US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 2, No 48, December 2, 1991

Title:

Africa and Democracy

Cohen Source: Herman J. Cohen, Assistant Secretary for African Affairs Description: Excerpts from an address before the African-American Institute, New York, New York Date: Nov 8, 199111/8/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Tanzania, Zambia, Benin, Mozambique, Angola, Zaire Subject: Democratization, Development/Relief Aid [TEXT] Thank you very much, Ambassador Gambari [Nigerian Permanent Representative to the United Nations], and good afternoon. President Soglo [of Benin], Your Excellencies and honored guests, I am very happy to be here for this very important conference, and I would like to congratulate the African-American Institute for putting on this conference with the very important theme of democracy. It certainly is the most important debate about Africa that is going on today, and I think--I am looking forward to the results of this conference to help our own thinking in the making of US policy. I also would like to pay tribute to the African-American Institute for all the good work it is doing to bring Africans and Americans together. It is a job that the government cannot do, or, at least, it cannot do well. But the African-American Institute is doing an outstanding job in that area. ..........I want to pay tribute also today to President Soglo: It is very fitting that he is the honored guest at this conference. I know what he did for Benin was done because he was interested in the welfare of his people. But I believe history will show that his work in Benin serves as a pioneer effort for the rest of Africa, especially with the way the national conference was handled and, above all, the spirit of national reconciliation which followed the elections and the national conference. So I congratulate you, President Soglo, for doing a great job for Africa. ..........But what about democracy, and what do we think about it? There has been a lot of discussion as to why democracy is sweeping Africa today. The East European example has been mentioned [as well as] a number of other reasons. My reason is essentially that Africa has had 30 years of experience with other models, and these other models have not been adequate. We all know what they have been. They have been the African socialist model, which was in Tanzania and Zambia; you had the scientific socialist model which was in Benin, Mozambique, and Angola; you had the one-party democracy [of] which--I guess--Zaire is a good example; you have the life president model. I would not name the country that has that. I think what was common in all of these models was one very seductive theme, and that theme was: "Our model promises happiness. If the people turn over power to us and give us a monopoly of power, we will give you in return guaranteed happiness." This was very seductive, because the leaders of the day had brought about independence from the colonial system, and they had a great deal of credibility, and they themselves believed that these models could, through effective governmental supervision, bring about happiness. However, they did not--for the very important reason that government monopoly of power by one group, by one party, eventually becomes an end in itself, and the bringing of happiness must become secondary. ..........It is impossible to bring about happiness through bureaucratic operations. We know that [is the case] in many countries of the world, because bureaucratic control of lives stifles the energies of the people. Of course, it is very easy to live in an authoritarian regime. I, myself, lived under an authoritarian regime for 2 years-- that was known as the US Army. I found life very easy in the US Army. Every day I went to work, and I received my orders, and I carried them out, and I did not have to think; I did not have to be creative; I did not have to be worried. In 2 years, I became very lazy because of all of that. I think the systems that most African countries adopted in the 1960s essentially [were] that type of system, where happiness will come, but you do not have to do anything about it. ..........OK, now, why do I feel--or why does the US Government feel-- that democracy is the answer? We feel that it is the answer because it is the one ideological model that does not promise happiness. Why do we like democracy, then, if it does not promise happiness? We like it because it is the only system that allows the populations to release their own energy to do what they must do to bring about prosperity and happiness. To do that, they must have a minimum amount of government which will protect their interests, which will help them but will not do things for them. That is why in the one-party state you have very little investment, you have very little entrepreneurship, because these are the governments that do things for people. But where the government just helps, where the government guides, where the government provides facilitative services, the energies of the people are released and are available to bring about the happiness that the people are seeking. ..........Now, what is the essential element of democracy? We have heard a lot of theories at this conference and other conferences that I have attended. In my view, democracy is, above all, an educational process. Participation of the population means that they must participate. If there is no participation, then democracy cannot succeed. I am afraid that just as the models of the 1960s promised happiness, that people will say, "Once we have a free and fair election and we have a government of our choice, then we will automatically have happiness." This is the great danger of the democratic process, because the free and fair election is only the beginning, and it is not the end. That is why I say it must be an educational process, and it must be a process which says to the people: You are now free to do what you have to do, to produce wealth, to invest wealth in order to produce additional wealth, to form the civic associations that you need for self-help, to form the organizations that you need to put a check on government to make sure that the government does not develop into a monopoly of power and, therefore, become corrupt. ..........So it is an educational process where the people must learn how to participate in a democracy so that they can bring about the happiness that they seek. ..........What will the United States be doing about this to help? We accept that, as we preach the idea of democracy, we have a responsibility to provide assistance to African countries which embark on a democratization process. We want to help. We think it is very important that we do help. I think you will see two kinds of assistance coming from the United States. One is that assistance that is needed to start a democratic process: That is the assistance to the development of free and fair elections and multi-party systems. That is why we help the Carter Center. That is why we help the International Foundation for Election Systems, because they go out and provide the technical assistance to help bring about the beginning of democracy. But I think you will find that we are going to do more than that. Mainly from the USAID [US Agency for International Development] system, you will be finding growing amounts of assistance for what we call "governance." Governance, in effect, is the entire process that will enable people to participate and to fulfill their responsibilities to make democracy work. It is the civic associations; it is the independent [judiciary]; it is the free press that will make democracy work and put a check on government. And I think you will see more and more USAID and the whole scope of US Government assistance aimed essentially at the "governance" that is so important for the good working of democracy. ..........So, my message on democracy is: There is no guarantee of happiness, but we think African countries should embark on the process, because, although there is no guarantee of happiness, we sincerely believe it is the only way that African peoples can bring about their own happiness in the long run. The United States will be there to back you up, and you will see, in the coming years, that those countries that embark on this process will be favored in our foreign assistance programs, and those who do not will be losing ground in our foreign assistance programs. If you call that conditionality, that is fine; you can call it anything you want. But it is important to us, and we think it is important to Africa. ..........So, good luck on the democratization process. We are behind you. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 48, December 2, 1991 Title:

US Concern About Events In Sierra Leone

Tutwiler Source: Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Nov 27, 199111/27/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Liberia Subject: Regional/Civil Unrest, Military Affairs [TEXT] The US Government is deeply concerned over reports of renewed incursions into Sierra Leone by the forces of Charles Taylor's National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL). Such actions would be directly contrary to the commitments contained in the peace agreement reached at the Yamoussoukro IV summit. We call on all parties to observe restraint and to respect scrupulously the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Sierra Leone. ..........The Department of State urges all sides to proceed with urgent implementation of the Yamoussoukro IV commitments, giving priority attention to establishment of the planned buffer zone along the frontier between Liberia and Sierra Leone. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 48, December 2, 1991 Title:

Sub-Saharan Africa and US Policy

Date: Dec 2, 199112/2/91 Category: Policy Briefs (Gist) Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Liberia, South Africa, Angola, Mozambique Subject: State Department, Regional/Civil Unrest, Trade/Economics, Human Rights, Democratization, Environment [TEXT] The United States is committed to fostering democracies and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Over the past two years, significant progress has been made toward resolving major regional political and economic problems. The civil wars in Angola and Ethiopia have ended with US assistance. South Africa has taken substantial steps toward post-apartheid democracy. There are prospects for resolving the internal conflicts in Mozambique and Liberia. Resolution of other problems remains a high US priority.
Resolution of Regional Conflicts
Angola and Mozambique.
Sixteen years of civil war in Angola between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) came to an end on May 31, 1991, with the signing of the Angolan peace accords. The US played a key role in the Portuguese-mediated negotiations that lead to the signing. The accords provide for a multiparty system, new national armed forces, and free and fair internationally monitored democratic elections between September and November 1992. ..........As an observer on the Joint Political Military Commission, which oversees the implementation of the settlement, the US is committed to ensuring that all the provisions of the accords are scrupulously observed. We have opened a liaison office in Luanda to support these efforts. In addition, we are continuing our humanitarian assistance to Angola and supporting national reconciliation. We intend to establish diplomatic relations with the Angolan Government that emerges from the free and fair elections. ..........US-Mozambican relations have expanded rapidly as the Government of Mozambique has moved to establish greater democracy and a more pro-Western orientation since 1986. We are currently assisting national reconciliation and peace talks between the government and the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). ..........
Horn of Africa.
The prospects for peace in other areas are mixed. Although the civil war in Ethiopia has ended, civil wars drag on in Somalia and Sudan. These conflicts generate large numbers of refugees and exacerbate drought-induced hunger. The United States is a major donor of food and medical assistance. It also is prepared to contribute diplomatic resources to peacemaking and internal reconciliation in the Horn. ..........
Liberia.
The United States fully supports regionally led efforts to bring about a peaceful settlement of the Liberian conflict through a democratic electoral process. We have extended modest assistance to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), in support of its monitoring group (ECOMOG) in Liberia, which has maintained a general cease-fire, enforced public order in the Monrovia area, facilitated humanitarian relief deliveries, and made possible the installation of an interim government. The US also has provided more than $130 million in humanitarian relief to victims of civil strife in Liberia. Finally, we have encouraged the Yamoussoukro peace process led by President Houphouet-Boigny of Cote d'Ivoire, which has brought Liberian leaders together in a series of summit meetings with West African heads of state. The participants have agreed on the need for disarmament of the contending factions, followed by free and fair democratic elections in which the Liberian people will be able to select their own government. ..........
South Africa
. The South African Government continues to take significant steps toward dismantling apartheid and creating a non-racial society and government. These include the release of black nationalist leader Nelson Mandela and other political prisoners, the unbanning of the African National Congress (ANC) and other key political organizations, the lifting of the 4- year state of emergency, and the repeal of remaining apartheid legislation. The government and the ANC also have agreed on moving forward into multi-party negotiations on a new constitution.
Economic Reforms
State-controlled economies have stifled growth in many Sub- Saharan African countries. Natural disasters, high population growth, low commodity prices, and civil wars have compounded the problem. Gross domestic product per capita fell during the 1980s by 1.2% annually. ..........
Structural Adjustment
. By 1991, many African countries had accepted the need for economic reform and support of the private sector, if sustainable long-term growth is to be achieved. Although structural adjustment often entails short- term economic sacrifice, it is the entrenched elites rather than the poor who have the most to lose from political and economic liberalization measures. More than 30 countries have structural adjustment programs supported by the International Monetary Fund or World Bank. It is increasingly evident that these programs lead to better economic performance. When allocating assistance, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) gives preference to countries following a reform program. The common objectives of structural adjustment programs are to: ..........-- Establish realistic exchange rates; ..........-- Eliminate government price controls; ..........-- Reduce government budget deficits; ..........-- Reform parastatal organizations; and ..........-- Achieve realistic interest rates. ..........
Debt Relief.
The Sub-Saharan African countries bear a heavy burden of foreign debt owed primarily to official creditors (i.e., foreign governments and international financial institutions rather than commercial banks). In 1990, total external debt had reached about $161 billion, equivalent to 112% of the region's gross national product and 352% of foreign exchange earnings from exports. ..........To address this problem, the United States has forgiven some $1.2 billion in African official debt to date, including $788 million in USAID development loans to the poorest reforming African countries and $416 million in African PL480 (food aid) debt under a program authorized by the 1990 Farm Act. Other debts to the US of the poorest, most heavily indebted reforming countries are eligible for debt relief through generous rescheduling terms by the "Paris Club" of official creditors.
Human Rights and Democratization
The global movement toward democracy is strongly felt in all African countries, and there has been significant movement in many, including South Africa. Both governments and citizens are participating in these changes. The belief is spreading that respect for fundamental rights and more responsive political systems are a vital corollary of economic progress. ..........The United States supports these efforts toward democracy in the belief that human rights cannot be secured in Africa without political pluralism. The US encourages economic and political pluralism in Africa by funding projects that promote constitutional development, popular participation, good government, the rule of law, and respect for human rights. The United States also attempts to secure private funding for projects and encourage the European Community to make such projects a priority on its foreign assistance agenda.
Environment
The environment is a central US concern in its development assistance strategy for Africa. For example, USAID's Plan for Supporting Natural Resources Management in Sub-Saharan Africa aims to strengthen the capacity of African countries to manage natural resources. The United States supports the efforts of the International Tropical Timber Organization to develop a plan for sustainable forest management and is interested in negotiating a global forestry agreement. .......... Wildlife preservation is another important goal of US policy. The US was an original party of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) signed in Washington in 1973. The convention remains the centerpiece of US conservation policy abroad, and it has special relevance for Africa. ..........The US takes a leading role in protecting the African elephant. In 9 years, because of poaching, Africa's elephant population has fallen from an estimated 1.3 million to 600,000. In October 1988, Congress enacted the African Elephant Conservation Act, establishing an African elephant conservation fund. In June 1989, the Bush Administration banned the import of ivory. Moreover, in October 1989, all CITES members agreed to halt all trade in ivory, providing for its resumption in the future only under a secure system for countries with a healthy and well-managed elephant population. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 48, December 2, 1991 Title:

Middle East Peace Process: US Invites Parties to Bilateral Talks in Washington, DC

Tutwiler Source: Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Nov 22, 199111/22/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Israel, United States [TEXT]. Today, after waiting 3 weeks for the parties directly involved in the Middle East peace talks to work out among themselves the question of venue for additional bilateral talks, we proposed that the parties meet here in Washington on December 4 for the next round. ..........It is important to give the parties the chance to work this out, but it is even more important to resume the direct talks. ..........We want to make clear the view of the United States that, over time, there is no reason to exclude holding negotiations in the region. ..........Many successful talks have been held in the region in the past, and a regional venue would allow close proximity for the negotiators to consult with their respective political leaderships. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 48, December 2, 1991 Title:

The Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103

Fitzwater Description: Text of statement released by the Office of the White House Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Nov 27, 199111/27/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa, North America, Europe Country: United States, France, United Kingdom, Libya Subject: Terrorism [TEXT].
US Statement Regarding the Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103
After the indictments were handed down on November 14, we conveyed them to the Libyan regime. We have also consulted closely with the Governments of France and the United Kingdom, and, in concert with those two governments, we have the following two declarations to present publicly today.
US-UK Joint Declaration
The British and American Governments today declare that the Government of Libya must: ..........-- Surrender for trial all those charged with the crime and accept responsibility for the actions of Libyan officials; ..........-- Disclose all it knows of this crime, including the names of all those responsible and allow full access to all witnesses, documents, and other material evidence, including all the remaining timers; and ..........-- Pay appropriate compensation. ..........We expect Libya to comply promptly and in full.
US-UK-France Declaration On Terrorism
The three states reaffirm their complete condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and denounce any complicity of states in terrorist acts. The three states reaffirm their commitment to put an end to terrorism. ..........They consider that the responsibility of states begins whenever they take part directly in terrorist actions or indirectly through harboring, training, providing facilities, arming, or providing financial support or any form of protection, and that they are responsible for their actions before individual states and the United Nations. ..........In this connection, following the investigations carried out into the bombings of Pan Am [Flight] 103 and UTA [Flight] 772, the three states have presented specific demands to Libyan authorities related to the judicial procedures that are underway. They require that Libya comply with all these demands, and, in addition, that Libya commit itself concretely and definitively to cease all forms of terrorist action and all assistance to terrorist groups. Libya must promptly, by concrete actions, prove its renunciation of terrorism. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 48, December 2, 1991 Title:

Driftnet Fishing: US, Japan Agree on Moratorium

Tutwiler Source: Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Nov 27, 199111/27/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Country: Japan, United States Subject: Environment, Resource Management, United Nations [TEXT] Today, the United States and Japan introduced a resolution in the United Nations ending large-scale driftnet fishing on the high seas. This is a clear victory for the ocean environment. ..........Consistent with the resolution, beginning January 1, 1992, countries will reduce their fishing effort in large-scale, high-seas driftnet fishing operations by 50%, to be achieved by June 30, 1992. The global moratorium will be fully in effect by December 31, 1992. ..........The US commends the Government of Japan for its efforts to end the use of this destructive fishing technique, notwithstanding the difficulties this will create for the fishing communities involved in high-seas driftnet fishing. ..........Data collected in 1990 indicated that over 41 million non- target fish, sharks, sea birds, marine mammals and sea turtles were killed in the Japanese squid driftnet fishery alone. The cumulative and global effect of this impact on the living marine environment justifies the imposition of the moratorium. ..........The UN General Assembly had adopted two previous resolutions on large-scale, high-seas driftnet fishing in 1989 and 1990. In those resolutions, the world body noted that large-scale driftnet fishing on the high seas can be a highly destructive and wasteful fishing practice that threatens the conservation of living marine resources. ..........The US calls on all those who fish with large-scale driftnets on the high seas to support the global moratorium. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 48, December 2, 1991 Title:

Focus on Central and Eastern Europe: A Periodic Update

Date: Dec 2, 199112/2/91 Category: Focus on Emerging Democracies Region: E/C Europe Country: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia (former), Hungary, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia (former) Subject: Trade/Economics, Development/Relief Aid, Cultural Exchange, International Law, Democratization [TEXT]
The Baltics
At an October 28 conference, Vice President Dan Quayle congratulated Prime Ministers Savisaar of Estonia, Godmanis of Latvia, and Vagnorius of Lithuania for their countries' self- liberation and welcomed them "forever to the family of the democracies." He cited US efforts to become partners with the Baltics by offering aid, technical assistance, and most-favored- nation trade status. ..........The Vice President noted that NATO is developing liaison relationships with the new European democracies, and he urged the Baltic leaders to embrace free markets as quickly as possible and to study the US example during their American visit. He assured them that US business and industry are ready to discuss doing business with the Baltics. ..........During October, US Embassies began operating in Vilnius, Tallinn, and Riga. On October 24, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania joined Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union as associate members of the North Atlantic Assembly. The Assembly is comprised of legislators from the 16 NATO countries but is not a part of NATO. It provides a forum for members to discuss common concerns and for new democracies like the Baltics to gain experience in parliamentary procedures. Developments in the President's Trade Enhancement Initiative Newly revised agreements with Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland under the Trade Enhancement Initiative could triple those countries' 1991 exports of textiles, cheese, and steel to the United States. The revisions are a part of a US effort to contribute to the political and economic transformation of Central and Eastern Europe by offering increased trade and access to world markets. ..........The Bush Administration has announced that technical assistance programs on export promotion, export credit and finance, marketing and management, and standards issues are being prepared for Central and Eastern Europe. US Customs Service advisers are visiting Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Albania, and the Baltics to establish or improve customs administration in those countries. Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria will host seminars in November to explain US anti-dumping and countervailing duty policies and to offer technical assistance on the design and implementation of anti-dumping laws in those countries. ..........The Commerce Department has developed a Regional Economic Development Initiative (REDI) to promote new commercial ties between the United States and Central and Eastern Europe. It will create a data base, matching companies with counterparts to foster trade and investment ties.
Training
Financial Services Volunteer Corps (FSVC) has teamed with Coopers and Lybrand, a New York financial institution, to sponsor three members of Poland's Ministry of Finance who are now attending Harvard Business School. The FSVC was created in 1990 to coordinate US volunteers to help develop financial systems in the new European democracies. Tim Frost, program director, welcomes telephone inquiries at 212-455-2000. ..........Business schools at Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Northwestern, Stanford, and Wharton are planning a program to train between 100 and 200 teachers of management and economics from Central and Eastern Europe. The program results from the White House Conference on Management Training and Market Economics held in February 1991.
CEELI Activities
The Central and East European Law Initiative (CEELI) of the American Bar Association sent a delegation of constitutional and human rights experts to Albania in October to work with its constitutional drafting commission and to review new legislation. The delegation brought back a set of Albanian commercial laws to be reviewed by US legal experts. ..........In Czechoslovakia, CEELI conducted a third workshop on judicial restructuring and criminal law reform, discussing the role of the judge, criminal and civil procedures, and trial practice and appeals. CEELI provides assistance in designing administration and computerization for the newly established constitutional court. ..........For Bulgaria, CEELI is developing a pilot judicial training program, and, in Budapest, it sponsored a Technical Legal Assistance Workshop in cooperation with the Hungarian Lawyers Association. It concentrated on administrative law reform and addressed such issues as establishing legal standards. ..........In late November, both chambers of Romania's parliament approved the draft constitution that CEELI helped the constitutional drafting commission prepare. It emphasizes human rights issues, including the status and treatment of minority groups and alien residents, and embodies a multiparty system and a market economy. .......... CEELI will send a judge to Romania in 1992 to advise Bucharest's new magistrate school on matters of curriculum development. ..........Law school deans from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania will visit US law schools in early 1992.
Country by Country
Albania.
A group of four labor movement leaders, the first Albanians to be USIA International Visitor Grantees, are touring the United States under the sponsorship of the Free Trade Union Institute. A second group of nine young leaders, including one legislator, arrived on November 16 for 1 month of observing state and local governments in Iowa, Nebraska, and California.
Bulgaria
In October elections, the Union of Democratic Forces won 110 seats, the Bulgarian Socialist Party won 106, and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms won 24. Almost 84% of the eligible voters turned out. Three days before the elections, former US Chief Justice Warren Burger appeared on Bulgarian television in a program addressing the relevance of the US Constitution to Bulgaria and the necessary conditions for freedom of the press. ..........On November 22, Bulgaria received most-favored-nation status. As a result, reduced US import duties will allow Bulgaria to step up exports to the US of wines, foodstuffs, and products of ferrous metallurgy and light industry. ..........The Bulgarian-American Enterprise Fund, a $50-million, 3- year US initiative to promote private sector development in Bulgaria, went into effect on November 7. The fund will support equity investments, loans, grants, training, and technical assistance, particularly in Bulgarian agriculture. The US members of the board of directors, to be joined by Bulgarian directors at a later date, are Chairman Gary MacDougal, former chairman and CEO of Mark Controls Corporation; Dr. Theodore Cooper, chairman of the board and CEO of the Upjohn Company; William W. Erwin, board member of the Farm Credit System Assistance Board, and former Assistant Secretary of Agriculture; Edgar D. Jannotta, partner in the investment banking firm of William Blair ∧ Company; and Marshall Lee Miller, partner in the law firm of Baker ∧ Hostetler. Potential investors should direct inquiries to Fund President Frank Bauer, through Booz Allen ∧ Hamilton, 225 W. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606-1228, 312-578-4537; FAX 312-578-4667. ..........ECOGLASNOST, a Bulgarian environmental organization, will bring teachers to Sofia from other cities to see the USIS/USAID exhibit "Environmental Action in America" and is videotaping the exhibit for use in Bulgarian schools. ..........The University of South Carolina, under a $350,000 USAID grant, will work with Bulgaria's Center for the Study of Democracy to train professional staffs to assist democratically elected mayors and other local government officials. They will concentrate on personnel, budgeting and finance, and organizational management. ..........Under two $2.4-million partnerships in health care grants announced by Vice President Quayle, Michigan State University's College of Human Medicine to improve the management of cardiovascular disease in conjunction with Bulgaria's Second National Center for that medical specialty; and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia will work with the department of pediatrics at Bulgaria's Medical Academy to reduce traumatic injuries among Bulgarian children.
Czechoslovakia.
Czechoslovakia has qualified according to Jackson-Vanik criteria in US trade law for most-favored-nation status. Last April, it was admitted to the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) in the category of "developing countries." In September, the US Trade Representative conducted seminars in Prague and Bratislava to explain to Czechoslovak exporters and government officials how the GSP can work most effectively for them. ..........During President Vaclav Havel's October 1991 visit to Washington, DC, officials signed a bilateral investment treaty containing assurance of expatriation of profits for US investors. ..........A new Scientific and Technical Cooperation Agreement creates a framework for exchanges between US and Czechoslovak scientists in the fields of energy, environment, health sciences, and agricultural research. ..........During the first 4 hours after a new USIS library opened on October 1 in Bratislava, 92 people became members. In Prague, a special library for Czech and Slovak parliamentarians has installed research hardware under the sponsorship of the US House of Representatives task force on developing parliamentary institutions in East European countries.
Hungary
Hungary's Ministry of International Economic Relations has established an Investment and Trade Promotion office to help foreign companies find trade partners. It offers to distribute business inquiries in its domestic publication, Business HITs. Interested business people should send inquiries to HIT Investcenter-Tradeinform, H-1051 Budapest V., Dorottya u. 4, H- 1364.Bp, P.O.B. 222. ..........Governors Waihee of Hawaii, Finney of Kansas, and Sinner of North Dakota visited Budapest in October to plan state assistance in such areas as tourism, agricultural research, and health services. ..........Hungary will be one of the first countries to benefit from the $35-million Housing Investment Guarantee Program announced by President Bush in September. Other new US assistance includes: ..........-- A $10-million USAID grant to help small and medium-sized Hungarian businesses increase energy efficiency; ..........-- Program to examine the feasibility of linking Hungary's natural gas pipeline network to Austria and Czechoslovakia to provide alternative sources of natural gas; ..........-- Treasury Department visit by financial advisers to help banking reform; ..........-- US Trade and Development Program to assist in developing the Budapest Commodities Exchange; ..........-- A $2.5-million USAID grant to support a 3-year partnership in pediatric medicine between the University of Kansas and the Semmelweiss Medical University and National Institute of Neurosurgery in Budapest; ..........-- Long-term US legislative adviser to the Hungarian parliament; ..........-- Assistance for Hungarian social security planning; ..........-- Additional scholarships for Hungarian students; and ..........-- Telecommunications study for Hungary's electricity network. ..........The Hungarian-American Enterprise Fund continues to promote Hungary's private sector through its $65-million fund for equity investments, loans, and technical assistance. Further information is available from Alexander C. Tomlinson, 1620 Eye St., NW, Washington, DC, 20006, (202) 467-5444. ..........A library designed and stocked by the Congressional Research Service for Hungary's parliament opened recently. ..........The People's Light and Theatre Company of Pennsylvania performed a uniquely American version of the Greek play Achilles in Budapest and Debrecen during a 2-week visit sponsored by the Fund for US Artists at International Festivals. In return, Hungarian theater professionals will visit US theaters to study technical production facilities.
Poland
Polish university rectors visiting the United States expressed interest in curriculum reform, expanding vocational and adult education courses, and obtaining educational TV and VCRs for teaching aids. ..........Poet William Stafford visited five cities during a 2-week program in Poland, during which he discussed the role of the poet as transmitter and protector of values and the poet's moral responsibility to address political and social issues. ..........The Polish-American Enterprise Fund, a non-profit equity pool established by the US Government to promote investment in private sector ventures in Poland, has announced its American board members: President Robert G. Faris; John P. Birkelund, chairman of Dillon Read ∧ Co.; Nicholas A. Rey, managing director of Bear, Stearns ∧ Co.; the Honorable Zbigniew Brzezinski, counselor of the Center for Strategic ∧ International Studies; Charles M. Harper, chairman and CEO of ConAgra, Inc.; and Lane Kirkland, president AFL-CIO. Mr. Faris receives inquiries at the offices of the fund at 535 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10022, (212) 339-8330.
Romania.
Romania received associate member status in the European Community through trade negotiations on October 21-25. ..........Romanian officials from the Ministry of Communications and the State Radio and Television Service are developing Romania's first legislation governing audio-visual technology.
Yugoslavia.
In response to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) call for humanitarian assistance to war refugees in Yugoslavia, the United States has contributed $1 million. The funds will provide emergency medical assistance, food, personal hygiene items, and educational material. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 48, December 2, 1991 Title:

Access Given to Additional Foreign Correspondents

Tutwiler Description: Statement released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC Date: Nov 22, 199111/22/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Effective immediately, correspondents from the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Romania, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania may enter the press areas of the State Department on the same basis as their colleagues from the United States and other countries. ..........This means that those Soviet, Bulgarian, Romanian, Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian journalists who wish, on a regular basis, to attend the daily briefing or visit the Press Office can apply for a building pass. Soviet, Bulgarian, Romanian, Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian journalists who enter on an infrequent basis will be able to come to the press areas of the building without escort. ..........This decision has been made in light of the steps toward democratic reform which have been taken in these countries. All correspondents who wish to avail themselves of this opportunity should contact the State Department Press Office on or after Monday, November 25. As you know, we have already made these arrangements for correspondents from Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the former East Germany. (###)