Eagleburger announces additional US actions, including a request for an emergency meeting of the UN Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) to examine reports of alleged abuses in detention centers in Serbia and Bosnia-Hercegovina and a request that the CSCE investigate these allegations. He also indicates that the United States is sending monitors to Romania to evaluate the effects of UN sanctions and is developing a resolution that would call on states to collect substantiated information on "war crimes" and transmit such information to the UNSC. August 6 President Bush outlines further US efforts to contain the crisis. These include: -- Support for passage by the UNSC of a resolution authorizing the use of all necessary measures to facilitate delivery of humanitarian assistance; -- Establishment of diplomatic relations with Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia-Hercegovina; -- Enhanced enforcement of sanctions against Serbia; -- Stationing of monitors to prevent the conflict from widening; and -- Intensified consultation with NATO on measures to assist the United Nations. August 7 The United States formally requests an emergency meeting of the CSCE Committee of Senior Officials to discuss further steps to address humanitarian problems in Bosnia-Hercegovina. August 8 UNHRC assessment teams depart for Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia to review the status of food, nutrition, shelter, and health programs. August 10 Thirty-five UNHRC members support the US proposal for a special session on the crisis in the former Yugoslavia. August 11 Croatia and Slovenia accept the US proposal to establish full diplomatic relations. August 13 Based on US initiative, UNSC Resolution 770 authorizes "all measures necessary" to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance to Bosnia-Hercegovina. US-sponsored UNSC Resolution 771 demands immediate access to detention centers by the ICRC and asks countries to provide information on possible violations of humanitarian law. A UNHRC special session on human rights abuses in the former Yugoslavia opens in Geneva. The CSCE Committee of Senior Officials begins its meeting. August 14 The UNHRC appoints a special rapporteur, Tadeusc Mazowiecki, to investigate violations of human rights abuses and report to the Secretary General by August 28, 1992. A UNHRC resolution calls for the ICRC to have unimpeded access to all detention facilities in the region. The North Atlantic Council, meeting to discuss preliminary plans drawn up by NATO's military authorities, requests a more detailed report by August 24. The Western European Union meets in Rome and directs its planning committee to examine military options by August 24. Bosnia-Hercegovina accepts the US proposal to establish full diplomatic relations. August 15 The CSCE appoints a rapporteur mission to inspect places of detention and report on alleged human rights abuses by September 16, 1992. It also confirms to the UN Secretary General its commitment to assist the UN in peace-keeping activities in Bosnia- Hercegovina. August 18 The UN Economic and Social Council endorses the UNHRC resolution on human rights abuses and confirms the appointment of the special rapporteur. August 19 At a Brussels meeting of NATO allies, some North Atlantic Cooperation Council partners, and Austria, the United States offers personnel and logistical support for a Romanian in-country mission to monitor sanctions against Serbia and Montenegro. August 19-23 CSCE Chairman-in-Office, Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Moravic, visits Belgrade, Skopje, Sarajevo, and Zagreb to pass on the CSCE's strong message denouncing human rights violations and calling for access to detention centers, to secure early deployment of rapporteur and monitor missions, and to review the situation on the ground. August 20 The CSCE Steering Committee names Sir John Thompson head of the CSCE rapporteur mission on detention camps. The US Mission in Geneva offers to support the efforts of the special CSCE rapporteur by providing a US officer to accompany him to Zagreb. The CSCE Steering Committee accepts a US offer of an official to head a mission to Skopje to help prevent spillover of the violence. August 21 UN Special Rapporteur for Human Rights Mazowiecki departs with a team to the former Yugoslavia to inspect detention camps and examine the human rights situation. August 24 The UN General Assembly begins debate on the situation in Bosnia. Acting US Permanent Representative to the United Nations Watson reiterates US refusal to recognize the claim by Serbia and Montenegro to the rights and privileges of the former Yugoslavia at the United Nations. August 25 The UN General Assembly adopts a resolution calling on the Security Council to take "further appropriate measures" to end the war in Bosnia, including direct military action if necessary. President Bush authorizes $12 million from the US Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to respond to the needs of displaced persons in the former Yugoslavia. He also signs a proclamation restoring Generalized System of Preferences benefits for all former Yugoslav republics, except Serbia and Montenegro. The United States opens embassies in Zagreb and Ljubljana and announces plans to open an embassy in Sarajevo when the security situation permits. NATO ambassadors review a contingency plan for use of 6,000 NATO troops to protect humanitarian convoys in Bosnia. Lord Carrington, the EC's special mediator in the Balkan crisis, announces he will no longer continue in that role. August 26 An international conference, co-sponsored by the United Nations and the European Community to develop an effective response to the continued violence in the former Yugoslavia, opens in London. Acting Secretary Eagleburger urges the conference to: -- Address urgently the delivery of humanitarian relief to the victims of the conflict and the granting of immediate access to all detention camps; -- Create a durable international negotiating mechanism, based on UN and CSCE principles, to achieve a just and lasting settlement; -- Tighten comprehensive economic sanctions against Serbia- Montenegro and to maintain its political isolation until it complies with all relevant Security Council resolutions; and -- Deter the expansion of the conflict by positioning human rights monitors in Serbia and the states and regions bordering Serbia. August 27 Decisions at the London conference lead to: -- Creation of a permanent negotiating forum to manage a political settlement of the crisis; -- Support for the territorial integrity of Bosnia-Hercegovina and recognition by the international community that territorial gains made by force will not be honored; -- A call for "full collaboration" by all parties to permit safe delivery of relief supplies to Bosnia-Hercegovina and long-term assistance for displaced persons; -- A call for "unconditional and unilateral release under international supervision of all civilians detained, and the closure without delay of the detention camps;" -- Agreement to expand the operations of the UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in support of UN humanitarian operations in Bosnia- Hercegovina; -- Commitment to place human rights monitors in the territories of the former Yugoslavia and in neighboring states and regions; and -- Agreement on an action plan to ensure rigorous application of sanctions against Serbia. Serbia and Montenegro undertake to cease intervention across their borders with Bosnia and Croatia; to the best of their ability restrain the Bosnian Serbs from taking territory by force and expelling local populations; and to fully observe the relevant resolutions of the UN Security Council. Participants agree to resume negotiations in Geneva on September 3, 1992. August 28 In a report presented to the UNHRC, Special Rapporteur Mazowiecki makes the following recommendations: -- Extending UNPROFOR's mandate to protect populations against human rights violations; -- Creating an information agency to combat racial hatred; -- Establishing a commission to investigate possible criminal acts; -- Basing human rights monitors on such threatened areas as Kosovo; and -- Setting up a commission on disappeared persons. September 2 The North Atlantic Council agrees to support UN efforts to deliver humanitarian assistance and to monitor heavy weapons in Bosnia- Hercegovina. September 3 The Steering Committee of the International Conference on the former Yugoslavia, co-chaired by Cyrus Vance, representing the UN, and Lord Owen, representing the EC, begins meeting in Geneva. It establishes six working groups and a permanent executive secretariat. An Italian cargo plane carrying relief supplies destined for Sarajevo crashes. The UN suspends flights into Sarajevo pending an investigation into the crash. September 4 An Iranian aircraft supposedly carrying humanitarian relief for Bosnia lands in Zagreb with a substantial quantity of arms and ammunition. Croatian authorities take control of the shipment. September 8 Two French members of UNPROFOR are killed and five wounded near Sarajevo. September 9 The President of the UN Security Council asks the Secretary General for a speedy report on the results of the UN inquiry into the deaths of the French troops. He emphasizes the urgent need for reinforcing the security and protection of UNPROFOR personnel in Bosnia- Hercegovina. Sir John Thomson, head of the CSCE humanitarian mission to detention camps in the former Yugoslavia, meets with the CSCE Chairman-in Office, Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Moravcik, to discuss his findings. September 10 The Secretary General recommends to the UN Security Council that the mandate of UNPROFOR be expanded to ensure delivery of humanitarian assistance. Cyrus Vance and Lord David Owen travel to Sarajevo to meet with Bosnian President Izetbegovic and Bosnian Serb leader Karadzic. September 14 The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 776, which authorizes the use of armed escorts as necessary to enable the delivery of relief supplies, allows UNPROFOR to protect detainees released from detention camps, and provides for the expansion of UNPROFOR to enable it to carry out its enhanced role. September 16 Ambassador Kenneth Blackwell, US Representative to the UN Human Rights Commission and leader of one of the two CSCE missions inspecting detention camps, presents the mission report to the CSCE Committee of Senior Officials meeting in Prague. The report maintains that thousands are being held against their will, although it does not confirm the existence of alleged "death camps." It recommends that all prisoners be released immediately and that all CSCE members take a strong stance against "ethnic cleansing." September 17 The CSCE plenary meeting endorses proposals for monitoring missions in Macedonia, Kosovo, the Sandjak, and Vojvodina. It also approves US and EC sanctions monitoring plans for Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria. September 18 The International Conference working group on Bosnia-Hercegovina begins its meetings in Geneva. It includes the Bosnian Foreign Minister, the leader of the Croatian Serbs, and the leader of the Bosnian Serbs. President Bush announces his intention to nominate Allan Wendt as Ambassador to Slovenia, Mara Letica as Ambassador to Croatia, and Victor Jackovich as Ambassador to Bosnia-Hercegovina. September 22 The UN General Assembly votes to adopt UNSC Resolution 777 denying the claim of Serbia-Montenegro to the UN seat held by the former Yugoslavia.

US Recognition of Former Yugoslav Republics

[Statement released by the White House Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, April 7, 1992.] The United States recognizes Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia as sovereign and independent states and will begin immediately consultations to establish full diplomatic relations. The United States accepts the pre-crisis republic borders as the legitimate international borders of Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia. We take this step because we are satisfied that these states meet the requisite criteria for recognition. We acknowledge the peaceful and democratic expression of the will of citizens of these states for sovereignty. We will continue to work intensively with the European Community [EC] and its member states to resolve expeditiously the outstanding issues between Greece and the republic of Macedonia, thus enabling the United States to recognize formally the independence of that republic as well. The United States will also discuss with the governments of Serbia and Montenegro their interest in remaining in a common state known as Yugoslavia. In light of our decisions on recognition, the United States will lift economic sanctions from Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia. Sanctions were applied to Yugoslavia on December 6, 1991. We will lift sanctions against Serbia and Montenegro contingent on Belgrade's lifting the economic blockades directed against Bosnia-Hercegovina and Macedonia. The UN arms embargo remains in effect. It has been US policy throughout the Yugoslav crisis to accept any resolution arrived at peacefully, democratically, and by negotiation. The United States strongly supports the UN peace-keeping plan as worked out by Cyrus Vance and the full deployment of the UN peace- keeping force. We continue to support the EC peace conference as the indispensable forum for the parties to reach a peaceful settlement of their dispute and to establish the basis for future relations. US recognition is without prejudice to any future association Yugoslav successor states might agree to establish. The United States views the demonstrated commitment of the emerging states to respect borders and to protect all Yugoslav nationalities as an essential element in establishing full diplomatic relations. Equally, we view such a commitment by Serbia and Montenegro as essential to proceed in discussions on their future status. The deployment of the UN peace-keeping force, the continuation of the EC peace conference, and the process of international recognition offer all of the former Yugoslav republics a historic opportunity to reject decisively the tragic violence which has marked this crisis. Continued commitment to peaceful dialogue should lead toward reconciliation, toward integration within Europe, and toward cordial and productive relations with the United States. The United States will continue to work to achieve these goals.

Department Statements

Secretary Baker Meets With Foreign Minister of Bosnia- Hercegovina
[Statement by Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler, Washington, DC, April 14, 1992.] The Secretary met today with Haris Silajdzic, Foreign Minister of Bosnia-Hercegovina. The Secretary advised Mr. Silajdzic that the United States has high regard for the Bosnian Government, which has sought to promote and defend CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] principles throughout the Yugoslav crisis, to chart a peaceful transition to independence, and to respond constructively to the legitimate concerns of all national groups in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The Secretary also made the following points. The United States strongly supports the territorial integrity of Bosnia-Hercegovina, a state which we recognized on April 7. The United States also strongly supports the EC [European Community]- sponsored intra-Bosnian negotiations. All the participants in these talks should respect the commitments they have undertaken to engage in constructive dialogue on the future constitutional structure of Bosnia-Hercegovina and to renounce the use of force. The United States condemns the use of force, intimidation, and provocation to nationalist violence by militant nationalist Serbian and, to a lesser extent, Croatian leaders in Bosnia. Their strategy and tactics are clearly aimed at promoting the forcible disintegration of Bosnia-Hercegovina. The United States also condemns the clear pattern of support for the destabilization of Bosnia-Hercegovina, primarily on the part of the "Yugoslav" military and Serbian President Milosevic. The international community should hold the Serbian and "Yugoslav" military leadership accountable for acts of aggression and destabilization aimed against Bosnia-Hercegovina. These leaders stand at a crossroads. If they continue on their present course of destabilization, they will only ensure their international political and economic isolation. They should, instead, take clear and concrete steps to demonstrate their respect for the independence, borders, territorial integrity, and legitimate Government of Bosnia-Hercegovina and their cooperation with the UN peace-keeping plan and the EC conference.
Situation in Bosnia-Hercegovina
[Statement released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC, May 4, 1992.] The United States is deeply concerned about the continued fighting in Bosnia, including in Sarajevo. Destruction to the city is enormous both in human and material terms. The United States condemns perpetrators of violence in Bosnia on all sides, including the Serbian side and the "Yugoslav" army, which clearly bear the heaviest blame for continued fighting in Bosnia and have the greatest responsibility for working to obtain a cease-fire. We call on the JNA [Yugoslav National Army] and the Governments of Serbia-Montenegro to fully respect the territorial integrity of Bosnia-Hercegovina. The US condemns the JNA's seizure of Bosnian President [Alija] Izetbegovic against his will on Saturday. We note that active efforts by the United Nations and the European Community, as well as by our Ambassador in Belgrade, played a significant role in arranging his release. The United States is also dismayed that Bosnian armed forces engaged in actions in Sarajevo over the weekend which are not conducive to dialogue or negotiation. We especially condemn the attack on a JNA column departing Sarajevo on Sunday under a safe conduct agreement negotiated by UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force]. We strongly urge the Government of Bosnia-Hercegovina to exercise restraint and to abide by its agreements with UNPROFOR. We also strongly urge the Yugoslav military command to exercise restraint and avoid further actions contributing to a spiral of violence. We will continue to work closely with the European Community in sup- port of its efforts to negotiate a peaceful settlement in Bosnia-Hercegovina.
US Ambassador Recalled From Yugoslavia
[Statement issued by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC, May 12, 1992.] Ambassador [Warren] Zimmermann is being recalled from Belgrade for consultations. During these consultations, the US Embassy will be headed by the Deputy Chief of Mission. The US is taking this action in coordination with the European Community [EC] and in light of the aggression carried out against Bosnia-Hercegovina by Serbian civilian and military leaders in clear and continuing violation of all CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] principles. The United States will continue to work closely with the European Community to seek strong collective action against Belgrade's aggression against Bosnia-Hercegovina. The United States strongly endorses the EC Foreign Ministers' May 11 declaration on Bosnia-Hercegovina, including the demand for the full withdrawal of the Yugoslav National Army from Bosnia-Hercegovina and the reopening of Sarajevo airport under safe conditions.
Serbia: Suspension of JAT Landing Rights in US
[Statement by Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler, Washington, DC, May 20, 1992.] On May 16, on instruction from Secretary Baker, Ambassador Zimmermann sought assurances from Serbia that relief convoys would be allowed free passage into Sarajevo and that the Sarajevo airport would be reopened immediately for humanitarian flights. Ambassador Zimmermann informed Serbia that failure to take these steps would result in immediate termination of JAT landing rights in the United States. That is the Yugoslav airline. On May 18, Serbia made clear its response when Serbian forces attacked a Red Cross relief convoy heading into Sarajevo, destroying desperately needed humanitarian supplies and killing an ICRC [International Committee of the Red Cross] delegate. And yesterday, as further evidence of their intransigence and brutality, Serbian forces took hostage a convoy of women and children fleeing Sarajevo. We have various reports of that number of hostages being anywhere from 1,000 individuals to 7,000. Effective today, we have asked the Department of Transportation to terminate the authority of the Serbian national carrier, Yugoslav Airlines, to fly to and from the United States. This means that their three weekly flights from Belgrade to New York City and on to Chicago will end immediately. We are also considering a series of further measures in response to continued Serbian aggression which we will be discussing with our allies and friends over the next day or two.

Secretary Baker: Sanctions on Serbia-Montenegro

[Excerpts of Secretary Baker's remarks at concluding news conference of the Lisbon Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States, Lisbon, Portugal, May 24, 1992 ] I was very pleased to hear the remarks of my colleague, [Portuguese Foreign] Minister Deus Pinheiro, with respect to the issue of what used to be Yugoslavia, because we feel rather strongly about this. It seems to me that the world community is appalled at the atrocities that are taking place in Bosnia-Hercegovina. That is becoming more and more evident and more and more obvious. Clearly, none of us should try to find reasons for not forcefully and specifically condemning what has happened. None of us should try to find reasons for not taking some sort of action to try and end what truly is a humanitarian nightmare in the heart of Europe. Q. A question, if I may, to [Foreign Minister] Pinheiro and Secretary of State Baker: Both of you have laid emphasis on the crisis in Yugoslavia. Can I ask you both, when do you expect firm, concrete sanctions to be enacted (a) by the community and (b) perhaps by the United Nations? Can we look forward to a definite decision by next Tuesday at the meeting you referred to, or will it take longer? Secondly, if I may, have you ruled out the need for some military action to assure the availability of Sarajevo airport for humanitarian assistance if the present situation continues? Secretary Baker: I think your question was, when do--quite apart from the use of force question--your question was when we might anticipate sanctions. Let me speak for the United States and say that I guess that the first ones were undertaken months ago--with respect to the question of arms embargo--and undertaken in cooperation with our European colleagues. In addition to that, the United States has already instituted a number of sanctions, cancelling the landing rights of the Yugoslav airline in the United States. That action was taken several days ago. We do not have major assistance programs to Yugoslavia, but the ones we do have have been put on hold quite some time ago. We have taken diplomatic action over the course of the last 48 hours by making it clear that we will not be sending our Ambassador back to Belgrade. We will be closing two of the three consulates that Yugoslavia has in the United States. We, for our part, will not accept Yugoslavia--I am sorry, Serbia-Montenegro--as the continuation state of Yugoslavia in multilateral institutions. We are breaking contacts that we have had in the past with the Yugoslav military, and we are also drawing down the size of our embassy in Belgrade. So these are actions that the United States has already taken. We are also having discussions with others at the United Nations in New York about the possibility of some Chapter VII action. I can't predict for you when that might or might not be possible, but I can predict for you that we intend to continue those discussions and to push them as forcefully as we know how because of what's taking place in Bosnia-Hercegovina. I want to elaborate on that a little bit more, too, because I think it's all too easy to sit back and talk about this tragedy in a vacuum. I think it is important for everyone to understand what's happening here, because we are appalled by it. There are 35,000 diabetics who have no insulin. There are 6,000 women and babies who have no medicine, baby formula, or milk. There are reports, in the last 48 hours, of hunger-related deaths, because food and humanitarian assistance cannot get through. There have been attacks, as you know, on Red Cross convoys. There have been killings of Red Cross personnel. Twelve UN trucks have been hijacked at gunpoint. The so-called cleansing operations that are taking place--the ethnic purification of certain portions of Bosnia-Hercegovina--are all too reminiscent of something that we sat back and witnessed a number of years ago. The Bosnian Government reports--and I don't know; I can't vouch for the accuracy of these reports--but their reports are that, over the last month, 2,225 people have been killed, 7,600 have been injured, and over 2,500 people are missing. So I think that the message should be to the world community: Anyone who is looking for reasons not to act or arguing somehow that action in the face of this kind of a nightmare is not warranted at this time--I think that in the view of all of us in the civilized world at least--is on the wrong wavelength. Now, you asked me about the use of force, and I think that is, obviously, a very hypothetical question at this point. We had to face hypothetical questions like that leading up to the events in the Gulf over a long period of time. I will say this, because we made it very clear: There will be no unilateral use--no unilateral use--of US force. As we have said before, we are not and we cannot be the world's policeman. Before we consider force, it seems to me, we ought to exhaust all of the political, diplomatic, and economic remedies that might be at hand. That's why I am encouraged to hear what my colleague here has said, and I would be even more encouraged if, coming out of the meeting on Tuesday, there were a willingness on the part of our European colleagues to act. . . .

Edward J. Perkins, US Permanent Representative to the United Nations: Aggression by the Serbian Regime

[Statement before the UN Security Council, New York City, May 30, 1992] Mr. President, the aggression of the Serbian regime and the armed forces it has unleashed against Bosnia and Hercegovina represent a clear threat to international peace and security--and a grave challenge to the values and principles which underlie the Helsinki Final Act, the Charter of Paris, and the UN Charter. The United States, the European Community [EC], the CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] community, and the UN Security Council, by the action it is taking today, are sending a clear message to the Serbian regime and to the forces it sponsors in Bosnia and Hercegovina and Croatia. We hope they will fully understand that message. The international community will not tolerate the use of force and terror to settle political or territorial disputes. By its aggression against Bosnia and Hercegovina and Croatia and by its repression within Serbia, the Serbian regime can only condemn itself to increasingly severe treatment by a world united in its opposition to Serbian aggression. My government has already informed both the Security Council and the General Assembly that it does not believe that the authorities in Belgrade represent the continuation of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. I note that many other countries have reserved their position on the continuity issue and quite a few have adopted the same view as we have on this matter. It is, further, my government's strong belief that the Security Council and then the General Assembly should act in the near future to confirm this position. The Chapter VII measures we are undertaking today are serious and comprehensive. The United States is determined to see them through and, if necessary, to seek further measures until the Serbian regime changes course. It must reverse its brutal aggression. It must cease and desist from the campaign of terror it is conducting against the civilian populations of Bosnia and Hercegovina and Croatia. The Serbian and Montenegrin leadership must disband, disarm, and withdraw the former units of the Yugoslav National Army and armed militias from Bosnia and Hercegovina and from Croatia immediately. The Serbian regime and its armed surrogates must cease inflicting suffering on the civilian populations of those two states, creating a humanitarian crisis of nightmare proportions, and applying force to block international humanitarian relief to its victims. Belgrade and Serbian hard-line leaders in Bosnia must instead cooperate in good faith with international humanitarian relief to those two states. Belgrade must clearly and unequivocally demonstrate respect for the independence, borders, territorial integrity, and legitimate sovereign Governments of Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, and other former Yugoslav republics. Belgrade must fulfill its solemn commitments to cooperate with UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force]. It must join with all of the parties concerned in continuing negotiations to achieve a political settlement. The United States will not have normal relations with Belgrade until it ends its occupation of neighboring states and implements guarantees of rights for members of all national minorities within Serbia and Montenegro, as stipulated by the EC conference on Yugoslavia. We regret the inevitable impact that the measures we are taking today will have on the people of Serbia and Montenegro. The American and Serbian peoples have a long tradition of friendship. The Serbian people have a long and proud history as fighters for freedom--not as aggressors. We doubt very much that the Serbian people, whether in Serbia or in Bosnia-Hercegovina or Croatia, favor the brutally aggressive and repressive policies of the Serbian regime and the Serbian leaders it has sponsored in Bosnia and Croatia. We further doubt that they want to shoulder the increasing economic and political costs of this brutal aggression or of the increasing international isolation that it brings. This is not simply because these policies so clearly run counter to legitimate Serbian interests but also because they run counter to the historical character of the Serbian people. Down the road of continued conflict lies ruin. The people of the former Yugoslavia have suffered enough. We look forward to the restoration of peace and stability and reason and to the time when peoples who had lived together peacefully in the past do so again. Reason, compromise, and respect for international principles embodied in the CSCE accords and the UN Charter must supplant aggression, hatred, and intolerance. We in this Council, and many others, will work hard to that end. Thank you, Mr. President.

Secretary Baker: Meeting With Milan Panic

[Excerpt from a news conference at the Helsinki CSCE summit, Helsinki, Finland, July 8, 1992] Secretary Baker: First of all, Mr. Panic requested this meeting. I met with him in his capacity as Prime Minister-designate [of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which consists of the republics of Serbia and Montenegro]. I agreed to meet with him in the interest of making sure, absolutely sure, that no one in Serbia or Montenegro misunderstands America's position. The message that I gave him is very clear, and that is that the growing humanitarian nightmare in the former Yugoslavia, for which we think Serbian authorities and military are overwhelmingly responsible, must end, and Serbia-Montenegro must abide by the UN Security Council resolutions. Those requirements include the need to allow the unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance to all who need it; to end interference in Bosnia-Hercegovina and respect the territorial integrity and legitimate government of that state; to withdraw, disband, and disarm all Serbian forces in Bosnia and place their weapons under effective international monitoring; and to cease immediately all forcible expulsions and any attempts to change the ethnic composition of the population. I told Mr. Panic quite bluntly that we do not question in any way his motives or aims, which I think are noble--he expressed them as a desire to act in the best interest of his country of origin [Serbia] and of his adopted country [the United States], both, and to bring peace to that region--but that the world would now demand deeds from Yugoslavia, not just words. We've heard words before. I concluded the meeting by noting the historic friendship of the Serbian and American people and expressed our regrets that the policies of the Belgrade leadership have come between our two countries. I made it clear to him that America supports a free and democratic Serbia that lives in peace with its neighbors and its own people. Q: What did he tell you, Mr. Baker? Secretary Baker: He told me with respect to each of the items that I mentioned as things that we thought had to be done that he agreed with that. He said his only aim in taking the job was to see what could be done to bring peace and to help the people of this country at large. He said that he felt it was a very difficult job, that he would need a lot of help from a lot of different sources and a lot of different people. We made it very clear at the outset that he is not a representative of the US Government. He is not going there somehow as a special emissary from us. There are no special deals or arrangements that we have made with him. He is an American citizen, and we have given him a 30-day exemption from the sanctions under our law in order to travel to Belgrade. . . .

Acting Secretary Eagleburger: Detention Centers In Bosnia- Hercegovina and Serbia

[Statement released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC, August 5, 1992] Over the past week, we have seen an increasing number of reports about detention centers in Bosnia-Hercegovina and Serbia, including reports that indicate the possibility of executions, torture, and other gross human rights abuses. These reports have included press interviews, charges and counter-charges by the parties, and reports from others in the area. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has visited nine facilities where they registered 4,300 prisoners. At this point, they have reported on very difficult conditions of detention but have not found any evidence of death camps. Nonetheless, there are many reports of other detention centers which the Red Cross has not been able to visit, and it is at some of these that atrocities have been reported. These reports, although unconfirmed, are profoundly disturbing. It is vital that any and all prisons and detention centers be opened to the Red Cross and other neutral parties. Urgent action is required to reveal the truth and to prevent any abuses which may be occurring. Yesterday morning, we began a series of steps to support such access. -- We instructed our diplomatic personnel immediately to contact senior Serbian, Bosnian, and Croatian officials to insist that the ICRC be granted immediate, unimpeded, and continuing access to any places of detention. -- We have asked the United Kingdom, the presidency country of the European Community (EC), and, through them, the other members of the EC to make similar approaches. -- We have asked the Russians to use their influence with the Serbs to this same end. -- We proposed and obtained a statement by the [UN] Security Council yesterday evening which endorsed this demand and reminded those involved in any abuses that they can be held individually responsible for breaches of the Geneva conventions. Today, we have called for an emergency, extraordinary meeting of the UN Human Rights Commission in Geneva to examine this situation in more detail, to discuss gross human rights violations, and [to] press for full access to detention camps. We look to the Human Rights Commission to forcefully exercise its mandate in this regard by appointing a special representative who should be granted access to investigate these charges and report back to the members of the United Nations with his recommendations. This will be the first- ever such meeting by the UN Human Rights Commission. We have been urging governments throughout the world to support this call immediately, even before the formal proposal was circulated, so that the meeting could take place as soon as possible. It has now been circulated in Geneva, asking the 53 members for their views by 1 pm eastern daylight time on Monday, August 10. We hope to see the necessary endorsement from at least 27 members even before that, if possible. In addition, we are undertaking other steps immediately. -- We are calling on the CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] to invoke the appropriate measure of the CSCE Human Dimension Mechanism in order to telescope the process of choosing a rapporteur to look into the allegations. -- We are undertaking renewed efforts to tighten sanctions enforcement in addition to efforts we made earlier this month which have met with some success. We will facilitate the deployment of monitors to Romania to ensure that the effect of the UN sanctions on the Serbian economy is as devastating as possible. We are developing a Security Council resolution which would call on states and organizations to collect substantiated information concerning "war crimes" and make that information available to the Security Council. There are indications today that our urgings are being heard. -- In Belgrade, [Yugoslav Prime Minister] Mr. [Milan] Panic promised our charge [d'affaires] to invite international observers to sites of alleged camps in Serbia and Montenegro. Mr. Panic also pledged his support to the UN presidency statement demanding the opening of camps run by Serbians in Bosnia. -- Press reports indicate leaders of the so-called Serbian Republic of Bosnia have said they are ready to open all facilities to international inspection. -- Bosnian President [Alija] Izetbegovic told our charge [d'affaires] in Belgrade that he has offered access to international observers to all facilities within Bosnia. -- [Croatian] President [Franjo] Tudjman told our consul general in Zagreb yesterday that he would contact Croatian leaders in Bosnia to request their complete cooperation with the ICRC. These promises are welcome, but what is important is real action. We cannot allow excuses--such as those used in the past that the safety of ICRC delegates could not be ensured--to block their important mission. We will press to see that real action is achieved.

President Bush: Containing the Crisis in Bosnia and the Former Yugoslavia

[Opening remarks from news conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, August 6, 1992] A few remarks on the situation in Bosnia and the former Yugoslavia and what the United States--working with the international community--is doing to contain and defuse this escalating crisis. Like all Americans, I am outraged and horrified at the terrible violence shattering the lives of innocent men, women, and children in Bosnia. The aggressors and extremists pursue a policy--a vile policy--of ethnic cleansing, deliberately murdering innocent civilians [and] driving others from their homes. And already the war has created over 2.2 million refugees, roughly the population of greater Pittsburgh and Baltimore. This is, without a doubt, a true humanitarian nightmare. Now, the war in Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia is a complex, convoluted conflict that grows out [of] age-old animosities. The blood of innocents is being spilled over century-old feuds. The lines between enemies and even friends are jumbled and fragmented. Let no one think there is an easy or a simple solution to this tragedy. The violence will not end overnight, whatever pressure and means the international community brings to bear. Blood feuds are very difficult to resolve. Any lasting solution will only be found with the active cooperation and participation of the parties themselves. Those who understand the nature of this conflict understand that an enduring solution cannot be imposed by force from outside on unwilling participants. Defusing this crisis and preventing its spread will require patience and persistence by all members of the democratic community of nations and key international organizations. Bringing peace again to the Balkans will literally take years of work. For months now, we've been working with other members of the international community in pursuing a multifaceted and integrated strategy for defusing and containing the [Balkan] conflict. Let me explain the critical steps that we already have underway to help defuse and to contain this crisis. First, we must continue to work to see that food and medicine get to the people of Sarajevo and elsewhere in Bosnia, no matter what it takes. To this end, I have directed the Secretary of State to press hard for quick passage of [a] UN Security Council resolution authorizing the use of all necessary measures to establish conditions necessary for, and to facilitate the delivery of, humanitarian assistance to Bosnia-Hercegovina. This resolution is critical--it is absolutely critical to our efforts to bring food and medicine to the people of Bosnia. This resolution will authorize the international community to use force, if necessary, to deliver humanitarian relief supplies. My heartfelt hope is that that will not prove necessary. But the international community cannot stand by and allow innocent children, women, and men to be starved to death. You can be assured that should force prove necessary, I will do everything in my power to protect the lives of any American servicemen or women involved in this international mission of mercy. To truly end the humanitarian nightmare, we must stop ethnic cleansing and open any and all detention camps to international inspection. We will not rest until the international community has gained access to any and all detention camps. Second, we must support the legitimate governments of Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia-Hercegovina. To this end, I have decided that the United States will move now to establish full diplomatic relations with those governments. I will shortly submit to the Senate my nominations for ambassadors to these posts. Third, we must continue to isolate Serbia economically and politically until all the UN Security Council resolutions are fully implemented. We must continue to tighten economic sanctions on Serbia so that all understand that there is a real price to be paid for the Serbian Government's continued aggression. And the United States proposes that the international community place monitors in neighboring states to facilitate the work of those governments to ensure strict compliance with the sanctions. Fourth, we must engage in preventive diplomacy to preclude a widening of the conflict into Kosovo, Vojvodina, Sandzak, or Macedonia. And, therefore, the United States is proposing that the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe--CSCE--place continuous monitoring missions in these locations to provide an international presence and inhibit human rights abuses and violence. Fifth, we must contain the conflict and prevent its spilling over into neighboring states like Albania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Greece. And, to this end, the United States proposes that the international community again place civilian monitors, thereby reassuring these governments of our concern for their welfare and inhibiting any aggression against them. And sixth, we are consulting with our allies in NATO on all aspects of this crisis and how the alliance--how the NATO alliance--might be of assistance to the United Nations. Now, these steps represent an integrated strategy for defusing and containing this conflict. We've been working with the international community to advance our work on each of these and will continue to do so in the weeks ahead. It is through international cooperation-- through the UN, NATO, the EC [European Community], CSCE, [and] other institutions--that we will be able to help bring peace to that troubled region.

Thomas M.T. Niles, Assistant Secretary for European and Canadian Affairs: US Position and Proposed Actions Concerning the Yugoslav Crisis

[Statement before the Senate Armed Services Committee, Washington, DC, August 11, 1992] Mr. Chairman, now more than 1 year old, the Yugoslav crisis has come to dominate foreign policy news. The images and the reporting from that unhappy land remind us of past tragedies in Europe and pose serious questions about the nature of post-Cold War Europe. From the outset of the crisis, in June 1991, the United States has taken a leading role in seeking to find a peaceful solution while deterring Serbian aggression and providing urgently needed humanitarian relief. Today, I would like briefly to review our position and outline the actions we propose to take, particularly as regards the humanitarian nightmare in Bosnia-Hercegovina. In his August 6 statement, the President laid out a six-point program which we are following. -- We are working, through a new UNSC [UN Security Council] resolution, to ensure, through the use of all necessary means, the delivery of humanitarian aid and the opening of any and all detention centers to international inspection and the guarantee of proper treatment, medical care, and nourishment of those detained. -- We are establishing immediately full diplomatic relations with Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia, further to support their governments. -- We are working with the international community to place monitors in neighboring states to help assure strict compliance with the UN sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro. -- We are engaging in preventative diplomacy to preclude the conflict from spreading into Kosovo, Vojvodina, the Sandzak area, or Macedonia. -- We are proposing that the international community place monitors in neighboring states to limit the risk of the conflict spreading. -- And we are consulting with our allies in NATO on all aspects of the crisis and how NATO might be of assistance to the United Nations. Our experience over the past year has shown that none of this will be easy. The determination of [Serbian] President Milosevic to create "greater Serbia," despite the cost in lives and property and the devastation of Serbia's economy, poses an enormous challenge to the international community. We must be firm in our refusal to accept the results of the Serbian aggression and, working with our allies, stand for the rule of law and respect for human rights. Delivering humanitarian aid to the people of Bosnia-Hercegovina is proving to be a major challenge. Fighting continues to disrupt aid deliveries. On August 4, UNPROFOR [UN Protective Force] had to shut down the Sarajevo airlift because of heavy fighting. Fortunately, it reopened on August 8, but no one can predict when renewed fighting will force it to close again. On August 5, UNPROFOR had to halt a land convoy on the outskirts of Sarajevo because of security concerns--this was only the second sizeable convoy attempted recently. And we have seen repeated, failed attempts to get international aid to Gorazde and other besieged Bosnian cities. As we plan ahead--and we must--we see winter coming: a further serious complication with as many as 2 million refugees on the move in former Yugoslavia. Many of the land routes we would like to use now--but can't because of fighting--will, in addition, be blocked by snow. Many refugees who can survive outdoors today cannot survive in freezing temperatures, which start about November, so there is considerable urgency in this situation. Because of continued fighting now, because the conditions for aid delivery may worsen, and because we know we will face enormous problems from the weather, we need to be prepared for the worst contingencies. Obviously, we hope that conditions can be created to enable us to deliver humanitarian supplies without the use of force. However, our experience to date indicates that more may be needed to demonstrate the determination of the world community to aid the people of Bosnia in this difficult time. Thus, as President Bush announced August 6, we are working with our allies and other members of the UN Security Council to secure a new UN Security Council resolution which would authorize the use of all necessary measures to deliver humanitarian aid. We hope we will obtain a consensus quickly which will allow us to proceed with the necessary planning and deliveries. We are also seeking as part of that resolution a demand for access to any and all detention centers in the former Yugoslavia by the ICRC [International Committee of the Red Cross] and other neutral humanitarian organizations. As a matter of principle, it is absolutely vital to reveal the truth. And this applies equally to all sides. The Serbs, again, appear to be the primary, but probably not the sole, abusers. This is part of a consistent pattern of Serbian abuses of the human rights of other groups, whether in Kosovo, in Croatia, or in Bosnia. On August 4, we proposed and we obtained a statement by the President of the Security Council which endorsed our demand for access to all detention facilities and reminded those involved that they may well be held individually responsible for breaches of the Geneva Conventions. Adoption of the proposed resolution would strengthen that demand. In dealing with these urgent problems, we need to use every means available. Thus, [on] Wednesday, we called for an emergency extraordinary meeting of the UN Human Rights Commission in Geneva to look at our intelligence, to discuss the gross human rights violations, and to strengthen our demands for access to the camps. We expect this meeting, which is scheduled for August 14, to produce concrete steps. We have also called on the CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] to invoke the appropriate measure of the CSCE Human Dimension Mechanism and on the CSCE Committee of Senior Officers to hold an emergency meeting on the Bosnian crisis, and we hope a meeting will take place this week. Both of these would expedite the process of looking into the situation. The approval of these proposals, in particular the Security Council resolution announced by President Bush on August 6, would represent a significant escalation of the pressure against the Milosevic regime. We hope that the message of the international community will break through to the people of Serbia. As President Bush made clear, we do not want--and I am certain you do not want--to be forced to join our allies in using military force to deliver humanitarian supplies to suffering people of Bosnia-Hercegovina. I want to underscore to you that this Administration will do everything in its power to achieve our objectives without using force. However, if necessary, under the conditions and for the purpose the President has stated, we are prepared to do so. Let me now review what we are doing in the various areas involved in this crisis.
Humanitarian Relief.
Over 2.2 million Bosnian citizens have been forcibly displaced. Half a million are outside Bosnia. The displaced are largely non-Serbs; they amount to over one-fourth of the total population of Bosnia and over 40% of Bosnia's non-Serb population. On July 29, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Mrs. Sadako Ogata, convened an international conference on the former Yugoslavia in Geneva. The conference discussed the dimensions and resource requirements associated with the relief problem and shared views on creating a framework for the treatment of the displaced. The United States has been heavily engaged in humanitarian relief and refugee aid, working through international organizations. We do not limit assistance to individual countries or regions of the former Yugoslavia but provide it for use as needed by the recipient organizations. The crisis will continue for the foreseeable future. We are currently identifying quantities of additional food, medicines, and other humanitarian assistance that can be sent to the region in the mid- and long-term. We continue to work with the G-24 [Group of 24] and multilateral organizations to assure that our efforts are well- directed and reach those most in need. The G-24 countries met July 27 in Brussels to discuss the crisis and the need for more aid to the refugees. Total G-24 contributions to date are $472 million, including $254 million in new pledges since July 1. The United States has pledged a total of $53 million. The Sarajevo airlift, when it is in operation, delivers an average of 200 metric tons per day, but this does not help Bosnians outside Sarajevo. The airlift must eventually be replaced by land convoys to reach more of these people in need. Fighting and instability have, thus far, effectively ruled out unprotected overland deliveries, however, and some besieged cities such as Gorazde and Tuzla have been cut off for months. Urgent additional efforts are clearly required.
Sanctions.
The international community is working further to tighten enforcement of the UN sanctions, which are having a significant impact on the economies of Serbia and Montenegro. We attribute a significant part of the recent drop in production in Serbia and Montenegro to the sanctions. Regarding monitoring, in addition to the NATO/WEU [Western European Union] monitoring effort in the Adriatic, we are pushing for a similar multilateral initiative on the Danube. We have received good support from Romania, and we are working closely with Romania to ensure full implementation of the sanctions, including the dispatch of international observers to that country.
CSCE Initiatives.
Following the June visit of a CSCE rapporteur mission to Kosovo, the CSCE has sent a similar mission, beginning August 2, to the Serbian regions of Sandzak and Vojvodina as well as a second visit to Kosovo. President Bush, in his August 6 statement, called for action in the CSCE to make the presence of these missions permanent, and we are following up on that aspect. The United States has taken the lead in urging the CSCE community to investigate human rights abuses in Serbia and make clear the international community's concern. As I mentioned earlier, we are pressing for a new CSCE initiative to send missions to Bosnia and Croatia to investigate abuses there. We are also considering other ways of using CSCE mechanisms to help prevent the conflict from spreading to other areas, and we will be advancing our ideas in coming days and weeks.
Diplomatic Initiatives.
We have made clear that Serbia and Montenegro cannot and will not be accepted into the community of nations, regardless of what they call themselves, so long as they do not reverse their aggression and barbarous behavior. We have taken the lead on this effort in the international community, and we have succeeded in gaining wide support for our position that: -- We do not accept Serbia and Montenegro as the continuation of the former Yugoslavia; -- We do not support their maintaining the former Yugoslavia's memberships in international organizations; and -- We insist they must apply as new members to such organizations while meeting all the relevant criteria for joining. We are continuing to encourage all parties to use the existing negotiating forums, in particular the EC [European Community] peace talks, to resolve the many outstanding issues that need to be addressed before peace and stability can be restored. We strongly support and plan to participate at a high level in the August 26-28 conference in London that is being convened by Britain in its capacity as [the] EC presidency country.
Diplomatic Relations.
We recognized the independence of Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia-Hercegovina in April. President Bush announced August 6 that we will establish full diplomatic relations with all three and open embassies in each capital as soon as possible. As far as Macedonia is concerned, we have stated repeatedly that the principles of democracy and freedom and the need for stability in the region require a rapid resolution of the outstanding issues between Greece, a friend and ally, and Macedonia. We take seriously Greece's concerns on this question. We also recognize that Macedonia has suffered severe economic hardship as a result of both sanctions and an influx of refugees. The question of recognition will not preclude us from providing humanitarian and other assistance to Macedonia. Our future relations with Serbia and Montenegro will depend on the actions taken by those in power in Belgrade. We have no quarrel with the Serbian people. We are working for concrete measures to stop the fighting and to bring this tragedy to a peaceful conclusion.
Spillover
This crisis so far has afflicted only areas within the former Yugoslavia, but there is no guarantee it will not spread further. We are particularly concerned that the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo, whose population is more than 90% Albanian, may be the next focus of violence and unrest. It was in Kosovo that the crisis began 3 years ago with Serbian revocation of Kosovo's long-standing autonomy and the beginning of massive human rights violations. Given the sensitivity of this issue in neighboring Albania, the potential for serious trouble is clear. The heavily ethnic Hungarian province of Vojvodina in northern Serbia--also formerly autonomous--is also tense, and our Hungarian friends are increasingly worried about potential spillover. In addition to the visits of the CSCE observer mission, we are pressing for the dispatch of CSCE observers to be stationed on the borders of countries neighboring Serbia.
Conclusion
We have taken a series of strong and measured steps intended to exert the influence and pressure available to us and to make clear, in concert with the international community, our total condemnation of what has occurred and our view that Belgrade is overwhelmingly responsible for it. We will do our utmost with the assets we have to change the situation, in particular through changes in Belgrade. For, ultimately, this crisis will end only when the Serbian people act on the realization that their leaders have led them into catastrophe. Until then, we will play an increasingly active role in aiding suffering people of Bosnia and the hundreds of thousands of other people displaced by the conflict. We will also remain actively engaged in efforts to prevent the conflict from further destabilizing the region and Europe as a whole.

President Bush: US Humanitarian Assistance To Bosnia- Hercegovina

[Statement released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, August 13, 1992] Last week, the United States proposed that the UN Security Council authorize all measures necessary to see to it that humanitarian aid is delivered to the citizens of Bosnia. I welcome today's vote approving a resolution which does just that. The United States worked hard for this result. The international community has served notice that the innocent people caught in this conflict will not be denied the means to survive. Our hope is to be able to maintain and broaden the relief effort through cooperation, not only with our partners--the responsible relief agencies and the United Nations--but also with the parties to the conflict. I call on the authorities in Belgrade, the leadership of the Bosnian Serbs, and the Governments of Bosnia and Croatia to give their full cooperation to this effort. For all concerned, this is surely the preferred way of getting help to hundreds of thousands of victims. The international community must be able to reach people trapped by the fighting. All parties should facilitate immediate and safe access for international teams to visit cities and areas under siege in order to assess conditions and relief requirements. We expect full cooperation. We moved urgently to gain access to all camps, prisons, and detention centers, as today's UN resolution demands. As a result of the emergency meeting of the UN Human Rights Commission going on right now, we expect international inspectors to have unimpeded and continuous access to all possible camps or centers. Any brutality must be exposed and terminated and the practitioners held personally accountable for their crimes. The UN Security Council today also has passed a resolution proposed by the United States to put war criminals on notice that they will be brought to justice. We seek and expect the full cooperation of all the parties in uncovering the facts, identifying those responsible, and bringing an end to acts of barbarism. The United States also has taken action on the other initiatives I presented on August 6. Measures to inhibit a spillover of the conflict are moving ahead, and we are pressing for agreement in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe on our proposal to put monitors in other parts of the former Yugoslavia to discourage human rights abuses and violence. We also are tightening the economic sanctions imposed by the United Nations on Serbia. Those responsible for aggression also are responsible for the damage being done to the Serbian economy by the sanctions. Finally, I am pleased at the strong bipartisan concern and support we have received as we grapple with this very complex, very agonizing, and very dangerous conflict. I would also like to praise those journalists who risk their lives in the cause of reporting this terrible conflict. We are all shocked and saddened to learn that one of the latest casualties is ABC producer David Kaplan. Today's UN vote marks an important milestone in our response to this human tragedy. We will continue to work with the international community to end the violence and relieve the suffering.

John R. Bolton, Assistant Secretary for International Organization Affairs: Unspeakable Savagery In Former Yugoslavia

[Address before a special session of the UN Human Rights Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, August 13, 1992] The United States of America requested this unprecedented extraordinary session of the UN Human Rights Commission because, along with many others, we are appalled at the unspeakable, immoral savagery being unleashed upon the citizens of what used to be Yugoslavia. Under the UN Charter, this Commission has a critical moral responsibility to turn the spotlight of international scrutiny upon the darkness in that land. We are making use of a new mechanism to convene the Commission on an emergency basis so that it can address a human rights crisis as it unfolds. That there are ongoing abuses of human rights in direct violation of international law is not in doubt. The deliberate targeting of civilians is a violation of one of the most basic tenets governing the conduct of war, set forth in a host of international treaties, covenants, and declarations which condemn--if not criminalize-- these vicious acts. We have seen the carnage being wreaked upon the innocent civilian population of Bosnia as military forces vie for control in the name of ethnic supremacy. The neighbors of former Yugoslavia, as well as its several constituent republics, know all too well the campaign of expulsion being waged in wide swatches of territory, which has created the largest refugee crisis in Europe since the end of the Second World War. The policy which its perpetrators chillingly call "ethnic cleansing" is an abhorrent breach of international human rights standards, as well as the norms of civilized behavior. In recent days, we have begun to receive yet even more ominous, profoundly disturbing reports of camps where people are being systematically abused, tortured, and even executed. In the name of humanity, we must now exercise every effort to ensure that the truth sets them free. Our objectives at this session are simple and direct: -- An investigation into human rights violations in the republics of the former Yugoslavia, particularly Bosnia-Hercegovina; -- A full airing of all charges relating to abuses of human rights and violations of international law; -- We want to know who is responsible for such abuses; and -- To ensure that humanitarian organizations such as the ICRC [International Committee of the Red Cross] have immediate, unimpeded, and fully secure access to all victims of the conflict, including those held in detention. The United States believes that the most effective way to accomplish this is to appoint a Special Rapporteur with the highest credentials for impartiality and thoroughness. This Special Rapporteur, cloaked in the mandate of this Commission and acting under the authority of the United Nations, must be granted immediate and unimpeded access by all the parties to the conflict to all individuals in the former republics of Yugoslavia--wherever they may be located--who can shed light on what is happening. After conducting an urgent first-hand investigation, he should immediately report so that we can consider further, decisive action in the United Nations as well as by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. I stress that we do not view such a UN investigation as supplanting the efforts of other organizations, particularly those of the International Committee of the Red Cross or the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. A UN effort would complement and reinforce such other efforts now being made. The more light shed, the better. The United States has submitted a draft resolution to the Human Rights Commission which we believe should be overwhelmingly endorsed by its member governments. This resolution is evidence of the uniform repulsion felt throughout the world and the joint determination that we cannot remain idle. The speed with which this commission was convened is further proof of our deep concern and commitment. I wish to make a direct appeal to the parties in the conflict and to those who control the weapons. Nothing can come of this violence except more violence. Political gains obtained through violence can only be maintained through further violence and repression. Unquestionably, such political gains and violent territorial changes will never be recognized or sanctified by civilized persons. Any state enlarged through the bloodshed of innocent civilians is an international pariah, an outlaw state. The international community will never accept the redrawing of boundaries by force in Yugoslavia; the sooner the parties accept this fundamental fact, the sooner we can turn to peacefully resolving this crisis. To the perpetrators of the appalling acts now alleged, I say that the international community took a vow when it realized what had been committed by Nazism in Europe during the Second World War: "Never again." The Nuremberg tribunal reaffirmed the principle of individual accountability for crimes against humanity committed in the name of national or ethnic groups. The United States is fully prepared to join with others to see that individuals guilty of violations of international law and human rights principles are held strictly accountable. We have proposed in the United Nations a "war crimes" resolution to ensure this accountability; we want to see it adopted as soon as possible. Our century has already borne witness to the most ferocious and horrible violations of human rights. We do not now wish to see this grievous record augmented as the century draws to a close. We ask the people of Serbia-Montenegro this simple question: Do they wish to go down in history as citizens of the last fascist state in Europe? We are human beings. We recoil in horror and revulsion at the tragedy of former Yugoslavia. We have a duty to ourselves and to this UN Human Rights Commission to act now to bring the weight of the international community to bear against what is being done to the people of that benighted place, whether Muslim, Croat, Serb, or other ethnic, national, or religious group. The men of violence must be shown that there is no real, lasting alternative to peaceful negotiation to solve their differences. Nothing can excuse or justify the slaughter and misery being heaped upon the innocent people of the former Yugoslavia. The United States seeks your support for the adoption of all measures, including a full and immediate investigation, that will help protect the victims of this tragic conflict and bring it to a speedy end.

Edward J. Perkins, US Permanent Representative to the United Nations: US Appalled by Continuing Situation in Bosnia- Hercegovina

[Address before the UN Security Council, New York City, August 13, 1992] My government is appalled by the continuing deterioration of the situation in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The destruction of villages, executions, and indiscriminate killings continue apace. Belgrade's vile policy of "ethnic cleansing"--actually ethnic extermination--is only intensifying. We are witnessing some of the most egregious abuses of human rights that Europe has seen since World War II, symbolized by the "ethnic cleansing" being conducted against the innocent victims of this tragedy. The frustration of UN efforts to get food and medicine to the people of Bosnia-Hercegovina and the massive starvation and spreading health care nightmare has prompted the Government of Bosnia- Hercegovina to call upon the world community to take all necessary measures to ensure the delivery of humanitarian assistance there. My government has made it clear that we believe the world community should do everything necessary, in response to Bosnia- Hercegovina's call, to ensure the delivery of assistance to the needy there. We stand fully prepared to do our part in achieving this goal. The [UN] Security Council has demonstrated today that it, too, shares the belief that the provision of humanitarian assistance not only is an urgent humanitarian concern, but [that] it is also an important element of the effort to restore peace and security in the region. The Security Council also demanded that barbaric human rights violations must stop. I wish to emphasize that a conquest of territory will not be tolerated by the international community. The Council has also addressed, today, the most troubling of the many disturbing accounts that are currently coming out of the former Yugoslavia. We have seen and read reports of detention centers, which have shocked the world. A recent report of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) underscores this. I wish to quote a relevant paragraph from that report. Following the visits its delegates have conducted during the last few days to places of detention in Bosnia-Hercegovina, it is evident to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) that innocent civilians are being arrested and subjected to inhumane treatment. Moreover, the detention of such persons is part of a policy of forced population transfers carried out on a massive scale and marked by the systematic use of brutality. Among the long list of methods used are harassment, murder, confiscation of property, deportation and the taking of hostages--which reduce individuals to the level of bargaining counters--all in violation of international humanitarian law. Whether individual facilities house 5 or 5,000, whether they are controlled by the government or local forces, the governments and individuals involved must be held to account for the treatment of all those detained, civilians and military alike. The international community demands to know the truth behind these camps and to see that any and all abuses are brought to an end. As long as human suffering continues inside Bosnia-Hercegovina, the world will stand ready to act to alleviate that suffering. Another paragraph from the ICRC report is relevant. I quote: ICRC delegates have had only limited access to the republic's various regions and, despite repeated approaches made in this respect, they have still not received comprehensive lists of places of detention controlled by the various parties to the conflict or been notified of persons captured, and are thus unable to bring help to all the victims. The ICRC has had access to only a very limited number of prisoners of war, while the places of detention are crowded with innocent and terrified civilians. My government views leadership by the United Nations as key to resolving the humanitarian problems in Bosnia-Hercegovina. We believe that a continued UN presence there is indispensable. We are ready to work with the Secretary General and our international partners to take the steps necessary to make that presence fully effective. Finally, my government makes a special appeal to all parties to the conflict to end the massacre that is taking place in Bosnia- Hercegovina and to cooperate with all humanitarian relief efforts. We strongly urge all sides to work together through the Conference on Yugoslavia to find a negotiated settlement to this unfortunate crisis.

US Meeting With Bosnian Foreign Minister

[Statement released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC, August 19, 1992.] Today, the Acting Secretary [Lawrence S. Eagleburger] met with Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic at the Foreign Minister's request. They discussed the situation in the former Yugoslavia and preparations for the August 26-28 London Conference on Yugoslavia. The Acting Secretary told Foreign Minister Silajdzic that the United States is pleased with the passage of UN Security Council Resolution 770--authorizing "all necessary measures" to ensure the delivery of humanitarian aid to Bosnia-Hercegovina--and with UN Security Council Resolution 771--condemning reported gross violations of human rights, demanding immediate international access to all detention camps in areas of the former Yugoslavia, and asking for all relevant information which states and inter-national organizations may have. The Acting Secretary underscored the strong US commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity, and legitimate Government of Bosnia-Hercegovina. He agreed with the Foreign Minister that "cantonization" of Bosnia-Hercegovina contradicts CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] principles, sets a bad precedent for future conflicts, and could well lead to partition of Bosnia-Hercegovina--thus rewarding the use of force. The United States will continue to demand that all parties comply with all relevant UN Security Council Resolutions and CSCE commitments. Foreign Minister Silajdzic addressed providing food and shelter for displaced Bosnians this winter. He raised the possibility of creating a fund to provide housing both in the short term and to assist displaced Bosnians in resettling in their places of origin. The Acting Secretary emphasized that the United States considers assistance to the innocent victims of the Yugoslav conflict a major priority in general and at the upcoming conference in particular. Foreign Minister Silajdzic and the Acting Secretary agreed that sanctions compliance be tightened. The Acting Secretary assured Mr. Silajdzic that the United States is working actively with the United Nations and the international community to enhance sanctions monitoring and compliance. The Foreign Minister also noted his concern that the conflict in Bosnia not spread to other areas. This is also a very serious concern for the United States. As we have already announced, the United States is taking steps within the CSCE to provide monitors quickly to bordering areas to help prevent the conflict from spreading. The Acting Secretary and the Foreign Minister also discussed details regarding an exchange of ambassadors.

US Meeting With Macedonian Foreign Minister

[Statement released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC, August 21, 1992.] Today, Under Secretary [for International Security Affairs] Wisner met with Macedonian Foreign Minister Maleski. Mr. Maleski is in the United States on a private visit. He used the occasion to discuss developments in his country and the region and made his government's case for recognition. Regarding recognition, the Under Secretary emphasized that the United States strongly supports the stability and territorial integrity of Macedonia. The US view is that prompt resolution of the Macedonian recognition issue will help to bring stability to the Balkans. The United States continues to support EC [European Community] mediation efforts to resolve this impasse. Our position on recognition has not changed. The United States is prepared to support any recognition solution to which the parties agree. The Under Secretary discussed with Mr. Maleski the situation in the former Yugoslavia, the dangers of the conflict spreading to other areas, and the question of international recognition of Macedonia. He emphasized the importance of full compliance with the international sanctions imposed on Serbia and Montenegro, while acknowledging the high cost to Macedonia of this effort. The Under Secretary emphasized to Mr. Maleski the US desire to follow through rapidly on President Bush's proposal that a continuous inter-national monitoring mission work in Macedonia, under the auspices of the CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe], to help prevent the conflict in Bosnia- Hercegovina from spreading.

US Embassies Open in Croatia and Slovenia

[Statement released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC, August 25, 1992.] On August 6, [1992] President Bush announced that the United States was establishing full diplomatic relations with Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia. The United States, today, will open embassies in Zagreb, Croatia, and Ljubljana, Slovenia. Our new embassy in Zagreb will be housed in our former consulate general building. Our new embassy in Ljubljana will be in temporary quarters at the USIS [US Information Service] cultural center and a local hotel. We plan to open an embassy in Sarajevo when the security situation there permits.

UN Security Council Resolutions, September 1991-September 1992

Resolution 713 (September 25, 1991)
The Security Council, Conscious of the fact that Yugoslavia has welcomed the convening of a Security Council meeting through a letter conveyed by the Permanent Representative of Yugoslavia to the President of the Security Council (S/23069), Having heard the statement by the Foreign Minister of Yugoslavia, Deeply concerned by the fighting in Yugoslavia which is causing a heavy loss of human life and material damage, and by the consequences for the countries of the region, in particular in the border areas of neighboring countries, Concerned that the continuation of this situation constitutes a threat to international peace and security, Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Recalling also the provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, Commending the efforts undertaken by the European Community and its member States, with the support of the States participating in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, to restore peace and dialogue in Yugoslavia, through, inter alia, the implementation of a cease-fire including the sending of observers, the convening of a Conference on Yugoslavia, including the mechanisms set forth within it, and the suspension of the delivery of all weapons and military equipment to Yugoslavia, Recalling the relevant principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and, in this context, noting the Declaration of 3 September 1991 of the States participating in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe that no territorial gains or changes within Yugoslavia brought about by violence are acceptable, Noting also the agreement for a cease-fire concluded on 17 September 1991 in Igalo, and also that signed on 22 September 1991, Alarmed by the violations of the cease-fire and the continuation of the fighting, Taking note of the letter dated 19 September 1991 to the President of the Security Council from the Permanent Representative of Austria (S/23052), Taking note also of the letters dated 19 September 1991 and 20 September 1991 to the President of the Security Council from respectively the Permanent Representative of Canada (S/23053) and the Permanent Representative of Hungary (S/23057), Take note also of the letters dated 5 July 1991 (S/22775), 12 July 1991 (S/22785), 22 July 1991 (S/22834), 6 August 1991 (S/22898), 7 August 1991 (S/22902), 7 August 1991 (S/22903), 21 August 1991 (S/22975), 29 August 1991 (S/22991), 4 September 1991 (S/23010), 19 September 1991 (S/23047), 20 September 1991 (S/23059) and 20 September 1991 (S/23060), from respectively the Permanent Representative of the Netherlands, the Permanent Representative of Czechoslovakia, the Permanent Representatives of Belgium, France and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Charge d'affaires a.i. of Austria, and the Permanent Representative of Australia, 1. Expresses its full support for the collective efforts for peace and dialogue in Yugoslavia undertaken under the auspices of the member States of the European Community with the support of the States participating in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe consistent with the principles of that Conference; 2. Supports fully all arrangements and measures resulting from such collective efforts as those described above, in particular of assistance and support to the cease-fire observers, to consolidate an effective end to hostilities in Yugoslavia and the smooth functioning of the process instituted within the framework of the Conference on Yugoslavia; 3. Invites to this end the Secretary-General to offer his assistance without delay, in consultation with the Government of Yugoslavia and all those promoting the efforts referred to above, and to report as soon as possible to the Security Council; 4. Strongly urges all parties to abide strictly by the cease-fire agreements of 17 September 1991 and 22 September 1991; 5. Appeals urgently to and encourages all parties to settle their disputes peacefully and through negotiation at the Conference on Yugoslavia, including through the mechanisms set forth within it; 6. Decides, under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, that all States shall, for the purposes of establishing peace and stability in Yugoslavia, immediately implement a general and complete embargo on all deliveries of weapons and military equipment to Yugoslavia until the Security Council decides otherwise following consultation between the Secretary-General and the Government of Yugoslavia; 7. Calls on all States to refrain from any action which might contribute to increasing tension and to impeding or delaying a peaceful and negotiated outcome to the conflict in Yugoslavia, which would permit all Yugoslavs to decide upon and to construct their future in peace; 8. Decides to remain seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 721 (November 27, 1991)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolution 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, Considering the request by the Government of Yugoslavia for the establishment of a peace-keeping operation in Yugoslavia, as conveyed in the letter of 26 November 1991 addressed by the Permanent Representative of Yugoslavia to the President of the Security Council (S/23240), Deeply concerned by the fighting in Yugoslavia and by the serious violations of earlier cease-fire agreements, which have caused heavy loss of human life and widespread material damage, and by the consequences for the countries of the region, Noting that the continuation and aggravation of this situation constitute a threat to international peace and security, Considering also the letter addressed on 24 November 1991 by the Secretary-General to the President of the Security Council on the mission of his Personal Envoy to Yugoslavia and the annexed agreement signed in Geneva on 23 November 1991 (S/23239), Considering further the fact, as conveyed in the letter addressed on 24 November 1991 by the Secretary-General to the President of the Security Council (S/23239), that each one of the Yugoslav participants in the meeting with the Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General stated that they wanted to see the deployment of a United Nations peace-keeping operation as soon as possible, 1. Approves the efforts of the Secretary-General and his Personal Envoy and expresses the hope that they will pursue their contacts with the Yugoslav parties, as rapidly as possible, so that the Secretary-General can present early recommendations to the Security Council including for the possible establishment of a United Nations peace-keeping operation in Yugoslavia; 2. Endorses the statement made by the Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General to the parties that the deployment of a United Nations peace- keeping operation cannot be envisaged without, inter alia, full compliance by all parties with the agreement signed in Geneva on 23 November 1991 and annexed to the letter of the Secretary-General (S/23239); 3. Strongly urges the Yugoslav parties to comply fully with that agreement; 4. Undertakes to examine and take appropriate action without delay upon the recommendations of the Secretary-General mentioned above, including in particular any recommendation for the possible establishment of a United Nations peace-keeping operation in Yugoslavia; 5. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 724 (December 15, 1991)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991 and 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, Noting the report of the Secretary-General of 11 December 1991 (S/23280) submitted pursuant to resolution 721 (1991), Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Recalling also the provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, Determined to ensure that the general and complete embargo on all deliveries of weapons and military equipment to Yugoslavia imposed by resolution 713 (1991) is effectively applied, Commending the initiatives taken by the Secretary-General in the humanitarian field, 1. Approves the report of the Secretary-General of 11 December 1991 (S/23280) and expresses its appreciation to the Secretary- General for it; 2. Endorses in particular the views expressed in paragraph 21 of the Secretary-General's report that the conditions for establishing a peace-keeping operation in Yugoslavia still do not exist and in paragraph 24 that full compliance with the Geneva Agreement of 23 November 1991 would permit accelerated consideration of the question of establishing a United Nations peace-keeping operation in Yugoslavia; 3. Concurs in particular with the Secretary-General's observation that the international community is prepared to assist the Yugoslav peoples, if the conditions described in his report are met and, in that context, endorses his offer to send to Yugoslavia a small group of personnel, including military personnel, as part of the continuing mission of his Personal Envoy, to carry forward preparations for possible deployment of a peace-keeping operation; 4. Underlines the view that the purpose of the deployment of any United Nations peace-keeping operation in Yugoslavia would be to enable all parties to settle their disputes peacefully, including through the processes of the Conference on Yugoslavia; 5. Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations: (a) Requests all States to report to the Secretary-General within 20 days on the measures they have instituted for meeting the obligations set out in paragraph 6 of resolution 713 (1991) to implement a general and complete embargo on all deliveries of weapons and military equipment to Yugoslavia; (b) Decides to establish, in accordance with rule 28 of its Provisional Rules of Procedure, a Committee of the Security Council consisting of all the members of the Council, to undertake the following tasks and to report on its work to the Council with its observations and recommendations: (i) To examine the reports submitted pursuant to subparagraph (a) above; (ii) To seek from all States further information regarding the action taken by them concerning the effective implementation of the embargo imposed by paragraph 6 of resolution 713 (1991); (iii) To consider any information brought to its attention by States concerning violations of the embargo, and in that context to make recommendations to the Council on ways of increasing the effectiveness of the embargo; (iv) To recommend appropriate measures in response to violations of the general and complete embargo on all deliveries of weapons and military equipment to Yugoslavia and provide information on a regular basis to the Secretary-General for general distribution to Member States; (c) Calls upon all States to cooperate fully with the Committee in the fulfillment of its tasks concerning the effective implementation of the provisions of paragraph 6 of resolution 713 (1991); (d) Requests the Secretary-General to provide all necessary assistance to the Committee and to make the necessary arrangements in the Secretariat for this purpose; 6. Undertakes to consider ways by which compliance with the commitments entered into by the parties may be achieved; 7. Strongly urges all States and parties to refrain from any action which might contribute to increasing tension, to inhibiting the establishment of an effective cease-fire and to impeding or delaying a peaceful and negotiated outcome to the conflict in Yugoslavia, which would permit all the peoples of Yugoslavia to decide upon and to construct their future in peace; 8. Encourages the Secretary-General to pursue his humanitarian efforts in Yugoslavia, in liaison with the International Committee of the Red Cross, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNICEF and other appropriate humanitarian organizations, to take urgent practical steps to tackle the critical needs of the people of Yugoslavia, including displaced persons and the most vulnerable groups affected by the conflict, to assist in the voluntary return of displaced persons to their home; 9. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 727 (January 8, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, and 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, Noting the report of the Secretary-General of 5 January 1992 (S/23363 and Add. 1) submitted pursuant to resolution 721 (1991), Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Recalling also the provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, and noting the continuing role that the European Community will play in achieving a peaceful solution in Yugoslavia, Deploring the tragic incident on 7 January 1992 which caused the death of five members of the European Community Monitoring Mission, 1. Approves the report of the Secretary-General of 5 January 1992 (S/23363 and Add.1) and expresses its appreciation to the Secretary-General for it; 2. Welcomes the signing, under the auspices of the Secretary- General's Personal Envoy, of an Implementing Accord at Sarajevo on 2 January 1992 concerning modalities for implementing the unconditional cease-fire agreed to by the parties at Geneva on 23 November 1991; 3. Endorses the Secretary-General's intention as a follow-up to his Personal Envoy's latest mission to send immediately to Yugoslavia a group of up to 50 military liaison officers to promote maintenance of the cease-fire; in this connection, takes note in particular of the views expressed in paragraphs 24, 25, 28, 29 and 30 of the Secretary-General's report and the criteria reflected in paragraphs 3 and 4 of resolution 724 (1991); 4. Urges all parties to honour the commitments made at Geneva and Sarajevo with a view to effecting a complete cessation of hostilities; 5. Requests all the parties to take all the necessary measures to ensure the safety of the personnel sent by the United Nations and of the members of the European Community Monitoring Mission; 6. Reaffirms the embargo applied in paragraph 6 of resolution 713 (1991) and in paragraph 5 of resolution 724 (1991), and decides that the embargo applies in accordance with paragraph 33 of the Secretary-General's report (S/23363); 7. Encourages the Secretary-General to pursue his humanitarian efforts in Yugoslavia; 8. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 740 (February 7, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991 and 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992, Noting the further Report of the Secretary-General of 5 February 1992 (S/23513) submitted pursuant to resolution 721 (1991) and welcoming his report that the cease-fire has been generally observed thus removing one of the obstacles to the deployment of a peace-keeping operation, Taking note that the letter of President Franjo Tudjman of 6 February 1992, in which he accepts fully and unconditionally the Secretary-General's concept and plan which defines the conditions and areas where the United Nations force would be deployed, removes a further obstacle in that respect, Further noting that the implementation of the United Nations peace- keeping plan will facilitate the task of the Conference on Yugoslavia in reaching a political settlement, Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Recalling also the provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, Expressing concern at the indications that the arms embargo established by the Security Council in resolution 713 (1991) is not being fully observed, as noted in paragraph 21 of the report of the Secretary-General (S/23513), 1. Reaffirms its approval set out in resolution 724 (1991) of the United Nations peace-keeping plan contained in the Report of the Secretary-General of 11 December 1991 (S/23280); 2. Welcomes the continuing efforts of the Secretary-General and his personal envoy to remove the remaining obstacle in the way of the deployment of a peace-keeping operation; 3. Approves the Secretary-General's proposal to increase the authorized strength of the military liaison mission to a total of 75 officers; 4. Requests the Secretary-General to expedite his preparations for a United Nations peace-keeping operation so as to be prepared to deploy immediately after the Security Council decides to do so; 5. Expresses its concern that the United Nations peace-keeping plan contained in the report of the Secretary-General of 11 December 1991 (S/23280) has not yet been fully and unconditionally accepted by all in Yugoslavia on whose cooperation its success depends; 6. Calls upon all States to continue to take all appropriate steps to ensure that the Yugoslav parties implement their unqualified acceptance of the United Nations peace-keeping plan, fulfil their commitments in good faith and cooperate fully with the Secretary- General; 7. Calls upon the Yugoslav parties to cooperate fully with the Conference on Yugoslavia in its aim of reaching a political settlement consistent with the principles of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and reaffirms that the United Nations peace-keeping plan and its implementation is in no way intended to prejudge the terms of a political settlement; 8. Calls upon all States to cooperate fully with the Committee established by resolution 724 (1991), including reporting any information brought to their attention concerning violations of the embargo; 9. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 743 (February 21, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992 and 740 (1992) of 7 February 1992, Noting the report of the Secretary-General of 15 February 1992 (S/23592) submitted pursuant to resolution 721 (1991) and the request of the Government of Yugoslavia (S/23240) of 26 November 1991 for a peace-keeping operation referred to in that resolution, Noting in particular that the Secretary-General considers that the conditions permitting the early deployment of a United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) are met and welcoming his recommendation that this Force should be established with immediate effect, Expressing its gratitude to the Secretary-General and his Personal Envoy for their contribution to the achievement of conditions facilitating the deployment of a United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) and their continuing commitment to this effort, Concerned that the situation in Yugoslavia continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security as determined in resolution 713 (1991), Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Recalling also the provisions of Article 25 and Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, Commending again the efforts undertaken by the European Community and its member States, with the support of the States participating in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, through the convening of a Conference on Yugoslavia, including the mechanisms set forth within it, to ensure a peaceful political settlement, Convinced that the implementation of the United Nations peace- keeping plan (S/23280, annex III) will assist the Conference on Yugoslavia in reaching a peaceful political settlement, 1. Approves the report of the Secretary-General of 15 February 1992 (S/23592); 2. Decides to establish, under its authority, a United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in accordance with the above- mentioned report and the United Nations peace-keeping plan and requests the Secretary-General to take the measures necessary to ensure its earliest possible deployment; 3. Decides that, in order to implement the recommendations in paragraph 30 of the report of the Secretary-General, the Force is established in accordance with paragraph 4 below, for an initial period of 12 months unless the Council subsequently decides otherwise; 4. Requests the Secretary-General immediately to deploy those elements of the Force which can assist in developing an implementation plan for the earliest possible full deployment of the force for approval by the Council and a budget which together will maximize the contribution of the Yugoslav parties to offsetting its costs and in all other ways secure the most efficient and cost- effective operation possible; 5. Recalls that, in accordance with paragraph 1 of the United Nations peace-keeping plan, the Force should be an interim arrangement to create the conditions of peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the Yugoslav crisis; 6. Invites accordingly the Secretary-General to report as appropriate and not less than every six months on progress towards a peaceful political settlement and the situation on the ground, and to submit a first report on the establishment of the Force within two months of the adoption of this resolution; 7. Undertakes, in this connection, to examine without delay any recommendations that the Secretary-General may make in his reports concerning the force, including the duration of its mission, and to adopt appropriate decisions; 8. Urges all parties and others concerned to comply strictly with the cease-fire arrangements signed at Geneva on 23 November 1991 and at Sarajevo on 2 January 1992, and to cooperate fully and unconditionally in the implementation of the peace-keeping plan; 9. Demands that all parties and others concerned take all the necessary measures to ensure the safety of the personnel sent by the United Nations and of the members of the European Community Monitoring Mission; 10. Calls again upon the Yugoslav parties to cooperate fully with the Conference on Yugoslavia in its aim of reaching a political settlement consistent with the principles of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and reaffirms that the United Nations peace-keeping plan and its implementation is in no way intended to prejudge the terms of a political settlement; 11. Decides within the same frame-work that the embargo imposed by paragraph 6 of Security Council resolution 713 (1991) shall not apply to weapons and military equipment destined for the sole use of UNPROFOR; 12. Requests all States to provide appropriate support to UNPROFOR, in particular to permit and facilitate the transit of its personnel and equipment; 13. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 749 (April 7, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992, 740 (1992) of 7 February 1992 and 743 (1992) of 21 February 1992, Noting the report of the Secretary-General of 2 April 1992 (S/23777) submitted pursuant to resolution 743 (1992), Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Welcoming the progress made towards the establishment of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) and the continuing contacts by the Secretary-General with all parties and others concerned to stabilize the cease-fire, Expressing its concern about reports on the daily violations of the cease-fire and the continuing tension in a number of regions even after the arrival of UNPROFOR's advance elements, 1. Approves the report of the Secretary-General of 2 April 1992 (S/23777); 2. Decides to authorize the earliest possible full deployment of UNPROFOR; 3. Urges all parties and others concerned to make further efforts to maximize their contributions towards offsetting the costs of UNPROFOR, in order to help secure the most efficient and cost- effective operation possible; 4. Further urges all parties and others concerned to take all action necessary to ensure complete freedom of aerial movement for UNPROFOR; 5. Calls upon all parties and others concerned not to resort to violence, particularly in any area where UNPROFOR is to be based or deployed; 6. Appeals to all parties and others concerned in Bosnia- Herzegovina to cooperate with the efforts of the European Community to bring about a cease-fire and a negotiated political solution. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 752 (May 15, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992, 740 (1992) of 7 February 1992, 743 (1992) of 21 February 1992 and 749 (1992) of 7 April 1992, Expressing its appreciation for the reports of the Secretary-General of 24 April 1992 (S/23836) and 12 May 1992 (S/23900) pursuant to resolution 749 (1992), Deeply concerned about the serious situation in certain parts of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and in particular about the rapid and violent deterioration of the situation in Bosnia- Hercegovina, Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Recalling also the provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, and the continuing role that the European Community is playing in achieving a peaceful solution in Bosnia-Hercegovina, as well as in other republics of the former Socialist Federal of Yugoslavia, Having considered the announcement in Belgrade on 4 May 1992 described in paragraph 24 of the report of the Secretary-General of 12 May 1992 concerning the withdrawal of Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) personnel from republics other than Serbia and Montenegro and the renunciation of authority over those who remain, Noting the urgent need for humanitarian assistance and the various appeals made in this connection, in particular by the President of Bosnia-Hercegovina, Deploring the tragic incident on 4 May 1992 which caused the death of a member of the European Community Monitor Mission, Deeply concerned about the safety of United Nations personnel in Bosnia-Hercegovina, 1. Demands that all parties and others concerned in Bosnia- Hercegovina stop the fighting immediately, respect immediately and fully the cease-fire signed on 12 April 1992, and cooperate with the efforts of the European Community to bring about urgently a negotiated political solution respecting the principle that any change of borders by force is not acceptable; 2. Welcomes the efforts undertaken by the European Community in the framework of the discussions on constitutional arrangements for Bosnia-Hercegovina under the auspices of the Conference on Yugoslavia, urges that the discussions be resumed without delay, and urges the three communities in Bosnia-Hercegovina to participate actively and constructively in these discussions on a continuous basis as recommended by the Secretary-General and to conclude and implement the constitutional arrangements being developed at the tripartite talks; 3. Demands that all forms of interference from outside Bosnia- Hercegovina, including by units of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) as well as elements of the Croatian Army, cease immediately, and that Bosnia-Hercegovina's neighbours take swift action to end such interference and respect the territorial integrity of Bosnia- Hercegovina; 4. Demands that those units of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and elements of the Croatian Army now in Bosnia-Hercegovina must either be withdrawn, or be subject to the authority of the Government of Bosnia-Hercegovina, or be disbanded and disarmed with their weapons placed under effective international monitoring, and requests the Secretary-General to consider without delay what international assistance would be provided in this connection; 5. Demands also that all irregular forces in Bosnia-Hercegovina be disbanded and disarmed; 6. Calls upon all parties and others concerned to ensure that forcible expulsions of persons from the areas where they live and any attempts to change the ethnic composition of the population, anywhere in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, cease immediately; 7. Emphasizes the urgent need for humanitarian assistance, material and financial, taking into account the large number of refugees and displaced persons and fully supports the current efforts to deliver humanitarian aid to all the victims of the conflict and to assist in the voluntary return of displaced persons to their homes; 8. Calls on all parties and others concerned to ensure that conditions are established for the effective and unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance, including safe and secure access to airports in Bosnia-Hercegovina; 9. Requests the Secretary-General to keep under active review the feasibility of protecting international humanitarian relief programmes, including the option mentioned in paragraph 29 of his report of 12 May 1992, and of ensuring safe and secure access to Sarajevo airport, and to report to the Security Council by 26 May 1992; 10. Further requests the Secretary-General, having regard to the evolution of the situation and to the results of the efforts undertaken by the European Community, to continue to keep under review the possibility of deploying a peace-keeping mission in Bosnia-Hercegovina under the auspices of the United Nations; 11. Demands that all parties and others concerned cooperate fully with UNPROFOR and the European Community Monitor Mission, and respect fully their freedom of movement and the safety of their personnel; 12. Notes the progress made thus far in the deployment of UNPROFOR, welcomes the fact that UNPROFOR has assumed the full responsibility called for by its mandate in Eastern Slavonia, and requests the Secretary-General to ensure that UNPROFOR will assume its full responsibilities in all the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) as soon as possible and to encourage all parties and others concerned to resolve any problems remaining in this connection; 13. Urges all parties and others concerned to cooperate in every way with UNPROFOR in accordance with the United Nations Plan and to comply strictly with the Plan in all its aspects, in particular the disarming of all irregular forces, whatever their origin, in the UNPAs; 14. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter and to consider further steps to achieve a peaceful solution in conformity with relevant resolutions of the Council. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 757 (May 30, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992, 740 (1992) of 7 February 1992, 743 (1992) of 21 February 1992, 749 (1992) of 7 April 1992 and 752 (1992) of 15 May 1992, Noting that in the very complex context of events in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia all parties bear some responsibility for the situation, Reaffirming its support for the Conference on Yugoslavia, including the efforts undertaken by the European Community in the framework of the discussions on constitutional arrangements for Bosnia and Herzegovina, and recalling that no territorial gains or changes brought about by violence are acceptable and that the borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina are inviolable, Deploring the fact that the demands in resolution 752 (1992) have not been complied with, including its demands: -- that all parties and others concerned in Bosnia and Herzegovina stop the fighting immediately, -- that all forms of interference from outside Bosnia and Herzegovina cease immediately, -- that Bosnia and Herzegovina's neighbours take swift action to end all interference and respect the territorial integrity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, -- that action be taken as regards units of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the disbanding and disarming with weapons placed under effective international monitoring of any units that are neither withdrawn nor placed under the authority of the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, -- that all irregular forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina be disbanded and disarmed, Deploring further that its call for the immediate cessation of forcible expulsions and attempts to change the ethnic composition of the population has not been heeded, and reaffirming in this context the need for the effective protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including those of ethnic minorities, Dismayed that conditions have not yet been established for the effective and unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance, including safe and secure access to and from Sarajevo and other airports in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Deeply concerned that those United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) personnel remaining in Sarajevo have been subjected to deliberate mortar and small-arms fire, and that the United Nations Military Observers deployed in the Mostar region have had to be withdrawn, Deeply concerned also at developments in Croatia, including persistent cease-fire violations and the continued expulsion of non- Serb civilians, and at the obstruction of and lack of cooperation with UNPROFOR in other parts of Croatia, Deploring the tragic incident on 18 May 1992 which caused the death of a member of the ICRC [International Committee of the Red Cross] team in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Noting that the claim by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations has not been generally accepted, Expressing its appreciation for the report of the Secretary-General of 26 May 1992 (S/24000) pursuant to resolution 752 (1992), Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Recalling also the provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, and the continuing role that the European Community is playing in working for a peaceful solution in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as in other republics of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Recalling its decision in resolution 752 (1992) to consider further steps to achieve a peaceful solution in conformity with relevant resolutions of the Council, and affirming its determination to take measures against any party or parties which fail to fulfil the requirements of resolution 752 (1992) and its other relevant resolutions, Determined in this context to adopt certain measures with the sole objective of achieving a peaceful solution and encouraging the efforts undertaken by the European Community and its member States, Recalling the right of States, under Article 50 of the Charter, to consult the Security Council where they find themselves confronted with special economic problems arising from the carrying out of preventive or enforcement measures, Determining that the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in other parts of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia constitutes a threat to international peace and security, Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, 1. Condemns the failure of the authorities in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), including the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), to take effective measures to fulfil the requirements of resolution 752 (1992); 2. Demands that any elements of the Croatian Army still present in Bosnia and Herzegovina act in accordance with paragraph 4 of resolution 752 (1992) without further delay; 3. Decides that all States shall adopt the measures set out below, which shall apply until the Security Council decides that the authorities in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), including the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), have taken effective measures to fulfil the requirements of resolution 752 (1992); 4. Decides that all States shall prevent: (a) The import into their territories of all commodities and products originating in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) exported therefrom after the date of the present resolution; (b) Any activities by their nationals or in their territories which would promote or are calculated to promote the export or trans- shipment of any commodities or products originating in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); and any dealings by their nationals or their flag vessels or aircraft or in their territories in any commodities or products originating in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and exported therefrom after the date of the present resolution, including in particular any transfer of funds to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) for the purposes of such activities or dealings; (c) The sale or supply by their nationals or from their territories or using their flag vessels or aircraft of any commodities or products, whether or not originating in their territories, but not including supplies intended strictly for medical purposes and foodstuffs notified to the Committee established pursuant to resolution 724 (1991), to any person or body in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or to any person or body for the purposes of any business carried on in or operated from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), and any activities by their nationals or in their territories which promote or are calculated to promote such sale or supply of such commodities or products; 5. Decides that all States shall not make available to the authorities in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or to any commercial, industrial or public utility undertaking in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), any funds or any other financial or economic resources and shall prevent their nationals and any persons within their territories from removing from their territories or otherwise making available to those authorities or to any such undertaking of any such funds or resources and from remitting any other funds to persons or bodies within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), except payments exclusively for strictly medical or humanitarian purposes and foodstuffs; 6. Decides that the prohibitions in paragraphs 4 and 5 above shall not apply to the trans-shipment through the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) of commodities and products originating outside the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and temporarily present in the territory of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) only for the purpose of such trans-shipment, in accordance with guidelines approved by the Committee established by resolution 724 (1991); 7. Decides that all States shall: (a) Deny permission to any aircraft to take off from, land in or overfly their territory if it is destined to land in or has taken off from the territory of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), unless the particular flight has been approved, for humanitarian or other purposes consistent with the relevant resolutions of the Council, by the Committee established by resolution 724 (1991); (b) Prohibit, by their nationals or from their territory, the provision of engineering and maintenance servicing of aircraft registered in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or operated by or on behalf of entities in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or components for such aircraft, the certification of airworthiness for such aircraft, and the payment of new claims against existing insurance contracts and the provision of new direct insurance for such aircraft; 8. Decides that all States shall: (a) Reduce the level of the staff at diplomatic missions and consular posts of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); (b) Take the necessary steps to prevent the participation in sporting events on their territory of persons or groups representing the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); (c) Suspend scientific and technical cooperation and cultural exchanges and visits involving persons or groups officially sponsored by or representing the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); 9. Decides that all States, and the authorities in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), shall take the necessary measures to ensure that no claim shall lie at the instance of the authorities in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), or of any person or body in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), or of any person claiming through or for the benefit of any such person or body, in connection with any contract or other transaction where its performance was affected by reason of the measures imposed by this resolution and related resolutions; 10. Decides that the measures imposed by this resolution shall not apply to activities related to UNPROFOR, to the Conference on Yugoslavia or to the European Community Monitor Mission, and that States, parties and others concerned shall cooperate fully with UNPROFOR, the Conference on Yugoslavia and the European Community Monitor Mission and respect fully their freedom of movement and the safety of their personnel; 11. Calls upon all States, including States not members of the United Nations, and all international organizations, to act strictly in accordance with the provisions of the present resolution, notwithstanding the existence of any rights or obligations conferred or imposed by any inter-national agreement or any contract entered into or any licence or permit granted prior to the date of the present resolution; 12. Requests all States to report to the Secretary-General by 22 June 1992 on the measures they have instituted for meeting the obligations set out in paragraphs 4 to 9 above; 13. Decides that the Committee established by resolution 724 (1991) shall undertake the following tasks additional to those in respect of the arms embargo established by resolutions 713 (1991) and 727 (1992): (a) To examine the reports submitted pursuant to paragraph 12 above; (b) To seek from all States further information regarding the action taken by them concerning the effective implementation of the measures imposed by paragraphs 4 to 9 above; (c) To consider any information brought to its attention by States concerning violations of the measures imposed by paragraphs 4 to 9 above and, in that context, to make recommendations to the Council on ways to increase their effectiveness; (d) To recommend appropriate measures in response to violations of the measures imposed by paragraphs 4 to 9 above and provide information on a regular basis to the Secretary-General for general distribution to Member States; (e) To consider and approve the guidelines referred to in paragraph 6 above; (f) To consider and decide upon expeditiously any applications for the approval of flights for humanitarian or other purposes consistent with the relevant resolutions of the Council in accordance with paragraph 7 above; 14. Calls upon all States to cooperate fully with the Committee in the fulfillment of its tasks, including supplying such information as may be sought by the Committee in pursuance of the present resolution; 15. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council, not later than 15 June 1992 and earlier if he considers it appropriate, on the implementation of resolution 752 (1992) by all parties and others concerned; 16. Decides to keep under continuous review the measures imposed by paragraphs 4 to 9 above with a view to considering whether such measures might be suspended or terminated following compliance with the requirements of resolution 752 (1992); 17. Demands that all parties and others concerned create immediately the necessary conditions for unimpeded delivery of humanitarian supplies to Sarajevo and other destinations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the establishment of a security zone encompassing Sarajevo and its airport and respecting the agreements signed in Geneva on 22 May 1992; 18. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to use his good offices in order to achieve the objectives contained in paragraph 17 above, and invites him to keep under continuous review any further measures that may become necessary to ensure unimpeded delivery of humanitarian supplies; 19. Urges all States to respond to the Revised Joint Appeal for humanitarian assistance of early May 1992 issued by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNICEF [UN Children's Fund] and the World Health Organization; 20. Reiterates the call in paragraph 2 of resolution 752 (1992) that all parties continue their efforts in the framework of the Conference on Yugoslavia and that the three communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina resume their discussions on constitutional arrangements for Bosnia and Herzegovina; 21. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter and to consider immediately, whenever necessary, further steps to achieve a peaceful solution in conformity with relevant resolutions of the Council. VOTE: 13-0-2 (China and Zimbabwe abstaining).
Resolution 758 (June 8, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992, 740 (1992) of 7 February 1992, 743 (1992) of 21 February 1992, 749 (1992) of 7 April 1992, 752 (1992) of 15 May 1992 and 757 (1992) of 30 May 1992, Noting that the Secretary-General has secured the evacuation of the Marshal Tito Barracks in Sarajevo, Noting also the agreement of all the parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina to the reopening of Sarajevo airport for humanitarian purposes, under the exclusive authority of the United Nations, and with the assistance of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), Noting further that the reopening of Sarajevo airport for humanitarian purposes would constitute a first step in establishing a security zone encompassing Sarajevo and its airport, Deploring the continuation of the fighting in Bosnia and Herzegovina which is rendering impossible the distribution of humanitarian assistance in Sarajevo and its environs, Stressing the imperative need to find an urgent negotiated political solution for the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1. Approves the report of the Secretary-General of 6 June 1992 (S/24075) submitted in accordance with paragraphs 17 and 18 of resolution 757 (1992); 2. Decides to enlarge the mandate and strength of UNPROFOR, established under resolution 743 (1992), in accordance with the Secretary-General's report; 3. Authorizes the Secretary-General to deploy, when he judges it appropriate, the military observers and related personnel and equipment required for the activities referred to in paragraph 5 of his report; 4. Requests the Secretary-General to seek Security Council authorization for the deployment of the additional elements of UNPROFOR, after he has reported to the Council that all the conditions necessary for them to carry out the mandate approved by the Security Council, including an effective and durable cease-fire, have been fulfilled; 5. Strongly condemns all those parties and others concerned that are responsible for the violations of the cease-fire reaffirmed in paragraph 1 of the agreement of 5 June 1992 annexed to the Secretary-General's report; 6. Calls upon all parties and others concerned to comply fully with the above-mentioned agreement and in particular to respect strictly the cease-fire reaffirmed in paragraph 1 thereof; 7. Demands that all parties and others concerned cooperate fully with UNPROFOR and international humanitarian agencies and take all necessary steps to ensure the safety of their personnel; 8. Demands that all parties and others concerned create immediately the necessary conditions for unimpeded delivery of humanitarian supplies to Sarajevo and other destinations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the establishment of a security zone encompassing Sarajevo and its airport and respecting the agreements signed in Geneva on 22 May 1992; 9. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to use his good offices in order to achieve the objectives contained in paragraph 8 above and invites him to keep under continuous review any further measures that may become necessary to ensure unimpeded delivery of humanitarian supplies; 10. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council on his efforts no later than seven days after the adoption of this resolution; 11. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 761 (June 29, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992, 740 (1992) of 7 February 1992, 743 (1992) of 21 February 1992, 749 (1992) of 7 April 1992, 752 (1992) of 15 May 1992, 757 (1992) of 30 May 1992, 758 (1992) of 8 June 1992 and 760 (1992) of 18 June 1992, Noting the considerable progress reported by the Secretary-General towards securing the evacuation of Sarajevo airport and its reopening by UNPROFOR and feeling the need to maintain this favourable momentum, Underlining the urgency of a quick delivery of humanitarian assistance to Sarajevo and its environs, 1. Authorizes the Secretary-General to deploy immediately additional elements of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) to ensure the security and functioning of Sarajevo airport and the delivery of humanitarian assistance in accordance with his report dated 6 June 1992 (S/24075); 2. Calls upon all parties and others concerned to comply fully with the agreement of 5 June 1992 and in particular to maintain an absolute and unconditional cease-fire; 3. Appeals to all sides to cooperate fully with UNPROFOR in the reopening of the airport, to exercise the utmost restraint and not to seek any military advantage in this situation; 4. Demands that all parties and others concerned cooperate fully with UNPROFOR and international humanitarian agencies and organizations and take all necessary steps to ensure the safety of their personnel; in the absence of such cooperation, the Security Council does not exclude other measures to deliver humanitarian assistance to Sarajevo and its environs; 5. Calls upon all States to contribute to the international humanitarian efforts in Sarajevo and its environs; 6. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 762 (June 30, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 14 December 1991, 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992, 740 (1992) of 7 February 1992, 743 (1992) of 21 February 1992, 749 (1992) of 7 April 1992, 752 (1992) of 15 May 1992, 757 (1992) of 30 May 1992, 758 (1992) of 8 June 1992, 760 (1992) of 18 June 1992 and 761 (1992) of 29 June 1992, Noting the report of the Secretary-General of 26 June 1992 (S/24188) submitted pursuant to resolution 752 (1992), Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Welcoming the progress made as a result of the assumption of responsibilities by the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in Sectors East and West, and concerned about the difficulties encountered by UNPROFOR in Sectors North and South, Commending again the efforts undertaken by the European Community and its member States, with the support of the States participating in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, through the convening of a Conference on Yugoslavia, including the mechanisms set forth within it, to ensure a peaceful political settlement, 1. Approves the report of the Secretary-General of 26 June 1992 (S/24188); 2. Urges all parties and others concerned to honour their commitments to effect a complete cessation of hostilities and to implement the United Nations peace-keeping plan (S/23280, annex III); 3. Also urges, in accordance with paragraph 4 of resolution 727 (1992), the Government of Croatia to withdraw its army to the positions held before the offensive of 21 June 1992 and cease hostile military activities within or adjacent to the United Nations Protected Areas; 4. Urges the remaining units of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), the Serb territorial defence forces in Croatia and others concerned to comply strictly with their obligations under the United Nations peace-keeping plan, in particular with regard to the withdrawal and the disarming of all forces in accordance with the plan; 5. Urges the Government of Croatia and others concerned to follow the course of action outlined in paragraph 16 of the Secretary- General's report and appeals to all parties to assist UNPROFOR in its implementation; 6. Recommends the establishment of the Joint Commission described in paragraph 16 of the Secretary-General's report which should consult, as may be necessary or appropriate, with the Belgrade authorities in performing its functions; 7. Authorizes the strengthening of UNPROFOR by the addition of up to 60 military observers and 120 civilian police to perform the functions envisaged in paragraph 16 of the Secretary General's report, with the agreement of the Government of Croatia and others concerned; 8. Reaffirms the embargo applied in paragraph 6 of resolution 713 (1991), paragraph 5 of resolution 724 (1991) and paragraph 6 of resolution 727 (1992); 9. Supports the views expressed in paragraph 18 of the Secretary- General's report about the grave consequences which the collapse of the United Nations peace-keeping plan would have throughout the region; 10. Encourages the Secretary-General to pursue his efforts to fulfil as soon as possible the terms of paragraph 12 of resolution 752 (1992); 11. Calls again upon all parties concerned to cooperate fully with the Conference on Yugoslavia and its aim of reaching a political settlement consistent with the principles of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and reaffirms that the United Nations peace-keeping plan and its implementation is in no way intended to prejudge the terms of a political settlement; 12. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 770 (August 13, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992, 740 (1992) of 7 February 1992, 743 (1992) of 21 February 1992, 749 (1992) of 7 April 1992, 752 (1992) of 15 May 1992, 757 (1992) of 30 May 1992, 758 (1992) of 8 June 1992, 760 (1992) of 18 June 1992, 761 (1992) of 29 June 1992, 762 (1992) of 30 June 1992, 764 (1992) of 13 July 1992 and 769 (1992) of 7 August 1992, Noting the letter dated 10 August 1992 from the Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the United Nations (S/24401), Underlining once again the imperative need for an urgent negotiated political solution to the situation in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to enable that country to live in peace and security within its borders, Reaffirming the need to respect the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Recognizing that the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina constitutes a threat to international peace and security and that the provision of humanitarian assistance in Bosnia and Herzegovina is an important element in the Council's effort to restore international peace and security in the area, Commending the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) for its continuing action in support of the relief operation in Sarajevo and other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Deeply disturbed by the situation that now prevails in Sarajevo, which has severely complicated UNPROFOR's efforts to fulfil its mandate to ensure the security and functioning of Sarajevo airport and the delivery of humanitarian assistance in Sarajevo and other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina pursuant to resolutions 743 (1992), 749 (1992), 761 (1992) and 764 (1992) and the reports of the Secretary-General cited therein, Dismayed by the continuation of conditions that impede the delivery of humanitarian supplies to destinations within Bosnia and Herzegovina and the consequent suffering of the people of that country, Deeply concerned by reports of abuses against civilians imprisoned in camps, prisons and detention centres, Determined to establish as soon as possible the necessary conditions for the delivery of humanitarian assistance wherever needed in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in conformity with resolution 764 (1992), Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, 1. Reaffirms its demand that all parties and others concerned in Bosnia and Herzegovina stop the fighting immediately; 2. Calls upon States to take nationally or through regional agencies or arrangements all measures necessary to facilitate in coordination with the United Nations the delivery by relevant United Nations humanitarian organizations and others of humanitarian assistance to Sarajevo and wherever needed in other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 3. Demands that unimpeded and continuous access to all camps, prisons and detention centres be granted immediately to the International Committee of the Red Cross and other relevant humanitarian organizations and that all detainees therein receive humane treatment, including adequate food, shelter and medical care; 4. Calls upon States to report to the Secretary-General on measures they are taking in coordination with the United Nations to carry out this resolution, and invites the Secretary-General to keep under continuous review any further measures that may be necessary to ensure unimpeded delivery of humanitarian supplies; 5. Requests all States to provide appropriate support for the actions undertaken in pursuance of this resolution; 6. Demands that all parties and others concerned take the necessary measures to ensure the safety of United Nations and other personnel engaged in the delivery of humanitarian assistance; 7. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council on a periodic basis on the implementation of this resolution; 8. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter. VOTE: 12-0-3 (China, India, Zimbabwe abstaining).
Resolution 771 (August 13, 1992 )
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992, 740 (1992) of 7 February 1992, 743 (1992) of 21 February 1992, 749 (1992) of 7 April 1992, 752 (1992) of 15 May 1992, 757 (1992) of 30 May 1992, 758 (1992) of 8 June 1992, 760 (1992) of 18 June 1992, 761 (1992) of 29 June 1992, 762 (1992) of 30 June 1992, 764 (1992) of 13 July 1992, 769 (1992) of 7 August 1992 and 770 (1992) of 13 August 1992, Noting the letter dated 10 August 1992 from the Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the United Nations (S/24401), Expressing grave alarm at continuing reports of widespread violations of international humanitarian law occurring within the territory of the former Yugoslavia and especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina including reports of mass forcible expulsion and deportation of civilians, imprisonment and abuse of civilians in detention centres, deliberate attacks on non-combatants, hospitals and ambulances, impeding the delivery of food and medical supplies to the civilian population, and wanton devastation and destruction of property, Recalling the statement of the President of the Council of 4 August 1992 (S/24378), 1. Reaffirms that all parties to the conflict are bound to comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law and in particular the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and that persons who commit or order the commission of grave breaches of the Conventions are individually responsible in respect of such breaches; 2. Strongly condemns any violations of international humanitarian law, including those involved in the practice of "ethnic cleansing"; 3. Demands that all parties and others concerned in the former Yugoslavia, and all military forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, immediately cease and desist from all breaches of international humanitarian law including from actions such as those described above; 4. Further demands that relevant international humanitarian organizations, and in particular the International Committee of the Red Cross, be granted immediate, unimpeded and continued access to camps, prisons and detention centres within the territory of the former Yugoslavia and calls upon all parties to do all in their power to facilitate such access; 5. Calls upon States and, as appropriate, international humanitarian organizations to collate substantiated information in their possession or submitted to them relating to the violations of humanitarian law, including grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, being committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia and to make this information available to the Council; 6. Requests the Secretary-General to collate the information submitted to the Council under paragraph 5 and to submit a report to the Council summarizing the information and recommending additional measures that might be appropriate in response to the information; 7. Decides, acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, that all parties and others concerned in the former Yugoslavia, and all military forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, shall comply with the provisions of the present resolution, failing which the Council will need to take further measures under the Charter; 8. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 776 (September 14, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolution 743 (1992) of 21 February 1992 and all subsequent resolutions relating to the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), Expressing its full support for the Statement of Principles adopted and other agreements reached at the London Conference, including the agreement of the parties to the conflict to collaborate fully in the delivery of humanitarian relief by road throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina, Having examined the report of the Secretary-General of 10 September 1992 (S/24540), Noting with appreciation the offers made by a number of States, following the adoption of its resolution 770 (1992) of 13 August 1992, to make available military personnel to facilitate the delivery by relevant United Nations humanitarian organizations and others of humanitarian assistance to Sarajevo and wherever needed in other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, such personnel to be made available to the United Nations without cost to the Organization, Reaffirming its determination to ensure the protection and security of UNPROFOR and United Nations personnel, Stressing in this context the importance of air measures, such as the ban on military flights to which all parties to the London Conference committed themselves, whose rapid implementation could, inter alia, reinforce the security of humanitarian activities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1. Approves the report of the Secretary-General; 2. Authorizes, in implementation of paragraph 2 of resolution 770 (1992), the enlargements of UNPROFOR's mandate and strength in Bosnia and Herzegovina recommended by the Secretary-General in that report to perform the functions outlined in the report, including the protection of convoys of released detainees if requested by the International Committee of the Red Cross; 3. Further urges Member States, nationally or through regional agencies or arrangements, to provide the Secretary-General with such financial or other assistance as he deems appropriate to assist in the performance of the functions outlined in his report; 4. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter in particular with a view to considering, as required, what further steps might be necessary to ensure UNPROFOR's security and to enable it to fulfil its mandate. VOTE: 12-0-3 (China, India, Zimbabwe abstaining).
Resolution 777 (September 19, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolution 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991 and all subsequent relevant resolutions, Considering that the state formerly known as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has ceased to exist, Recalling in particular resolution 757 (1992) which notes that "the claim by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations has not been generally accepted", 1. Considers that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) cannot continue automatically the membership of the former socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations; and therefore recommends to the General Assembly that it decide that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) should apply for membership in the United Nations and that it shall not participate in the work of the General Assembly; 2. Decides to consider the matter again before the end of the main part of the forty-seventh session of the General Assembly. VOTE: 12-0-3 (China, India, Zimbabwe abstaining).

UN Human Rights Commission Resolution

Resolution 1992/S-1/1 (August 14, 1992)
["The situation of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia," adopted by the UN Commission on Human Rights, Geneva, Switzerland.] The Commission on Human Rights, Meeting in a special session, Guided by the principles embodied in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1 the International Covenants on Human Rights,2 the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination3 and accepted humanitarian rules, including those set out in the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 19494 for the protection of war victims and the Additional Protocols thereto of 1977,5 Guided also by the need to implement the principles set out in the aforementioned instruments, Aware of its responsibility to promote and encourage respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, and resolved to remain vigilant with regard to violations of human rights wherever they may occur and to prevent such violations, Appalled at the continuing reports of widespread, massive and grave violations of human rights perpetrated within the territory of the former Yugoslavia, and especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including reports of summary and arbitrary executions, enforced disappearances, torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, arbitrary arrest and detention, hostage-taking, lack of due process and lack of respect for the rule of law, restrictions on freedom of thought, expression and association, deliberate attacks on non-combatants, hospitals and ambulances, restrictions on access to food and health care, wanton devastation and destruction of property, and serious violations of human rights in places of detention, Expressing its particular abhorrence at the concept and practice of "ethnic cleansing" in the former Yugoslavia, and especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which at a minimum entails deportations and forcible mass removal or expulsion of persons from their homes in flagrant violation of their human rights, and which is aimed at the dislocation or destruction of national, ethnic, racial or religious groups, Deeply concerned that the conflict in the former Yugoslavia and deliberate violations of human rights have resulted in the creation of more than two and a half million refugees and internally displaced persons and that conditions conducive to their return in safety and dignity have not been achieved, Cognizant of the acute danger that the current conflict and its accompanying human rights abuses could spread to additional areas of the former Yugoslavia and of the need to take action to ensure that this does not occur, Noting the statement by the President of the Security Council on 4 August 1992 concerning reports of the imprisonment and abuse of civilians in camps, prisons and detention centres within the territory of the former Yugoslavia, and especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which demands that international organizations, and in particular the International Committee of the Red Cross, be granted immediate, unimpeded and continued access to all such places, and which calls on all parties and organizations to make available to the Council any further information they may possess, Recalling Security Council resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992, 740 (1992) of 7 February 1992, 743 (1992) of 21 February 1992, 749 (1992) of 7 April 1992, 752 (1992) of 15 May 1992, 757 (1992) of 30 May 1992, 758 (1992) of 8 June 1992, 760 (1992) of 18 June 1992, 761 (1992) of 29 June 1992, 762 (1992) of 30 June 1992, 764 (1992) of 13 July 1992, 769 (1992) of 7 August 1992 and 770 (1992) of 13 August 1992, Recalling that the former Yugoslavia was a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,2 the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,2 the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide,6 the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,7 and the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination,3 Welcoming efforts by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe to investigate reports of serious violations of fundamental human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, and welcoming also the interest of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, Noting the statements by parties in the former Yugoslavia expressing their willingness to cooperate with international observers, Noting also the resolution adopted by the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities on 13 August 1992, which is annexed to the present resolution, 1. Condemns in the strongest terms all violations of human rights within the territory of the former Yugoslavia, and especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and calls upon all parties to cease these violations immediately and to take all necessary steps to ensure full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and humanitarian law; 2. Condemns absolutely the concept and practice of "ethnic cleansing"; 3. Expresses its alarm at all repressive policies and practices directed against members of particular ethnic groups, and also calls upon all parties to ensure the protection of the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities; 4. Calls upon all parties to release immediately all persons arbitrarily arrested or detained; 5. Demands that the International Committee of the Red Cross be granted immediate, unimpeded and continued access to all camps, prisons and other places of detention within the territory of the former Yugoslavia and that all parties ensure complete safety and freedom of movement for the International Committee of the Red Cross and otherwise facilitate such access; 6. Also demands that all parties in the former Yugoslavia extend full cooperation and protection to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and her staff, and to other international humanitarian organizations and relief workers, in carrying out their efforts to assist refugees and displaced persons in the former Yugoslavia; 7. Calls upon all parties in the former Yugoslavia to cease immediately the human rights violations that have produced refugees and displaced persons and to promote and ensure conditions conducive to their return to their homes in safety and dignity; 8. Affirms the absolute necessity of ensuring access for humanitarian assistance to those in need; 9. Reminds all parties that they are bound to comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law, and in particular the Third Geneva Convention relating to the treatment of prisoners of war and the Fourth Geneva Convention relating to the protection of civilian persons in time of war, of 12 August 1949,8 and the Additional Protocols of 1977 thereto,5 and that persons who commit or order the commission of grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions or their Additional Protocols are individually responsible in respect of such breaches; 10. Calls on all parties in the former Yugoslavia to fulfil their obligations under the provisions of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,2 the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,2 the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide,6 the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment7 and the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination;3 11. Affirms that States are to be held accountable for violations of human rights which their agents commit upon the territory of another State; 12. Requests its Chairman to appoint a special rapporteur to investigate first-hand the human rights situation in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, in particular within Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to receive relevant, credible information on the human rights situation there from Governments, individuals, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, on a continuing basis, and to avail himself or herself of the assistance of existing mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights; 13. Requests the existing mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights, in particular the Special Rapporteur on torture, the Special Rapporteur on summary or arbitrary executions, the representative of the Secretary-General on internally displaced persons and the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, to give urgent attention to the situation in the former Yugoslavia and to provide, on a continuing basis, their full cooperation, assistance and findings to the Special Rapporteur, and to accompany the Special Rapporteur in visiting the former Yugoslavia if he or she should so request; 14. Requests the Special Rapporteur to visit areas of interest in the former Yugoslavia, and in particular Bosnia and Herzegovina, forthwith and to report on an urgent basis to the members of the Commission on Human Rights, providing a preliminary report not later than 28 August 1992 on the situation of human rights in the former Yugoslavia, including his or her recommendations for bringing violations to an end and preventing future violations, and requests the Secretary- General to make the report of the Special Rapporteur available also to the Security Council; 15. Also requests the Special Rapporteur to report his or her findings and recommendations to the members of the Commission on Human Rights periodically thereafter until its next regular session, and to report to the General Assembly at its forty-seventh session, as well as to the Commission on Human Rights at its next regular session, under agenda item 12, and requests the Secretary-General to make the reports of the Special Rapporteur available also to the Security Council; 16. Further requests the Special Rapporteur to gather and compile systematically information on possible violations of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, including those which may constitute war crimes, and to make this information available to the Secretary-General, and notes that such information could be of possible future use in prosecuting violators of international humanitarian law; 17. Requests the Secretary-General to provide all necessary assistance to the Special Rapporteur to fulfil his or her mandate; 18. Requests all United Nations bodies and the specialized agencies, and invites Governments and informed intergovernmental and non- governmental organizations, to provide the Special Rapporteur, through the Centre for Human Rights, on a continuing basis, with all relevant and accurate information in their possession on the situation of human rights in the former Yugoslavia; 19. Demands that all parties in the territory of the former Yugoslavia cooperate fully with the Special Rapporteur in the implementation of the present resolution; 20. Requests the Special Rapporteur to take into account and seek to complement the efforts being undertaken by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe with respect to the crisis in the former Yugoslavia; 21. Decides to remain seized of the issues.
Annex
The Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, Meeting at its forty-fourth session, Noting the convening of the special session on the former Yugoslavia of the Commission on Human Rights, Taking into account that the right to life and other fundamental human rights are being extensively violated in the former Yugoslavia, Conscious that the protection of different ethnic and religious groups is at the core of the mandate of the Subcommission, 1. Expresses its horror at and its total and unqualified condemnation of policies of so-called "ethnic cleansing", which in the former Yugoslavia has generated vast displacements of people and large flows of refugees of the different ethnic groups, and in Bosnia and Herzegovina has affected, in particular, the Muslim population; 2. Also expresses its deep concern at the existence of detention centres and allegations of serious human rights violations in those centres; 3. Demands: (a) That steps be taken on an urgent basis to stop the massive violations of the right to life and other human rights; (b) That the policies and practices of so-called "ethnic cleansing" be immediately brought to an end; (c) That displaced people be given the opportunity to return to their homes and that their safety be ensured; (d) That full reparation be made for losses suffered as a result of the displacement; (e) That those responsible for the commission of crimes against peace and humanity and for war crimes be brought to justice and that steps be taken as a matter of urgency to this end. APPROVED by consensus. 1 General Assembly resolution 217 A (III). 2 General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex. 3 General Assembly resolution 2106 A (XX), annex. 4 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, Nos. 970-973. 5 Ibid., vol. 1125, Nos. 17512 and 17513. 6 General Assembly resolution 260 A (III), annex. 7 General Assembly resolution 39/46, annex. 8 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, Nos. 972 and 973.

UN General Assembly Resolutions

Resolution 46/242 (August 27, 1992)
The General Assembly, Having considered the item entitled "The situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina," Reaffirming the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and guided by the need to implement them, Aware of its responsibility to promote and encourage respect for international legitimacy, Considering that the United Nations, pursuant to the provisions of its Charter, has a major role to play in, and responsibility for, the maintenance of international peace and security, Recalling the relevant resolutions of the Security Council, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Commission on Human Rights, as well as Economic and Social Council decision 1992/305 of 18 August 1992, Noting that a large number of States have reserved their position regarding the succession of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Deploring the grave situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the serious deterioration of the living conditions of the people there, especially the Muslim and Croat populations, arising from the aggression against the territory of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which constitutes a threat to international peace and security, Alarmed by the prospect of further escalation of the fighting in the region, Expressing grave alarm at continuing reports of widespread violations of international humanitarian law occurring within the territory of the former Yugoslavia and especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including reports of mass forcible expulsion and deportation of civilians, imprisonment and abuse of civilians in detention centres and deliberate attacks on non-combatants, hospitals and ambulances, impeding the delivery of food and medical supplies to the civilian population, as well as wanton devastation and destruction of property, Strongly condemning the abhorrent practice of "ethnic cleansing," which constitutes a grave and serious violation of international humanitarian law, Recalling the report of the Secretary-General of 12 May 1992, in which he states that "all international observers agree that what is happening is a concerted effort by the Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the acquiescence of, and at least some support from, the Yugoslav People's Army, to create 'ethnically pure' regions in the context of negotiations on the 'cantonization' of the Republic in the Conference of the European Community on Bosnia and Herzegovina",1 Expressing grave concern that, despite the relevant resolutions of the Security Council, NO effective measure has been implemented to stop the abhorrent practice of "ethnic cleansing", or to reverse and discourage the policies and proposals that might encourage it, Appalled by the continuing reports of widespread, massive and grave violations of human rights perpetrated within the territory of the former Yugoslavia and especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including reports of summary and arbitrary executions, forced disappearances, torture, rape and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, as well as arbitrary arrest and detention, Expressing grave concern that, despite repeated demands by the Security Council, the cease-fire agreed upon by all parties has not been respected, Concerned that other demands made by the Security Council in its relevant resolutions, especially resolutions 752 (1992) of 15 May 1992, 757 (1992) of 30 May 1992, 764 (1992) of 13 July 1992 and 770 (1992) and 771 (1992) of 13 August 1992, have not been complied with, Reaffirming the necessity of respecting the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and national unity of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and rejecting any attempt to change the boundaries of that republic, Reaffirming also the inherent right of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to individual or collective self-defence in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter, Underlining the imperative need for an urgent peaceful solution to the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in conformity with the Charter and the principles of international law, in particular the principles of respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, non-recognition of the fruits of aggression and non- recognition of the acquisition of territory by force, and welcoming in this context the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, scheduled to be convened in London on 26 August 1992, Commending the efforts of the Secretary-General, the Security Council, United Nations agencies, including the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and other international and relief organizations, including the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the European Community, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and the International Committee of the Red Cross, Commending also the United Nations Protection Force for its continuing action in support of the relief operation in Sarajevo and other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Deeply concerned about the safety of the personnel or the United Nations Protection Force and expressing sympathy for the losses suffered by them, 1. Demands that all parties to the conflict immediately stop fighting and find a peaceful solution in line with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, and in particular the principles of respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, non-recognition of the fruits of aggression and non-recognition of the acquisition of territory by force; 2. Demands also that all forms of interference from outside the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina cease immediately; 3. Demands further that those units of the Yugoslav People's Army and elements of the Croatian Army now in Bosnia and Herzegovina must either be withdrawn, or be subject to the authority of the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, or be disbanded and disarmed with their weapons placed under effective international monitoring, and requests the Secretary-General to consider without delay what kind of international assistance could be provided in this connection; 4. Reaffirms its support for the Government and people of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in their just struggle to safeguard their sovereignty, political independence, territorial integrity and unity; 5. Urges the Security Council to consider, on an urgent basis, taking further appropriate measures, as provided in Chapter VII of the Charter, to put an end to the fighting and to restore the unity and the territorial integrity of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 6. Condemns the violation of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as the massive violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, in particular the abhorrent practice of "ethnic cleansing", and demands that this practice be brought to an end immediately and that further steps be taken, on an urgent basis, to stop the massive and forcible displacement of population from and within the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as all other forms of violation of human rights in the former Yugoslavia; 7. Affirms that States are to be held accountable for violations of human rights which their agents commit upon the territory of another State; 8. Calls upon all States and international organizations not to recognize the consequences of the acquisition of territory by force and of the abhorrent practice of "ethnic cleansing"; 9. Demands that the International Committee of the Red Cross be granted immediate, unimpeded and continued access to all camps, prisons and other places of detention within the territory of the former Yugoslavia and that all parties ensure complete safety and freedom of movement for the International Committee and otherwise facilitate such access; 10. Demands also the safe, unconditional and honourable repatriation of the refugees and deportees to their homes in Bosnia and Herzegovina and recognizes their right to receive reparation for their losses; 11. Calls upon organs of the United Nations and all international relief agencies to facilitate the return of the displaced people to their homes in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as their rehabilitation; 12. Commends the untiring efforts and the bravery of the United Nations Protection Force in securing the relief operation in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the efforts of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other relief agencies; 13. Urges all parties and others concerned to take the necessary measures to secure the safety of the United Nations Protection Force and all other United Nations personnel; 14. Urges all States to support the ongoing efforts to be taken in accordance with the relevant Security Council resolutions to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance to all parts of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 15. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the General Assembly at its forty-seventh session on the implementation of the present resolution; 16. Decides to remain seized of the matter and to continue its consideration of this item at its forty-seventh session. VOTE: 136-1-5 (Yugoslavia against; Ghana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Russia abstaining). 1 See S/23900, para. 5.
Resolution 47/1 (September 22, 1992)
The General Assembly, Having received the recommendation of the Security Council of 19 September 1992 that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) should apply for membership in the United Nations and that it shall not participate in the work the General Assembly,1 1. Considers that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) cannot continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations, and therefore decides that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) should apply for membership in the United Nations and that it shall not participate in the work of the General Assembly; 2. Takes note of the intention of the Security Council to consider the matter again before the end of the main part of the forty- seventh session of the General Assembly. VOTE: 127-6-26 (Kenya, Swaziland, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe against; Angola, Bahamas, Botswana, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, China, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Ghana, Guyana, India, Iraq, Jamaica, Lebanon, Lesotho, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zaire abstaining). (###)