US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991


Cambodia Conference Intervention

Baker Source: Secretary Baker Description: Remarks at the Paris Conference on Cambodia, Paris, France Date: Oct 23, 199110/23/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Southeast Asia Country: Cambodia, Vietnam Subject: Democratization, United Nations, Refugees [TEXT] It gives me particular satisfaction to return here where so many of us gathered in the summer of 1989 in search of a settlement process that could bring peace to Cambodia. Our 2 years of unremitting effort--initiated by the UN Permanent Five [members of the Security Council] with the active collaboration of the Paris Conference co-chairmen and others including Japan, Australia, and Thailand--have finally led to successful completion of a comprehensive political settlement agreement. In our work, we have also witnessed a new spirit of cooperation among the Cambodian parties made possible by the leader-ship of His Royal Highness Prince Sihanouk. His steadfast determination to restore sovereignty, peace, and prosperity to his people has, in great part, made this agreement possible. ..........[The year] 1991 has truly been a momentous year for the United Nations as a new and global force in peacemaking, peacekeeping, and conflict resolution. With the signing of the Cambodian Settlement Agreement, the United Nations will take on another great challenge. This, of course, was envisaged in the Perm Five effort, which we began after the suspension of the first session of this conference, in order to design a settlement based on an enhanced role for the United Nations. ..........No one doubts that a sizeable UN presence and substantial resources will be required to put into effect the military arrangements of the agreement, to resettle nearly half a million displaced persons in safety and dignity, to carry out the administrative responsibilities of the plan, and to prepare Cambodia for free and fair elections. And we all know that the generous support and constant attention of the international community will be required if this agreement is to be implemented successfully. ..........More than 2 decades of violence and aggression have taken a terrible toll on the people of Cambodia. The world is still shocked at the horrors of Khmer Rouge annihilation that left more than 1 million Cambodians dead. This internal violence was compounded by the Vietnamese invasion and occupation. Today, the infrastructure of Cambodia is in ruins. The countryside is strewn with millions of land mines. And over 350,000 displaced persons in camps along the Thai-Cambodian border await repatriation. There is no way that Cambodia will be able to recover from these multiple disasters without sustained international involvement and relief. ..........What makes the case of Cambodia so extraordinary--and its claim for international support so compelling--is the magnitude of the suffering its people have endured. The Khmer Rouge were no ordinary oppressors. In the name of revolution, they used violence against their own people in a way that has few parallels in history. We condemn these policies and practices of the Khmer Rouge as an abomination to humanity that must never be allowed to recur. ..........To prevent such a recurrence, we have encouraged the incorporation of strong human rights guarantees into this settlement agreement. And I can assure you--and the Cambodian people--that we will steadfastly sustain our efforts to ensure that the human rights of the Cambodian people are supported by the international community. Cambodia and the United States are both signatories to the Genocide Convention, and we will support efforts to bring to justice those responsible for the mass murders of the 1970s if the new Cambodian Government chooses to pursue this path. ..........The United States signs this agreement today precisely because we believe it offers the most realistic way to bring peace to Cambodia, give the Khmer people the chance to choose their own government, and build safeguards against a return to the violence of the past. It requires all the warring parties to lay down their arms and demobilize their forces. And it is designed to create the neutral political environment necessary for the voters to make their decision freely without fear of intimidation. ..........We welcome the Supreme National Council's acceptance of a multiparty liberal democratic political order, and we look to the United Nations to ensure that the elections it is charged to organize will be free and fair. We will support that effort. We also expect the international community to join us in supporting the reconstruction of Cambodia, to help cultivate economic development and democratic values and institutions, and to take actions as necessary to ensure that the terrible human rights abuses of the past do not recur. ..........For our part, we are prepared to normalize US economic relations with Cambodia. As soon as UNAMIC [UN Advance Mission in Cambodia] has arrived and begun to implement the settlement, we will lift our trade embargo toward Cambodia and begin supporting projects in the country by international lending institutions such as the World Bank. We will establish a liaison office in Phnom Penh shortly and maintain--along with the other Perm Five--an active presence throughout the transition to elections to ensure that the settlement is effectively implemented. And after a new and legitimate government is formed through the electoral process, we look forward to normalized relations with Cambodia. ..........The United States also hopes that this agreement will open the way to reconciliation among all the nations involved in Indochina during the turbulent decades of the 20th century. The prospect of a new era in Southeast Asia lies before us. ..........In that spirit, I want to say that the United States intends to develop normal relations with all the states of Indochina. We have communicated these intentions to the Governments of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. With regard to Vietnam, having taken into account not only Vietnam's support for this Cambodia settlement but also its recently expanded efforts to resolve our POW/MIA concerns, we will lift the 25-mile travel ban on Vietnamese diplomats accredited to the United Nations in New York. We will also be taking steps to change our trade embargo rules to permit US-organized travel to Vietnam by individuals and groups such as veterans, journalists, businessmen, and tour groups. And, finally, we are proposing to the Vietnamese that we now begin talks in New York concerning the issues and modalities associated with normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States and Vietnam. We intend to proceed step-by-step as the UN settlement process unfolds. Of course, the pace and scope of the normalization process will be directly influenced by the degree of cooperation on the POW/MIA and other humanitarian issues. ..........In closing, on behalf of President Bush and the American people, I want to express our deep appreciation to [French] President Mitterrand for hosting this historic peace conference. I also want to thank [Indonesian] Minister [of Foreign Affairs] Alatas, [French] Minister [of Foreign Affairs] Dumas, and the members of the Paris Conference for their tireless work in bringing this agreement to completion. And I want to express our deepest appreciation to UN Secretary General Perez de Cuellar and to the other Permanent Members of the Security Council, whose vision, leadership, and persistence have brought us to this settlement table. ..........The agreement is a good one and deserves the support of the international community throughout its implementation. It is my fervent hope that this agreement will lead the way to true reconciliation among the Cambodian people, between Cambodia and its neighbors, and between the countries of Indochina and the rest of the world community. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991 Title:

US-Vietnamese Relations

Baker Source: Secretary Baker Description: Remarks by Secretary Baker prior to meeting Vietnamese Foreign Minister Nguyen Mahn Cam, Paris, France Date: Oct 23, 199110/23/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Southeast Asia Country: Vietnam Subject: State Department, Democratization [TEXT] Q. Mr. Secretary, is the United States prepared now to normalize relations with Vietnam? ..........Secretary Baker: The United States is prepared to begin discussions with Vietnam concerning the issues and modalities that would be involved in normalizing relations with Vietnam. The scope and pace of those discussions, of course, will be governed by the degree to which Vietnam continues to cooperate with the United States on the very, very important issue of our prisoners of war and our missing in action. ..........Q. Mr. Secretary, will you be discussing the concrete steps the United States might take to begin to move this process forward? ..........Secretary Baker: As you know, there have been prior discussions with representatives of the Government of Vietnam about the specific steps that should be taken and would be taken under certain circumstances--a pathway approach, if you will--and it is our intention to remain true to our word with respect to the pursuit of that pathway approach. ..........Q: When would you expect the talks to start? Can you say? ..........Secretary Baker: I would expect that they would--the talks are, of course, talks to begin the discussion of the issues and modalities involved, but it would seem to me to be appropriate that they start within the next month or so. But then that's something that I expect to be discussing with the Minister. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991 Title:

Middle East Peace Conference Invitations Accepted

Fitzwater Description: Statement released by the White House Office of the Press Secretary Date: Oct 23, 199110/23/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Israel Subject: Mideast Peace Process [TEXT] We are extremely pleased that we now have in hand the acceptances of all those invited to participate in the Middle East peace conference. We believe this positive response constitutes another significant milestone on the path of resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict. As the President said at the time the invitations were issued, we view this conference as having the potential to bring true peace and security to the region. We very much hope that all those attending will come to Madrid with an open mind, ready to begin on October 30 to set aside the hatreds and suspicions of the past and work toward building a new, more peaceful Middle East. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991 Title:

Burma: Democracy and Human Rights

Quinn Source: Kenneth M. Quinn, Deputy Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Description: Statement before the Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Washington, DC Date: Oct 18, 199110/18/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Southeast Asia Country: Burma Subject: Human Rights, Democratization [TEXT] Mr. Chairman, the decision of the Nobel Prize Committee to award this year's Nobel Peace Prize to Burmese political leader Aung San Suu Kyi focuses attention not only on her inspiring devotion to democratic ideals but also on the struggle of the Burmese people to free themselves from military rule and determine their own future. ..........You are familiar with the events of 1988, when the Burmese military violently suppressed massive demonstrations in favor of democracy. In national elections in 1990, the people of Burma demonstrated an overwhelming preference for a return to parliamentary democracy after 28 years of military rule. The Opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) won over 80% of the seats for the National Assembly, even though its leaders, Aung San Suu Kyi and Tin Oo, were under house arrest or in jail. ..........As the world now knows, the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) did not implement the results of the election despite promises to do so promptly. In particular, it has failed to convene the National Assembly elected in 1990. No timetable for a return to the promised civilian rule has been announced. The SLORC is clearly negating the election, and, I regret to say, there is little prospect for a return to genuine democracy in Burma. ..........Meanwhile, the military regime has continued its suppression of domestic opposition. Several political parties have been de- registered, while the NLD has experienced widespread arrests and interrogations. The party, while still in existence, has been crippled by these arrests and other intimidations. Aung San Suu Kyi and Tin Oo remain under house arrest and in jail, respectively. Acting party leader Kyi Maung was sentenced on political charges last year to 25 years imprisonment. In October 1990, the military moved against Buddhist monks as well, after several monastic organizations, particularly in Mandalay, had attempted to institute a boycott of religious observances for military personnel and their families. The military raided monasteries, outlawed several monastic organizations, and arrested senior monks, both in Rangoon and Mandalay. ..........Despite the fact no organized opposition still exists within Burma, the military continues to intimidate by arrest for the slightest degree of political activity. This summer, for example, we understand that 40 people were arrested for requesting Buddhist monks in Rangoon to pray for Aung San Suu Kyi. ..........There is no freedom of speech or press in Burma. The country's only newspaper is a government mouthpiece. Several individuals were recently arrested for publishing an "unauthorized" report of a public press conference. Students and civil servants are strictly forbidden to have any dealings whatsoever with political parties. ..........Burmese authorities rarely respond to requests for information concerning political prisoners, even questions about their welfare and whereabouts. The Burmese have not granted access by the International Red Cross or others to Burmese prisons. At least three political prisoners have died in Burmese prisons this year. We estimate that 2,000 political prisoners remain in jail, many held without charges. Large numbers of refugees have fled to Thailand and Bangladesh. ..........In the last few weeks, hundreds, perhaps thousands, of civil servants and university professors were dismissed from their positions for political reasons. The military has indicated more may be dismissed in the weeks to come. ..........Last February's human rights report on Burma noted that-- according to numerous credible reports--torture, disappearances, arbitrary arrests and detentions, unfair trails, and compulsory labor, such as forced portering for the military, persisted. The report likewise noted that Burma remains under martial law and that court practices and procedures can be arbitrary and inconsistent. We do not expect that next year's report will find any improvement in this situation. ..........We continue to believe that a peaceful change to popular rule is the best course in Burma. We believe the prospects for a unified, democratic Burma are best served by the convening of the National Assembly elected in 1990, followed by a transfer of power from the military to a civilian government. We are concerned that Burma will otherwise miss a historic opportunity to choose the path of democratic and economic reform. ..........The United States has taken several unilateral measures against Burma in an effort to improve the situation in that country. ..........-- We have long since terminated all forms of non- humanitarian assistance to Burma and actively urge others to do the same. ..........-- We have suspended Burma's generalized system of preferences (GSP) privileges. ..........-- We have not certified Burma as cooperating in the fight against narcotics. This requires us to oppose loans to Burma by the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and other international organizations. ..........-- We have blocked the sale of US military equipment to Burma, and we work to limit the flow of arms to Burma from other countries. ..........In addition, under Section 138 of the Customs and Trade Act of 1990, we recently chose not to renew the bilateral textile agreement between Burma and the United States. The textile agreement was the foundation for Burma's largest single category of exports to the United States. ..........Section 138 also calls for the Administration to consult with other industrial democracies on the possibility of multilateral economic sanctions. We have done so. But while we found serious concern with the situation in Burma, there was no significant support for multilateral economic sanctions, generally, because of the paucity of economic relations of any country with Burma. We are gratified, however, that the EC [European Community] in July announced a total arms embargo on Burma similar to ours. ..........In addition, we recently reached an informal consensus with other industrial democracies that we would provide no new bilateral aid, that we would vote against new international financial institution loans to Burma, that we would provide no military supplies to Burma, and that we would work for an appropriate resolution on Burma at this year's UN General Assembly. ..........Secretary Baker recently raised Burma with the ASEAN [Association of South East Asian Nations] states at the annual ASEAN post-ministerial conference. He urged that as neighbors of Burma, these states use their influence in Rangoon to bring about democratic reform. The ASEAN states agreed that the situation in Burma required attention and said they would seek in their own way to bring about improvements. During their annual dialogue with the ASEAN states, EC members also discussed Burma. ..........We expect that, once again, a resolution on Burma will be introduced in the UN Third Committee. We have discussed this with other governments concerned and will assist in this effort in whatever way seems most productive. Meanwhile, the UN Human Rights Commission process of a confidential investigation of human rights practices in Burma continues. We understand that the new confidential expert will be visiting Burma later this month. We support and endorse this investigatory process. ..........The narcotics situation in Burma remains of great concern to us as well. Burma is now the world's largest producer of opium and heroin. Opium production has nearly doubled, from approximately 1,280 metric tons (mt) in 1988 to 2,250 mt in 1990. The military has shown little interest in the suppression of narcotics trafficking and production and has ceased efforts made before 1988 to eradicate the opium crops. We have not been able to certify Burma as cooperating in narcotics control. Despite the poor prospects, this is a problem which we cannot afford to ignore. We are continuing modest narcotics law enforcement activities with Burma to test its expressed interest in narcotics suppression activities. We do not intend to undertake any significant expansion of our anti- narcotics effort in Burma. While we would like to be able to respond to opportunities which could arise to reduce the flow of heroin from Burma, we will do nothing which might undercut our strong stance against human rights abuses. ..........The military regime recently showed some concern about its international image of doing little or nothing to impede the flow of narcotics from Burma by ratifying the 1988 UN convention on narcotics trafficking. It has also, with considerable domestic fanfare, introduced a border development plan for some of the most important opium producing territories. The border development plan reportedly seeks to introduce new crops in opium producing areas, along with infrastructural development such as roads, schools, clinics, and mini-hydroelectric stations. Unfortunately, the plan does not include significant law enforcement or crop eradication activities nor has the government shown that it will allocate many of its resources to the plan. ..........We plan to monitor this program carefully; we are concerned by the prominent role of known narcotics traffickers in the program. We are also concerned by reports that the military regime has reached accommodations with some ethnic groups to ignore narcotics activities in exchange for an end to attacks on the central government. ..........In sum, Mr. Chairman, I am sorry to say that we see no improvement in the human rights practices of the military regime in Burma or in the prospects for democratic and economic reform. Despite this bleak assessment, it is important once again to note that the world has shown it has not forgotten the plight of the Burmese people by the award of the Nobel Peace Prize to Aung San Suu Kyi. We join in congratulating her. We will also continue, of course, to stand with her in urging the regime to free political prisoners and to begin the transfer of power to the elected, civilian government.(###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991 Title:

US Welcomes Nobel Prize for Burmese Opposition Leader

Fitzwater Source: White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater Description: Washington, DC Date: Oct 14, 199110/14/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Southeast Asia Country: Burma Subject: Human Rights [TEXT] We applaud the Nobel Prize Committee's decision to award the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize to Aung San Suu Kyi. Her leadership of the Non- Violent Movement for Democratic Reform in Burma is in the best tradition of previous winners of the Nobel Peace Prize. She is the leader of the Opposition National League for Democracy Party which swept to victory in the 1990 national elections. ..........Arrested because of her political activities, she has been held incommunicado under house arrest for over 2 years. Even her husband and her children have not been allowed to visit her. ..........Her courage and her sacrifice are an inspiration to all who believe in democratic principles and government. Her continued detention without trial is the most obvious sign of the repressive manner in which the Burmese military maintains its rule. ..........The United States once again urges the Burmese military regime to transfer power to the duly elected civilian government and release all political prisoners, including this year's Nobel Peace Prize winner, Aung San Suu Kyi. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991 Title:

Democratization in Africa

Cohen Source: Herman J. Cohen, Assistant Secretary for African Affairs Description: Address before the Voice of America Symposium, Washington, DC Date: Sep 17, 19919/17/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Subject: Democratization [TEXT] The word that best characterizes Africa at the present time is change. Profound, revolutionary change is sweeping through the continent. Despite the temporary dislocations, hardships, and instability created by that change, we view current trends as being positive. We are pleased to see that after 30 years of post-colonial experience: ..........-- One-party regimes are giving way to pluralistic democracies; ..........-- Command, Marxist-oriented economic controls are being replaced by free market systems which allow the private sector to flourish; and ..........-- The horrible apartheid system in South Africa is being dismantled irreversibly. ..........The driving force behind this change has been the African people themselves. The first 3 decades of independence have registered some important gains for Africa. Education has expanded tremendously. Modern public health benefits have been extended to growing numbers of people. Increasing percentages of Africans have entered the modern economy; expectations are high. During the last 10 years, however, alarms have sounded in every country. Many of the gains of the 1960s and 1970s have eroded. Post- independence African political and economic systems have been shown to be inadequate for the challenges of modernization. Africans have examined their circumstances and have decided what kind of change they want. Africans want accountability and transparency in their governments. Africans want meaningful participation in the decision-making process. Africans want economic opportunity; in short, Africans want liberty--freedom from both economic and political authoritarianism. ..........In many places, changes have been spectacular. In Benin, Cape Verde, Namibia, and the Congo--to name only a few--the people themselves have replaced their antiquated regimes; as I speak, in Mali, Niger, Zambia, and Ethiopia, Africans themselves are taking charge of their own agenda. ..........The United States believes that multiparty democracy has proven to be the most resilient and productive form of democratic pluralism. We also realize that each nation in Africa has its own conditions, its own needs, and its own range of viable political options. We will try not to indulge in cultural arrogance by claiming that only the American system is appropriate for Africa. But the right to participate, the right to speak out, and the right to associate are essential elements in any democratic system, regardless of culture. ..........Some African leaders reject multiparty democracy on the grounds that in Africa, pluralism aggravates ethnic differences. We disagree with this flawed concept which is being used to obstruct change, to prolong minority rule, and to entrench authoritarian leaders. Among these recalcitrant governments are ones whose national history, tradition, and social structures should place them in the vanguard of a new Africa. Tragically, they are not in that vanguard, and recent events on the continent have shown that leaders who fail to facilitate democratic change are at great risk. ..........Today, I'd like to outline briefly the major US goals and initiatives with respect to democratization in Africa and review what we have done in these months of dramatic change. ..........Secretary of State Baker recently stated that the promotion and consolidation of democratic values are "the preeminent challenges to US foreign policy." We are taking every opportunity to emphasize our commitment in diplomatic and governmental exchanges, international and public conferences, and through public statements. ..........We are supporting a structure of changes which would provide the foundations of democracy: respect for human rights, constitutional development and elections, popular participation and good government, independent judiciaries and the rule of law, open debate and a free press. ..........Equally important, we are making clear the link between political and economic liberalization and outside assistance. We will help countries pursue a democratic course and those already with democratic systems. In an era of escalating demand for scarce resources, we cannot waste non-humanitarian assistance on governments which themselves refuse the path to democracy, and we will not do so. ..........In the past year, Africa's newest democracies--Benin, Cape Verde, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe--have all held contested, multi-party elections. The United States encouraged and strongly supported the political reforms which led to those elections. ..........In Benin, US assistance was used to help defray the cost of the national conference and the revision of the electoral code. In addition, we provided grants to the transitional government to fund the elections themselves. Under the auspices of the African- American Institute, the US Government also funded two delegations of private American citizens--academics, journalists, and an elections expert--to observe the presidential election. ..........In response to a request from the Government in Sao Tome, we sent a technical expert to that island nation to assist in their efforts to develop a new constitution. Once the constitutional changes were ratified by popular referendum, we helped with election costs. ..........Other African countries are currently grappling with issues related to establishing democratic systems. For example, Nigeria is currently engaged in a transition process which we expect to lead to the establishment of a democratically elected civilian government in 1992. We continue to encourage the federal military government to maintain its resolve to usher in a democratic third republic. ..........Like Benin, the Congo and Togo have used a national conference as a springboard to democracy. Late last year, Mozambique adopted a new constitution recognizing the importance of individual liberty and multiparty competition. In Zambia, multiparty elections will take place in 6 weeks. The Governments of Rwanda and the Central African Republic have announced plans to dismantle their one-party states. Turning south, Namibia has been established as an independent, democratic state, and, after years of oppressive apartheid, South Africa is now approaching the building of a new constitution through which all its people will rule. ..........We stand ready to assist these countries and those whose transitions are only beginning, particularly in the technical aspects of democratic transition: elections, constitutional revisions, and the like. ..........Yet free and fair elections are only one important variable in the democratic equation. The democratic governments in Africa are, for the most part, embryonic and fragile. Africa's emerging democracies urgently need support in their efforts to build effective, democratic institutions--both governmental and non- governmental. This, in my view, is critical if democratic changes currently underway are to be consolidated into sustainable gains. ..........To address these needs, the US Government expects to dedicate about $30 million over the next 3 years to the promotion of this democratic infrastructure. Programs will emphasize civic education, human rights monitoring, assistance with national conferences and constitution-making, and technical electoral assistance. This assistance will continue through the difficult transition period. ..........The United States will also help support non-governmental democratic institutions. The development of a "civil society" is another essential ingredient in the democratic mix. Just as a "loyal opposition" is important in politics, decentralization is crucial in the non-governmental sector. We intend to assist African countries to cultivate this "civil society" with its multiple centers of power and influence. Democratic labor unions, literary and cultural groups, bar associations, women's associations, and traditional human rights "watchdog" groups all have a role to play in civil society. In Senegal and Mozambique and other countries we have used assistance funds to underwrite development of civic education programs; in the Central African Republic, we have provided modest support to the democratic labor federation. In Kenya and Malawi we are helping jurists' and lawyers' groups produce human rights/legal issues newsletters. ..........The regional program I mentioned earlier can also be used to support the expansion of Africa's civil society. This, I believe, is where notions such as "empowerment" take on real, practical meaning. Voluntary civic and professional associations often serve as the incubators and training ground for future leaders. And if organized on democratic lines they can, and often do, provide the cadre of dedicated leaders schooled in the all-important arts of compromise and consensus-building. These skills will be vital to the long-term success of democracy in Africa, as elsewhere. ..........The American non-governmental and private voluntary organizations also play a direct role in assisting African moves toward pluralism and decentralization. American private voluntary organizations have developed a wide range of links with organizations in African countries, providing expertise and assistance and serving as role models for these nascent institutions. While the US Government can provide some assistance, the impetus--and often the funding--for these programs comes from private Americans who, like an increasing number of Africans, see a need and step in to fill it. ..........I want to add a special word about one vital non-governmental institution--a free press. In the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the most concrete challenge to the old order took the form of a proliferation of newspapers and non-government media. Vigorous national debates were ignited, and alternate political programs arose which could never have come from the state-owned press. ..........In many African countries, a similar move has upended the state monopoly on information. The expanded political dialogue has not only undermined dictatorial rule but insures that all have an outlet for their opinions and gives the society as a whole a chance to explore alternatives. Importantly, it serves as a vital check on government and, perhaps more than any other single private institution, can stymie a new authoritarianism. ..........Successful democratization is a challenge which will take some time. It is a difficult task. It is complicated by Africa's still troubling economic situation. Democratization and economic empowerment are sides of the same coin. While fragile new democracies will have difficulties in the short term, the necessary readjustment can only be made in a democratic environment, with the people's informed consent, and in an environment in which the private sector has maximum room to grow. Equally important, a stable, democratic climate is increasingly a precondition for the necessary foreign and domestic investment for recovery and growth. ..........Africans have taken the initiative in defining their agenda for the 1990s and into the 21st century. It will be an African agenda, not a US agenda for Africa nor anyone else's agenda for Africa. The donor community cannot make the changes for Africans; even if the road is long and the way sometimes unclear, the Africans themselves must initiate change. When the voices of the new Africa speak, we will reply: "We are listening. The United States stands ready to assist. We have reservoirs of talent, experience, and financial resources that can have a real and lasting impact. We can and will remain engaged in Africa's progress toward democracy--and we will not abandon Africa when democracy is achieved." (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991 Title:

US Position on Zaire

Boucher Source: State Department Deputy Spokesman Richard Boucher Description: Washington, DC Date: Oct 24, 199110/24/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Zaire Subject: Regional/Civil Unrest, Democratization [TEXT] The US Government believes that an effective and credible government in Zaire is an immediate necessity. We further believe that such a government must be formed and led by a prime minister having broad popular support and coming from and having the support of the major opposition parties. The US Government has no candidate for Zairian prime minister; it supports the process of true democratization which must, at this stage, involve the opposition leadership in the decision-making of the government. ..........We deeply regret that President Mobutu and the opposition have not been able to resolve this impasse by agreement on a candidate to be designated prime minister. The United States continues to call upon all concerned parties in Zaire to come together in a spirit of compromise and together work toward solving the many problems facing Zaire and its people. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991 Title:

US Commitment to Czechoslovak Success

Bush, Havel Source: President Bush, Czechoslovak President Havel Description: Remarks upon arrival, The White House, Washington, DC Date: Oct 22, 199110/22/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: E/C Europe Country: Czechoslovakia (former) Subject: Democratization [TEXT]
The President:
Today we welcome a man whose moral authority makes him a hero not simply in his own land but everywhere that people cherish freedom: President Vaclav Havel. ..........I suspect the life of Vaclav Havel, President, would tax even the imagination of Vaclav Havel, playwright. Yet your life inspires us precisely because it shows that greatness begins with small acts of conscience and personal decency--acts that each one of us can perform. ..........Confronted with a wall of lies, you summoned the courage to "live in truth:" to shun the silence that allows the lie to live--to speak out and risk the consequences. That courage sustained you through 5 long years in prison, as an outcast in your own country-- to the chill autumn night 2 years ago when the people of Czechoslovakia came to Wenceslas Square. At first, a few candles flickered in the night sky. In time, the square was ablaze with light--the Velvet Revolution had begun. ..........Long before that night, you had written about "the power of the powerless." In the revolution of 1989, the world saw the Czech and Slovak people break their chains--the world witnessed once more the awesome power of the democratic idea. ..........Today, the electricity of revolution has given way to the sober business of democracy building. Your federal republic faces the challenge of three revolutions: first, an economic revolution, to replace the failed command system with the free market; second, a political revolution, to replace the totalitarian travesty with democratic government and the tyranny of men with the rule of law, so that Czechs and Slovaks, working together, can build a secure future; and, third and most important, you face a moral revolution-- the need to build public trust and tolerance, to trade the cynicism that helped people survive the old regime for the idealism that will help you build a new one. ..........For 40 years, the ruling regime fed your people nothing but lies: a steady diet of quotas fulfilled, record harvests, unanimous votes and unending progress--an elaborate fantasy that fooled no one. Today, Mr. President, you lead a people who know that being free means facing the truth--preferring fact to fiction, no matter how harsh the truth may be. ..........Your struggle is far from over. Everywhere across your country you feel the strains, the dislocations and depressed standard of living. And I know the transition has hit particularly hard in Slovakia. ..........Yet your country has made impressive progress. You've taken decisive steps to privatize state enterprises, to liberalize trade and investment, to lift restrictions on private enterprise. ..........Each barrier you sweep away unleashes the energies of free enterprise--liberates the Czech and Slovak people to pursue their ideas and ideals. ..........America stands with you in this effort. Our Trade Enhancement Initiative aims at opening American markets to your products. We seek through a special review to expand your benefits under our generalized system of preferences. Our Enterprise Fund will channel capital to Czech and Slovak entrepreneurs ready to put it to work. OPIC--the US Government's Overseas Private Investment Corporation--has just completed a mission to Czechoslovakia, the largest mission OPIC has ever led to any country. ..........During your visit, our Governments will sign the new Bilateral Investment Treaty--assuring an attractive investment climate for American firms that do business in your country. ..........A few days ago, I signed a document exempting the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic from the requirement of an annual Jackson- Vanik review. I hope for early congressional action to grant your country permanent most-favored-nation status. And to aid Czechoslovakia in its efforts to join the global economy, I call on the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development to provide assistance to pipeline projects already under consideration. ..........As your Federal Republic transforms itself within, it also has claimed its place in the councils of Europe. Mr. President, as a founder of Charter 77, you lived through the days when the secret police ransacked homes for papers related to the Helsinki Accords. You must marvel that Prague now serves as home to the permanent Secretariat of the CSCE [Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe]. ..........Nearly 1 year ago, when I addressed your Federal Assembly, sir, I spoke of America's enduring role in Europe and of our vision of a new commonwealth of freedom. I know you share that vision, and I value your strong conviction that the United State should remain in Europe as a guarantor of security. ..........Together, on both sides of the Atlantic, we can work as partners in a growing community of free nations to extend the values of democracy, free enterprise, and the rule of law. ..........Your country knows better than most the harsh lessons of history--what happens when aggression goes unchecked. When Iraq invaded Kuwait, the Czech and Slovak people stepped forward to take their place in the coalition against the aggressor. Even as it struggled to secure its own fragile independence, your country came to the defense of a nation in need. ..........You led the way in showing a new Europe that the security of one state is inseparable from the security of all. I welcome the opportunity to reaffirm today my country's commitment to your success--to the promise of democracy and independence. ..........Once again, Mr. President welcome to the White House. And may God bless the Czech and Slovak people.
President Havel:
Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen. Let me, on behalf of the whole Czechoslovak delegation, thank you for your warm welcome. I have a good feeling that we are coming to friends with whom we share the same attitude toward the principal values of life and who, therefore, understand our problems and needs. ..........Our friendship has deep roots and has gone through a difficult test of time. In the hearts and minds of our people, it survived the adversity of the long decades of the totalitarian era to be given a new dimension by the freedom reborn in my country 2 years ago. The legacy of the fathers of Czechoslovak-American cooperation-- the founder of our state, Tomas Garrigue Mazaryk, and President Woodrow Wilson--has thus been fulfilled. ..........It makes me happy to feel that I can regard you, Mr. President, as a friend of Czechoslovakia and as my personal friend. This is not the first time when I have an opportunity to step on the soil of your country. I shall never forget the reception accorded to me during my last year's visit when I came here for the first time in the capacity of head of state. Today, I am starting my first official state visit to your country, and I am looking forward to seeing it unfold no less successfully. ..........It will certainly be a breakthrough in our relations as significant documents are to be signed on this occasion. A permanent place among them will be held by the declaration on the relations between our countries in which we shall express our resolve to work together for the advancement of our cooperation. In so doing, we shall make a contribution, even if a limited one, to the strengthening of the traditional partnership between the United States and Europe. ..........We do see in this partnership a guarantee of our own stability and security. It is my conviction that our visit to your country, for which we prepared with utmost care, will achieve its purpose and confirm what I have said with much pleasure a number of times already--namely, that relations between Czechoslovakia and the United States have never been as good as they are now. ..........Thank you. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991 Title:

Presidents Bush and Havel Meet

Niles Source: Assistant Secretary for European and Canadian Affairs Thomas Niles Description: News briefing at the White House, Washington, DC Date: Oct 22, 199110/22/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: E/C Europe Country: Czechoslovakia (former) Subject: Security Assistance and Sales, NATO, Trade/Economics [TEXT] ....The President met for about 15 minutes privately with President Havel in the Oval Office. He then--the two Presidents then joined the rest of the group in the Cabinet Room for about a 45-minute session..... ..........Three major areas of discussion during the session in the Cabinet Office: developments in Europe with particular focus on the security dimension; the role of NATO; the relationship between NATO and the Central and Eastern European countries; [and] economic developments including the economic reform process in Czechoslovakia, which President Havel described to President Bush, during which Minister Klaus gave out some copies or examples of the vouchers that will be used for the privatization of some of the still-state-owned enterprises in Czechoslovakia. ..........Then there was also--the third subject discussed was the relationship, economic relationship, between the United States and Czechoslovakia. The President noted our continuing support for the reform process, for privatization in Czechoslovakia, for defense conversion; noted that an important delegation from OPIC, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, has visited Czechoslovakia, . . . . OPIC will continue to be actively engaged in the process, encouraging US investment in Czechoslovakia. ..........President Havel expressed appreciation for what we've done, noted that Czechoslovakia is going through what he called a "sales crisis" due to the collapse of trade between Czechoslovakia and its former partners in COMECON [Council for Mutual Economic Assistance], including the Soviet Union. In this context, he expressed particular appreciation for the steps taken by the United States under the Trade Enhancement Initiative to open up our markets more widely to Czech exports, in particular textiles and steel, and expressed the hope that this process would continue....(###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991 Title:

NATO Nuclear Planning Group: Final Communique

Description: Released by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Press Service, Brussels, Belgium Date: Oct 18, 199110/18/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Europe Subject: NATO, Arms Control, Security Assistance and Sales [TEXT] Text of the final communique of the NATO Nuclear Planning Group's October 17-18 meeting in Taormina, Italy, released by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Press Service, October 18, 1991, Brussels, Belgium. ..........1. The Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) of the Atlantic Alliance met at Taormina, Italy, on 17th and 18th October, 1991. Iceland attended as an observer. ..........2. Our discussions have taken place against the background of the much improved security environment in Europe and the transformation of the Alliance that began in London more than a year ago. We warmly welcome the recent decisive steps towards democracy and freedom in the Soviet Union and opportunities for increased co-operation and contacts between the Alliance and countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ..........3. We have taken these developments into account as we reviewed the emerging new Alliance Strategic Concept, including measures to support these positive developments, in preparation for the Summit of Heads of State and Government in Rome on 7th and 8th November, 1991. We continued our discussions on guidelines for future defence, the emerging new force posture and the streamlining of the military command structure, all of which are essential elements in the process of adapting our Alliance to the new security environment. ..........4. The principal objective of our meeting was to agree a new sub-strategic nuclear force posture and stockpile level which responds to the changing security environment in Europe. In adapting our nuclear policy to the needs of the 1990s we were guided by the conclusions of the London Summit last year that the Alliance could reduce its reliance on nuclear weapons and in particular those of the shortest ranges. Events since then have confirmed the validity of these conclusions, but allow us to go even further; there is no longer any requirement for nuclear ground- launched short-range ballistic missiles and artillery. In this context, we welcomed President Bush's recent decision, and the reciprocal response by President Gorbachev, to withdraw and destroy the associated nuclear warheads worldwide. We also welcomed the decision to withdraw all tactical nuclear weapons from surface vessels, attack submarines and land-based naval aircraft, and to destroy many of these weapons. ..........5. In addition to the elimination of ground-launched nuclear systems, the number of air-delivered weapons in NATO's European stockpile will be greatly reduced. The total reduction in the current NATO stockpile of sub-strategic weapons in Europe will be roughly 80 percent. ..........6. These unilateral measures, which are additional to the substantial reductions already made in recent years, accord with our long-standing policy of maintaining only the minimum level of nuclear forces required to preserve peace and stability. Nuclear weapons will continue for the foreseeable future to fulfill their essential role in the Alliance's overall strategy, since conventional forces alone cannot ensure war prevention. We will therefore continue to base effective and up-to-date sub-strategic nuclear forces in Europe, but they will consist solely of dual-capable aircraft, with continued widespread participation in nuclear roles and peacetime basing by Allies. Sub-strategic nuclear forces committed to NATO continue to provide the necessary political and military link to NATO's strategic nuclear forces and an important demonstration of Alliance solidarity. ..........7. President Bush's initiatives also include far-reaching proposals aimed at changing the strategic nuclear postures of the United States and the Soviet Union, to which there has also been a constructive Soviet response. These initiatives taken as a whole, together with the recently agreed START Treaty, represent a historic step towards enhanced security and stability. They will result in smaller nuclear arsenals and a dramatic change in the speed of transformation to a more secure and co-operative relationship. In this regard, we are convinced that a dialogue with the Soviet Union on nuclear policy would result in improved understanding and increased co-operation. ..........8. We discussed the growing problem of the proliferation of nuclear weapons, which remains a matter of great concern. We also discussed the crucial issue of the control of nuclear weapons in the Soviet Union and welcomed the statements by the Soviet leadership about their plans to ensure the safe, responsible and reliable control of these weapons. This matter clearly affects the security interests of the entire Alliance. We look forward to further steps by the Soviet Union to meet our concerns and to continuing timely consultations within the Alliance. ..........9. This was the 50th Ministerial meeting of the Nuclear Planning Group, a forum which has made a major contribution to Alliance consultation on nuclear matters in the pursuit of peace and security. The meeting has taken place at a time when a safer and more stable security structure is developing, with openness and co- operation becoming the norm. Our proposals for a drastically reduced and restructured NATO nuclear posture reflect this most welcome prospect. As the security situation evolves, we shall continue to review the nuclear policy and posture of the Alliance, as we have done over the past 25 years. ..........10. The Spring 1992 NPG Ministerial meeting will be held at NATO Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991 Title:

Feature: The Turning Point--Department of State, 1945-60

Date: Oct 18, 199110/18/91 Category: Features Region: North America Country: United States Subject: State Department, History [TEXT] Prepared by the Office of Public Communication and the Office of the Historian. After World War II, Secretaries of State James F. Byrnes, George Marshall, Dean Acheson, John Foster Dulles, and Christian Herter worked closely with Presidents Truman and Eisenhower to fashion a US foreign policy aimed at dealing with a dramatically changed international environment. The Secretaries became highly mobile-- James Byrnes was in office for only 3 days before flying to the Potsdam Conference. Secretary Dulles logged more than 800,000 miles overseas air travel during his tenure. ..........As Secretary Acheson recalled, everyone working in the State Department was aware ". . . that a major turning point in American history was taking place." During the late 1940s, the Department was responsible for the creative thinking behind the Truman Doctrine which provided emergency aid to Greece and Turkey, the creation of NATO, and the Marshall Plan for the economic recovery of Europe, working closely with Congress to implement these programs. It was said that partisan differences stopped at the water's edge, and foreign policy effectiveness was due in large part to a strong bipartisan consensus in Congress led by Senator Arthur Vandenberg.
The Cold War Begins
A revolution in American foreign policy greatly affected the position of Secretary of State. Before 1941, domestic political considerations rather than the need for expertise in foreign affairs, usually guided the presidential choice of the senior foreign policy adviser. However, after 1945, most of the Secretaries were selected because they possessed broad experience and technical skills deemed essential to effective interaction with foreign governments. ..........While the reconstruction of Western Europe progressed successfully, tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union grew, leading to the Cold War and an emphasis on national security in diplomacy. Secretary James F. Byrnes was the first to grapple with post-war issues, and his close congressional ties were decisive in US acceptance of the UN Charter. Byrnes, who traveled more than any previous Secretary, symbolized America's emergence from the "isolationism" of the pre-war period. ..........In 1947, President Truman chose General George C. Marshall to replace Byrnes. Marshall, former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff during World War II, was enormously popular and known as the "organizer of victory." His arrival at the State Department was a major boost to morale, and efficiency increased dramatically. Within 48 hours after the British warned that they would no longer be able to aid Greece and Turkey, the Department's conclusions were on Marshall's desk. The United States took action to provide assistance only 19 days after the crisis began. ..........Marshall's successor, Dean Acheson, worked closely with both the President and with Marshall himself, when Marshall later became Secretary of Defense. A strong administrator, Acheson was widely respected by his employees and is considered one of the Department's most successful leaders in building institutional power and effective policies. He also realized the importance of a bipartisan foreign policy and worked closely with Republican leaders, especially John Foster Dulles, the leading Republican foreign policy spokesman, who was Truman's chief US negotiator on the Japanese peace treaty and named his "ambassador at large" in 1951. ..........As Secretary of State, Dulles' close ties to President Eisenhower ensured a prominent role for the Department, and his influence in the Administration was unmatched. Eisenhower said of Dulles--the grandson and nephew of former Secretaries Harrison and Lansing--"[He] has been training for this job all his life."
The Department Reorganizes
To administer these new and complex responsibilities and to ensure efficient and coordinated policy-making, the number of American State Department personnel increased from 7,000 in 1945 to about 13,000 by 1960. In a major Department reorganization carried out in response to the Commission on Governmental Organization headed by former President Herbert Hoover, major policy divisions were elevated in 1949 to the level of bureaus for Inter-American Affairs, Far Eastern Affairs, European Affairs, Near Eastern and African Affairs, International Organization Affairs, and Congressional Relations. ..........By 1954, reorganization was again necessary. In a process known as "Wristonization"--after Henry Wriston, who chaired a group that examined personnel issues--the number of Foreign Service officers tripled when many Civil Service positions in the Department were merged into the Foreign Service. This provided for a more integrated State Department whose personnel were overwhelmingly Foreign Service. ..........The geographic bureau structure was rounded out in 1958, with the establishment of a Bureau of African Affairs. Meanwhile, in response to the increasing diversification of foreign policy issues, the Department created a Bureau for Consular Affairs (1952), a Bureau of Intelligence (1957), and a Bureau of Cultural Affairs (1960). ..........The expanding Department gradually gained a new level of policy makers and coordinators, including an Under Secretary for Economic Affairs in 1946 and an Under Secretary for Management in 1953. A Deputy Under Secretary was named to oversee the political bureaus in 1949, but their proliferating numbers lead to creation of the post of Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs in 1959. ..........A major development in the conduct of foreign affairs was the significant involvement of the public in the formulation of policies. Since 1945, the Department of State has worked to inform and educate the American public on the problems and possibilities posed by the world political scene. Press conferences and press briefings grew to be the principal means by which the Secretary and his Department provided the nearly insatiable demand for foreign policy information and insight from the news media. News conferences, begun informally during the 1930s, grew more frequent during the 1950s.
The McCarthy Era
Despite the accomplishments of the immediate post-war years, the Department of State became a prime target of the search for "subversives" in the US Government. In February 1950, shortly after the Soviet Union acquired nuclear weapons and Mao Zedong seized power in China, Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed to have a list of 205 State Department employees who were members of the Communist Party. Although McCarthy never proved his allegations, the careers of a number of the Department's most experienced Foreign Service officers were destroyed. ..........McCarthy's allegations had a lasting effect on those who remained in the Department. John W. Ford, a security officer at the time, later noted that "few people who lived through the McCarthy era in the Department of State can ever forget the fear, intimidation, and sense of outrage which permeated Foggy Bottom." As one modern observer notes, "It is most ironic, in view of McCarthy's charges, that the State Department did more than any other government agency to warn of the emerging dangers in Stalin's policy." (###)
Secretaries of State 1945-61
James F. Byrnes 1945-47 George C. Marshall 1947-49 Dean G. Acheson 1949-53 John Foster Dulles 1953-59 Christian A. Herter 1959-61
A Soldier and Statesman:
General George C. Marshall became Secretary of State on January 21, 1947. A man of enormous prestige, his nomination was unanimously confirmed on the day it was received by the Senate. Marshall, the architect of victory in World War II, played a similar role in the post-war world. The "Marshall Plan" for the reconstruction of Western Europe was one of the most significant achievements of US foreign policy. ..........General Marshall continued to serve his country after leaving the Department, as Secretary of Defense. President Truman said of him: "The more I see and talk to him, the more certain I am he's the great one of the age. I am surely lucky to have his friendship and support."(###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 43, October 28, 1991 Title:

Country Profile: Belize

Date: Oct 28, 199110/28/91 Category: Country Data Region: Central America Country: Belize Subject: History, Trade/Economics [TEXT] Official Name: Belize
Area: 22,963 sq. km. (8,866 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than New Hampshire. Cities: Capital--Belmopan (pop. 5,000). Other cities--Belize City (pop. 60,000), Orange Walk, Corozal, Dangriga, San Ignacio, Punta Gorda. Terrain: Flat swampy coastlands, jungle lowlands, mountains in the southwest interior. Climate: Sub-tropical; rainy season extends from June to October.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Belizean(s). Population (1991 est.): 200,000. Annual population growth (1990 est.): 3.7%. Ethnic groups: African 51%, mestizo 20%, Amerindian 19%, other 8%. Religions: Roman Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, Mennonite, other Protestant, Muslim, and Buddhist. Languages: English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna. Education: Years compulsory--9. Attendance--60%. Literacy-- more than 80%. Health: Infant mortality rate--19/1,000. Life expectancy--70 yrs. Work force (1990 est.): 60,000. Agriculture--30%.
Type: Parliamentary democracy. Independence: September 21, 1981. Constitution: September 21, 1981. Branches: Executive--British Monarch, represented by Governor General (head of state), Prime Minister (head of government; 5-year term), Cabinet. Legislative--National Assembly composed of House of Representatives and Senate. Judicial--Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, District magistrates. Subdivisions: 6 Districts--Belize City, Orange Walk, Corozal, Cayo, Stan Creek, Toledo. Political parties: Peoples United Party (PUP), United Democratic Party (UDP). Suffrage: Universal over 18. Central government budget (FY 1990-91): Recurrent expenditures-- $78 million. Capital expenditures--$25 million. Revenues--$108 million. Surplus--$5 million. Defense (1990): 1.4% of GDP. Flag: Blue field with red stripes at the top and bottom. Centered in the blue field is the national coat of arms consisting of two workers and symbols of agriculture, industry, and trade on a white circular background.
GDP (1990, current prices): $352 million. Annual real GDP growth rate (1990): 9%. Per capita GDP (1990): $1,680. Avg. inflation rate (1990): 5%. Natural resources: Arable land, timber, seafood. Agriculture (18% of GDP): Products--sugar, citrus, bananas, mangoes, papayas, corn, rice, beans, cacao, cashews, vegetables. Industry (29% of GDP): Types--fishing, timber, construction, garments, citrus processing. Tourism (15% of GDP): 1990 tourist arrivals, 172,000. Trade (1990): Exports--$105 million: sugar, citrus concentrate, garments, bananas, seafood, sawn lumber. Major markets--US, UK, CARICOM. Imports--$190 million: foodstuffs, construction materials, consumer goods, auto parts, high-tech equipment. Major suppliers--US, Mexico, UK. Foreign assistance (FY 1990): Total--$21 million. US assistance (FY 1990): Economic--$6.4 million. Military--$0.6 million. Counternarcotics--$0.5 million.
Principal Government Officials
Governor General--Dame Dr. Minita E. Gordon Prime Minister--George C. Price Minister of Foreign Affairs--Said Musa Ambassador to the United States and to the OAS--James B. Hyde Ambassador to the United Nations--Carl Lindbergh Rogers (###)
Belize Celebrates 10th Anniversary of Independence
On September 21, Belize celebrated the 10th anniversary of it's independence. Formerly known as British Honduras, it achieved full independence in 1981 after 110 years as a British colony. ..........In a congratulatory message to Prime Minister George Price, President Bush said, "Belize's tradition of democracy, its economic progress and its peaceful relations with its neighbors have served as examples for the entire hemisphere." Mr. and Mrs. Prescott Bush, the President's brother and sister-in-law, served as personal representatives of the President at the celebration. ..........Other dignitaries attending the festivities included Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Fortari and Honduran President Rafael Callejas. Noteworthy was the participation of the newly-appointed Guatemalan Ambassador. Belize and Guatemala established diplomatic relations just days before the anniversary celebrations, marking significant progress in the resolution of a territorial dispute which has lasted more than 100 years. (###)