US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991


Ukrainians Vote for Independence

Fitzwater Source: White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater Description: Washington, DC Date: Dec 2, 199112/2/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Ukraine Subject: Democratization [TEXT] Yesterday, in a free and fair vote, the people of Ukraine voted for independence. The United States welcomes this expression of democracy which is a tribute to the spirit of the Ukrainian people. The President would also like to congratulate Leonid Kravchuk on his apparent victory in Ukraine's first free presidential election. Yesterday's referendum and election were also a tribute to the defeat of the coup, in which Boris Yeltsin played such a pivotal role, and a positive development for the new Europe. ..........For its part, the United States looks forward to the kind of normal relationship with Ukraine that one would expect it to have with a democratizing country. Ukraine's aspiration to join the Euro- Atlantic community is striking testimony to the will for liberty in a nation which has persisted and survived despite the terrible calamities of the 20th century. In developing this relationship, we also intend to continue our cooperation with President Gorbachev and his government and to strengthen our expanding ties with President Yeltsin and the Russian Government, as well as the other republics. ..........We are aware that independence raises some complex issues to be resolved among Russia, Ukraine, and the center. Establishment of a new cooperative relationship between Russia and Ukraine, based on openness and mutual respect, will be a test of whether they are capable of making the transition to democratic societies which respect the rights of individuals. We hope and believe that the leaders in Moscow and Kiev will establish such a relationship. ..........The President has instructed the Secretary of State to dispatch a special emissary, Assistant Secretary for European and Canadian Affairs Thomas Niles, to discuss with the newly elected authorities in Kiev our future relationships with Ukraine. ..........In particular, Secretary Baker has asked the special emissary to consult closely with the Ukrainian leadership on three issues of fundamental importance: ..........First, the special emissary will discuss ways in which the United States and the international community can support Ukrainian adherence to democratic values and practices, especially respect for human rights including equal treatment of minorities. The special emissary will also discuss ways in which Ukraine can record its commitment to such fundamental principles as: ..........-- Respect for international obligations; ..........-- Respect for borders with changes to be made only peacefully and through negotiations; and ..........-- Respect for and adherence to all of the other norms of the Helsinki Final Act, the Charter of Paris, and other CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] documents. ..........Second, the special emissary will discuss with Ukrainian leaders the steps we would like to see Ukraine take to implement their desire to achieve a non-nuclear status and to ensure responsible security policies. These include the steps Ukraine is taking with other republics and union authorities to ensure safe, responsible, and reliable control of nuclear weapons; to prevent proliferation of dangerous military-related technology; and to support implementation of relevant international agreements, including START [Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty], the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Biological Weapons Convention. ..........Third, the special emissary will also discuss with the Ukrainian leadership its commitment to economic policies aimed at facilitating free markets and fair trade both with other republics and with the international community more generally. ..........Finally, the special emissary will discuss Ukraine's obligation and role with regard to the debts of the Soviet Union. ..........After consulting with the Ukrainian leadership, the special emissary will return to Washington to report to Secretary Baker. The President has asked that later this month Secretary Baker travel to Kiev and Moscow to further consultations on these issues with the leadership of Russia, Ukraine, and the center. We are also discussing these issues in NATO and with other allies. The transformation of the Soviet Union, as we have known it, is of vital significance not only to us but to our European and other allies, and we, therefore, will continue to coordinate our approach with them. ..........In closing, we commend Ukrainians for pursuing the democratic path, both in the referendum on independence and in its popular vote for president. As both the Ukrainian and American people well understand, genuine and effective independence requires a never-ending commitment to democratic values and practices. As the people of Ukraine, Russia, and the other republics continue peacefully and democratically to pursue the hard work of freedom, the President supports them in their work and wishes them peace and prosperity. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991 Title:

Call to Repeal UNGA Resolution 3379 ("Zionism is Racism")

Tutwiler Source: Statement by Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Dec 3, 199112/3/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Israel Subject: United Nations [TEXT] Secretary Baker has today instructed the Department to press actively to accomplish the nullification of the "Zionism-is-racism" determination in UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 by December 17, the end of the current General Assembly session. ..........As President Bush indicated in September to the UN General Assembly, "to equate Zionism with the intolerable sin of racism is to twist history. . . . By repealing this resolution unconditionally, the United Nations will enhance its credibility and serve the cause of peace." ..........The President and the Secretary place highest importance on achieving the nullification of this odious determination. We continue to urge all countries to look to the UN's future by actively supporting this repeal effort. ..........Since September 23, the Secretary of State and other officials here at the Department have been working actively and quietly on this issue. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991 Title:

Update on Middle East Peace Talks

Tutwiler Source: Statement by Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Dec 3, 199112/3/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: United States, USSR (former) Subject: Mideast Peace Process [TEXT] The Soviet Union and the United States, as co-sponsors of the process launched in Madrid, have agreed to convene a meeting at the level of ministers in Moscow on January 28 to 29, 1992, for the purpose of organizing multilateral negotiations on issues of regional concern. ..........The co-sponsors hope for the widest possible participation from among the parties in the region and other interested parties, believing that the multilateral negotiations can serve as a positive influence on and complement to the critical bilateral negotiations aimed at achieving a just, lasting, and comprehensive peace settlement. ..........In the period ahead, the co-sponsors will consult with a wide range of parties to help ensure that the negotiations get off to a productive start. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991 Title:

US-Soviet Statement on El Salvador: Peace Negotiations

Tutwiler Source: Statement by Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Dec 2, 199112/2/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Caribbean Country: USSR (former), United States, El Salvador Subject: Democratization [TEXT] Having reviewed the situation at the ongoing talks on the peaceful settlement of the crisis in El Salvador, the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the US Department of State have agreed upon the following joint statement. ..........The efforts made over the past year by the opposing Salvadoran parties toward ending the armed confrontation and assuring conditions in which all Salvadorans will be guaranteed equal, non-discriminatory participation in internal political processes have produced a number of important decisions. These provide realistic prospects for achieving early agreements to end the protracted conflict in this Central American country. ..........Of particular significance were the agreements reached during the April and September negotiating rounds between representatives of the Government of El Salvador and the FMLN [Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front] leadership, conducted respectively in Mexico City and New York, with major contributions by UN Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar and his personal representative at these talks, Alvaro de Soto. ..........The recent steps to terminate offensive combat operations taken by the government and FMLN have helped create favorable conditions for the success of the meeting between the representatives of the government and the FMLN being held in Mexico. ..........The USSR and the United States believe that it is important that both the government and the FMLN observe their announced commitments in order to sustain the emerging constructive approach. The USSR and the United States strongly urge the Salvadoran parties and the United Nations to extend every effort to achieve by the end of the year the goals set by the participants in the talks themselves: to agree on remaining issues; to reach agreement on an internationally supervised cease-fire; and to begin to implement measures aimed at national reconciliation. They note that a UN-supervised cease-fire is urgently required to consolidate the progress that has been made and to put a definitive end to the conflict. ..........The USSR and the United States declare their intention to continue to provide all possible support for a peaceful resolution of the crisis in El Salvador. They urge all the interested states and the United Nations to do everything possible to secure the earliest possible achievement of these objectives. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991 Title:

START Treaty Sent to Congress

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Text of a letter to the US Senate, Washington, DC Date: Nov 25, 199111/25/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: North America, Eurasia Country: United States, USSR (former) Subject: Arms Control To the Senate of the United States: I am transmitting herewith, for the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification, the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (the START Treaty) signed at Moscow on July 31, 1991. The START Treaty includes the following documents, which are integral parts thereof: ..........-- The Annex on Agreed Statements ("Agreed Statements Annex"); ..........-- The Annex on Terms and Their Definitions ("Definitions Annex"); ..........-- The Protocol on Procedures Governing the Conversion or Elimination of the Items Subject to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms ("Conversion or Elimination Protocol"); ..........-- The Protocol on Inspections and Continuous Monitoring Activities Related to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, with 12 annexes ("Inspection Protocol"); ..........-- The Protocol on Notifications Relating to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms ("Notification Protocol"); ..........-- The Protocol on ICBM [intercontinental ballistic missile] and SLBM [submarine-launched ballistic missile] Throw-weight Relating to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms ("Throw-weight Protocol"); ..........-- The Protocol on Telemetric Information Relating to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms ("Telemetry Protocol"); ..........-- The Protocol on the Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission Relating to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms ("Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission Protocol"); and ..........-- The Memorandum of Understanding on the Establishment of the Data Base Relating to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, with 10 annexes ("Memorandum of Understanding"). ..........In addition, I transmit herewith, for the information of the Senate, the Report of the Department of State and documents associated with, but not integral parts of, the START Treaty. These documents are of four types: separate executive agreements related to the Treaty; letters embodying executive agreements on various aspects of the Treaty; declarations regarding specific systems that do not fall within the scope of the Treaty; and a variety of statements and correspondence concerning aspects of the negotiation of the Treaty. Although not submitted for the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification, these documents are relevant to the consideration of the Treaty by the Senate. ..........The START Treaty represents a nearly decade-long effort by the United States and the Soviet Union to address the nature and magnitude of the threat that strategic nuclear weapons pose to both countries and to the world in general. The fundamental premise of START is that, despite significant political differences, the United States and the Soviet Union have a common interest in reducing the risk of nuclear war and enhancing strategic stability. ..........The United States had several objectives in the START negotiations. ..........First, we consistently held the view that the START Treaty must enhance stability in times of crisis. The strategic nuclear forces remaining after implementation of START--as well as during the period when weapons are reduced--should be such as to reduce Soviet incentives to provoke a crisis or to strike first during a crisis. Stability in times of crisis will remain important even in the post-Cold War era; no one can predict the future, and the purpose of this Treaty is to regulate the strategic threat for many years to come. Among the many measures we sought to fulfill this objective, the most important were the preferential treatment given to stabilizing systems, such as bombers and cruise missiles, the stringent limits on deployed ballistic missiles and their reentry vehicles, and the special, restrictive limits on heavy ICBMs, the most destabilizing weapons in existence. ..........Second, we sought an agreement that did not simply limit strategic arms, but that reduced them significantly below current levels. A successful combination of this objective with that of a stabilizing force structure can serve for many years as a linch-pin in shaping our strategic posture, and, if appropriate, can serve as a basis for future agreements that will lead to further reductions. Moreover, in order for the Treaty to work smoothly over many years, its terms must be as precise and unambiguous as possible. Neither Party should have any doubt as to the limitations and obligations that are imposed by the terms of the Treaty. ..........Third, we sought a Treaty that would allow equality of US forces relative to those of the Soviet Union. Again, the emphasis is to reach equality in order that the resulting levels will be stabilizing. Equality does not require identical force structures; rather, it demands limits that allow the Parties to have equivalent capabilities. ..........Fourth, we sought an agreement that is effectively verifiable. Effective verification is necessary to ensure that US national security is not jeopardized under the Treaty. Effective verification also acts as an inducement to the Soviets to comply because they are aware that their behavior will be closely monitored. ..........Finally, the United States placed great emphasis during the negotiations in seeking an agreement that would be supported by the American and allied publics. This objective means that US policies regarding strategic forces must not only sustain deterrence, but will also serve to assure the American people and allied publics that the risk of war and crisis instability is low and is being further reduced. ..........I am fully convinced that the START Treaty achieves these objectives. ..........START will be the first Treaty that actually reduces strategic offensive arms. START will lead to stabilizing changes to the composition of, and reductions in, the deployed strategic offensive nuclear forces of both countries. The overall strategic nuclear forces of both countries will be reduced by 30-40%, with a reduction of as much as 50% in the most threatening systems. The Treaty will have a 15-year duration, and can be extended for successive 5-year periods through the agreement of the Parties. ..........Force reductions under START will be asymmetrical due to currently higher Soviet levels, and will result in equal limits on deployed strategic offensive arms at the end of each of three phases over the first 7 years that the Treaty is in force. Moreover, I believe that the reduction of ICBMs should be accomplished even more rapidly than the Treaty would require. On September 27, as a part of my statement on the future of US nuclear weapons, I said that those ICBMs that the United States would reduce pursuant to START would be eliminated more rapidly than required by the Treaty. Today, I reiterate that pledge. ..........More specifically, the central limits of START require reductions down to ceilings of 1,600 on deployed strategic nuclear delivery systems (i.e., deployed ICBMs, deployed SLBMs, and deployed heavy bombers), 6,000 accountable nuclear warheads that those missiles and bombers would carry, and 3,600 metric tons of aggregate ballistic missile throw-weight. Aggregate throw- weight--a measure of the total weight of weapons and related objects that a ballistic missile can deliver--is limited to approximately 54% of the current aggregate Soviet throw-weight level. ..........Within these aggregate limits, the United States and Soviet Union have agreed to observe certain subceilings in specific weapon categories. Reductions and limitations on those weapon systems that could most threaten crisis stability are emphasized in these subceilings. Under START, neither Party may have more than 4,900 deployed ballistic missile warheads of which no more than 1,100 warheads can be on deployed mobile ICBMs. Moreover, the Soviet Union is required to reduce by 50% their heavy ICBM force. The Soviet Union will eliminate no fewer than 22 SS-18 launchers every year during the 7-year reduction period to a ceiling of 1,540 warheads on 154 heavy ICBMs. ..........To assist in verifying compliance with these limits, START incorporates the most extensive verification regime in history, which includes the exchange of ballistic missile telemetry tapes, the permanent monitoring of mobile ICBM assembly facilities, 12 kinds of on-site inspections, special access visits, cooperative measures, and data exchanges to complement our national technical means of verification. Moreover, many of the Treaty provisions, such as its definitions, counting rules, conversion or elimination procedures, notifications, and numerous data exchanges, will help to verify whether the Soviet Union is in compliance with the central limitations. Thus, I am convinced START is effectively verifiable. ..........START represents a critical watershed in our long-term effort to stabilize the strategic balance through arms control. Stabilization of the strategic balance will help cement one of the most fundamental tenets of our preferred world order--that conflict must not and shall not be resolved through the use of nuclear weapons. Moreover, recent events underscore the need to ensure stability and to broaden the dialogue between our countries. Implementation of START would reinforce these efforts. ..........In sum, the START Treaty is in the interest of the United States and represents an important step in the stabilization of the strategic nuclear balance. I therefore urge the Senate to give prompt and favorable consideration to the Treaty, including its Annexes, Protocols, and Memorandum of Understanding, and to give advice and consent to its ratification. George Bush (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991 Title:

Senate Ratifies CFE Treaty

Fitzwater Source: White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater Description: Washington, DC Date: Nov 25, 199111/25/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Europe Subject: Arms Control, Security Assistance and Sales [TEXT] The President is extremely pleased by the Senate's resolution of advice and consent to ratification of the CFE [Conventional Armed Forces in Europe] Treaty. ..........This action could not be more timely. The CFE Treaty is the cornerstone of the new security structure we have been working to construct in Europe. Its full implementation will put in place a system of equipment limits and verification provisions that will help provide a stable and secure framework for future European political development. ..........We call upon all other signatories to ratify the treaty promptly so that it can be implemented as soon as possible. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991 Title:

What's in Print: Dispatch Supplements on CFE and START Treaties

Date: Dec 9, 199112/9/91 Region: Europe, North America, Eurasia Country: United States, USSR (former) Subject: Arms Control, Security Assistance and Sales [TEXT] The US Government Printing Office sells copies of the publications listed below. Checks or money orders should be made payable to the Superintendent of Documents and sent to the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402 (Tel.: 202-783-3238). -- "Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE)," September 1991, Dispatch Supplement No. 4; ($3.25, GPO Stock No. 044-000-02330-0). -- "START--Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms," October 1991, Dispatch Supplement No. 5 (includes 2-page errata sheet from ACDA); ($14.00, GPO Stock No. to be issued). (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991 Title:

Feature: ACDA Celebrates 30th Anniversary

Date: Dec 9, 199112/9/91 Category: Features Region: North America Country: United States Subject: State Department, Arms Control [TEXT] The end of the Cold War, rapid change in the Soviet Union, and the aftermath of the Gulf war present extraordinary challenges to the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), says Director Ronald F. Lehman II. .......... "Arms control continues to make a significant contribution to traditional security concerns," says Mr. Lehman, "as well as the urgent need to stop the global proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, and the missile systems that provide the means to deliver them." ..........Created 30 years ago as part of US efforts to promote peace and freedom throughout the world, ACDA begins its fourth decade amid historic changes in superpower relations. ..........President John F. Kennedy signed the legislation creating ACDA on September 26, 1961. It remains the only independent government agency in the world with the sole responsibility of formulating and implementing arms control policy. ACDA also develops verification for arms control and disarmament agreements. ..........ACDA can point to the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which were transmitted to the Senate for advice and consent on ratification in 1991. Both agreements stipulate actual reduction and elimination of nuclear and conventional weapons systems. ..........START "vindicates an approach to arms control that guided us for almost a decade, the belief that we could do more than merely halt the growth of nuclear arsenals," said President Bush as he signed the treaty on July 31, 1991, in Moscow. He called START "a testament to the new relationship emerging between our two countries." ..........Testifying before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on July 11, 1991, Secretary Baker declared that CFE "marks a fundamental shift away from the Cold War to a Europe whole and free. Not only is it an essential foundation for the new Europe, but it will be a bulwark against a return to Cold War dangers and animosities." ..........These treaties are only two of the many in which ACDA has been prominent. Since its inception in 1961, the agency has played a key role in all arms control negotiations and agreements. Among the more well-known are: ..........-- The "hot line" agreements of 1963, 1971, and 1984; ..........-- The Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963; ..........-- The Strategic Arms Limitation Interim Agreement (SALT I) and the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, both of 1972; and ..........-- The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty of 1987. ..........ACDA always has had a special independent status. Congress mandates that the director of ACDA serve as the principal adviser on arms control issues to the President and the Secretary of State. ..........William C. Foster was the first director of ACDA, serving from 1961-69. Other directors were Gerard C. Smith (1969-73), Fred C. Ikle (1973-77), Paul C. Warnke (1977-78), George C. Seignious (1978-80), Ralph W. Earle II (1980-81), Eugene V. Rostow (1981-83), Kenneth L. Adelman (1983-87), and William F. Burns (1988-89). ..........The agency has four principal objectives: prepare for and manage US participation in negotiations on arms control and disarmament, conduct research on arms control issues, verify compliance of the parties to existing agreements, and disseminate information on arms control and disarmament to the public. ..........ACDA's concerns span the full range of modern weaponry, including conventional, nuclear, chemical, and biological. It monitors arms transfers worldwide and participates in international negotiations to reduce weapons levels and prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. ACDA has four major bureaus: non-proliferation, multilateral affairs, verification, and strategic nuclear affairs. .........."ACDA has the experience and the personnel to provide key leadership in formulating and implementing the Administration's policies to meet the challenges we face," says Mr. Lehman. "The agency is working toward a broad future of stability, peace, and freedom." (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991 Title:

Fact Sheet: Greek Prime Minister's Visit to Washington

Date: Dec 9, 199112/9/91 Category: Fact Sheets Region: Europe Country: Greece, Cyprus Subject: Trade/Economics, Security Assistance and Sales, NATO, EC, Democratization [TEXT] Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis made his second trip and first official working visit to the United States from December 11 to 13, 1991, reciprocating President Bush's visit to Greece in July 1991. The prime minister's first visit occurred in June 1990.
US-Greece Relations
The exchange of official visits underscores the cooperative relationship between the Governments of the United States and Greece, a partnership reflecting shared ideals and a common heritage. Both countries promote the peaceful settlement of disputes, free enterprise, an open world economic system, and democracy; they cooperate closely in the international fight against terrorism. ..........A 40-year membership in NATO forms the basis of a bilateral security relationship. The Greek Government dispatched, on a rotational basis, the frigates Limnos and Elli to the Red Sea to enforce UN sanctions against Iraq. Greece also supported the rapid movement of troops and material from Central Europe to the Persian Gulf. Greece was an ally of the United States in the two World Wars and in the Korean war. ..........In May 1990, the United States and Greece signed a new Mutual Defense Cooperation Agreement. It allows for the continued operation until 1998 of US military facilities at Souda Bay and Iraklion on the island of Crete. Those facilities serve important missions, such as naval support for the US Sixth Fleet, reconnaissance, storage of reserve materials, and communications. ..........Trade and travel flow easily between the two countries. Large numbers of Greek-Americans, including the present US Ambassador Michael Sotirhos, represent both cultures. There are more than 3 million people of Greek heritage in the United States alone. A famous Greek statesman, Eleftherios Venizelos, in the early 20th century, claimed that "America has realized the ideals of ancient Greece. No two elements come closer to each other than do the Greek and the American." In 1991, President Bush said, "My country would not exist if [Greek] forefathers had not developed the world's most revolutionary idea: democracy."
Consolidation of Democracy
Greece is a presidential parliamentary republic. Its governmental structure is similar to that found in most West European countries, where the prime minister and parliament play central roles in the political process. The president performs certain government functions in addition to ceremonial duties. The president is elected by the 300-member parliament to a 5-year term and can be reelected once. Parliamentary deputies are elected to serve for a maximum of 4 years by direct, secret ballot according to a system of proportional representation, but elections can be called before the 4-year term expires. The current president, serving his second 5-year term, is Constantine Karamanlis, who was prime minister during the visit of President Eisenhower in 1959 and has been an active political leader in Greece ever since. ..........For democracies everywhere, Greece is a historical model 2,500 years old. As such, it plays an active role in the Balkans, supporting and encouraging progress toward democracy and a free market economy in Bulgaria and Albania. After 18 years as an associate member, it became a full member of the European Community (EC) on January 1, 1981, and actively supports the US and EC aim of preserving the unity of Yugoslavia. ..........The continuing problem of Cyprus divided between Greek and Turkish populations is one of Greece's most troublesome international issues. The Mitsotakis Government has responded positively to an initiative from the UN Secretary General to negotiate a political solution of that conflict.
Economic and Trade Issues
Recent agreements have strengthened ties between Greece and the United States in the areas of customs, civil aviation, and tourism. The agreements will increase the number of commercial flights for both tourists and trade and to speed their flow through customs. The Overseas Private Investment Corporation may now provide insurance and financing for private-sector investment projects in Greece for the first time in more than a decade. Commerce Secretary Robert Mosbacher led a presidential trade and investment delegation to Greece in October 1991. Efforts to protect intellectual property rights, patents, copyrights, and trademarks and to ensure repatriation of profits continue. ..........Since assuming power in April 1990, Prime Minister Mitsotakis has placed a high priority on privatizing the economy, reducing the cost and size of the public sector, and initiating growth in the economy so that Greece can reduce its deficit and pay off its external debt. By the end of 1990, the government had established a stabilization program with a 1991-93 fiscal consolidation plan to bring Greece fully into the EC economic and monetary union by the end of 1993. EC requirements are that Greece must reduce inflation, the government and current account deficits, and the public sector as well as eliminate distortions in the goods and financial markets in order to qualify for a loan. ..........With resources of bauxite, lignite, magnesite, and oil, Greece anticipates serving as a mining center for some items needed by EC industries. Greece aims to market fashion apparel, foodstuffs, and cement to the EC. Tourism and shipping will remain its two largest foreign exchange earners, and its location is propitious for companies serving European and Middle Eastern markets. ..........The United States is the largest external investor in Greece, with direct investment of $900 million. As of November 1991, imports from the United States totaled $400 million (less than 4% of the total, but a 10% increase over 1990) and exports amounted to $600 million (an increase of $30 million, or 5%), representing 6% of total Greek exports. ..........More than 60% of Greece's trade is with other EC countries, which has obliged Greece to eliminate or adjust many of its tariffs and quotas. The Greek merchant shipping fleet is the largest in the EC. Greece imports and refines an average of about 10 million tons of crude oil each year, producing about 16 million tons of petroleum products and exporting about 2 million tons. Suppliers are Saudi Arabia, Libya, the Soviet Union, and Kuwait, but Greece has begun to develop and produce from oil reserves in the Aegean. ..........The Government of Greece provides incentives to foreign enterprises which locate there to conduct business exclusively outside the country. Through a broad range of investment grants, which can extend up to 50% of investment costs in some cases, the government offers three general types of investment incentives: direct subsidies, tax relief, and accelerated depreciation. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991 Title:

Country Profile: Greece

Date: Dec 9, 199112/9/91 Category: Country Data Region: Europe Country: Greece Subject: Trade/Economics, History, International Organizations [TEXT]
Official Name: Hellenic Republic
Area: 131,957 sq. km. (51,146 sq. mi.) including islands; roughly the size of Alabama. Cities: Capital--(greater) Athens (3 million). Other cities-- Thessaloniki (705,000), Patras (154,600), Iraklion (111,000). Terrain: Largely mountainous interior, with coastal plains; many islands. Climate: Temperate.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Greek(s). Population: 10 million (1990 est.). Ethnic groups: Greek 98%, other 2%. Religions: Greek Orthodox 97%, Muslim 2%, other 1%. Language: Greek. Education: Years compulsory--9. Literacy--men 96%, women 89%. Health (1984): Infant mortality rate--14/1,000. Life expectancy-- men 72 yrs., women 75 yrs. Work force (1988): Agriculture--27%. Industry--27%. Services-- 43%.
Type: Presidential parliamentary republic. Independence: 1827. Constitution: June 1975, amended March 1986. Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), elected May 1990 for 5 years; prime minister (head of government). Legislative-- unicameral parliament (Vouli) elected April 1990; parliamentary system with 4-year (maximum) term. Judicial--supreme court (Areios Pagos). Major political parties: New Democracy (ND), Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), Left Alliance (Synaspismos)--coalition of leftist parties and former Communist Party elements, and Communist Party of Greece (KKE). Suffrage: Universal 18 and over. Administrative subdivisions: 51 prefectures (nomi), 13 regional districts (periferiarchies). Central government budget (1988 projected): $25.3 billion. Defense (1988 projected): About 11% of central government budget, 5% of GDP. Flag: Four white and five blue alternating horizontal stripes, with a white cross on the upper staff corner.
GDP (1989): $67 billion. Annual growth rate (1990): 0.1%. Inflation (1991 est): 17%. Natural resources: Bauxite, lignite, magnesite, oil. Agriculture (13% of GDP, 1989): Products--grains, fruits (especially olives, olive oil, and raisins), vegetables, wine, tobacco, cotton livestock, dairy products. Industry (including mining, electricity and construction): Manufactured goods (30% of GDP, 1989)--processed foods, shoes, textiles, metals, chemicals, electrical equipment, cement, glass, transport equipment, petroleum products, construction, electrical power. Services (57% of GDP, 1989)--transportation, communications, trade, banking, public administration, defense. Trade: Exports (1989)--$6 billion: textiles, metal products, cement, chemicals, pharmaceuticals. Major markets (1988)--EC 64%, Middle East and North Africa 8%, USSR and Eastern Europe 4%, US 6%. Imports (1989)--$15 billion: petroleum, machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, meat and animals. Major suppliers (1988)--EC 66%, Middle East and North Africa 4%, USSR and Eastern Europe 5%, US 4% (taken from Greek customs statistics, which exclude military equipment imports). US economic and security assistance (1946-89): $9 billion. ..........
Principal Government Officials
President--Constantine Karamanlis Prime Minister--Constantine Mitsotakis Foreign Minister--Antonis Samaras Ambassador to the US--Christos Zacharakis Ambassador to the UN--Antonis Exarchos (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991 Title:

US Concern About Events in Togo

Tutwiler Source: Statement by Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Dec 3, 199112/3/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Togo Subject: Regional/Civil Unrest [TEXT]
The United States is deeply disturbed by recent events in Togo. Togo had been on the promising path to democracy. We strongly condemn the attack on Prime Minister Koffigoh's office/residence by elements of Togo's armed forces. We call for the Prime Minister's immediate release and demand that President Eyadema take firm action to undo this morning's action and put Togo's democratic process back on track. A political, not military, solution is required to resolve Togo's current crisis. Failure to restore democratic procedures, processes, and individual citizen rights will have a strongly adverse effect on US-Togo bilateral relations. Finally, we expect all Togolese authorities to ensure the continued security of US citizens and diplomatic installations in Togo.
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 49, December 9, 1991 Title:

US Concern About Events in Somalia

Tutwiler Source: Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Dec 5, 199112/5/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Somalia Subject: Regional/Civil Unrest [TEXT] Almost 1 year after the fall of President Mohamed Siad Barre, Somalis continue to kill one another at a horrifying rate. Most recently, for the past 2 1/2 weeks militias have been fighting one another in the streets of Mogadishu. Relief agencies estimate that, so far, more than 2,000 people have died and over 6,000 have been wounded in the latest round of fighting. The vast majority of the latest casualties are non-combatants, most of them children. ..........Those fighting are not attempting to depose a dictator or repel a foreign invader. Rather, the appalling and intolerable slaughter results from selfish attempts by clan-based factions to gain or maintain an advantage over one another. ..........The United States deplores the suffering imposed on the people of Mogadishu by the leaders of the warring parties. It calls on these leaders to stop the senseless carnage and the wanton destruction of their own country and to ensure free and secure access to all parts of the city, including the port and airport, by relief workers and medical teams attempting to bring aid to those suffering. The United States further urges all parties to come together to resolve their differences by peaceful means. (###)