US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991


Democracy's Season

Baker Source: Secretary Baker Description: Address before the CSCE Meeting on the Human Dimension, Moscow Date: Sep 11, 19919/11/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia, E/C Europe Country: Yugoslavia (former), USSR (former) Subject: Democratization, CSCE, Regional/Civil Unrest, Human Rights [TEXT] When, a little over 1 year ago, I addressed the Copenhagen CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] meeting, I looked around and saw the changing face of Europe. Arrayed at the table were delegates from a reforming Soviet Union, from two Germanies only a few months shy of unification, and from the new Central and East European democracies. In the intervening months, the transformation of Europe has continued without pause. The difficult task of consolidating democracy and establishing market economies had advanced across Central and Eastern Europe. Germany is united, and Albania is open. Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia, deprived of their independence by force half a century ago, have at last taken their rightful place among us. But not all of the changes in Europe have been so peaceful. We remain deeply saddened and concerned by the tragic bloodshed in Yugoslavia. To those who would persist in the threat or use of force, we say: There is no honor in it; no lasting gain, no future. You cannot achieve prosperity and security for your people by force. You can only reap a whirlwind of misery, turmoil, and loss. I wish to make it clear to all parties--and most of all to the Serbian leadership and the Yugoslav Federal Army--that with every use of aggressive force they further isolate themselves from the new Europe and raise the costs to their own people of an already severe economic crisis. We doubt the peoples of Yugoslavia truly wish to pay the high price of political and economic exile. We join other members of CSCE in reiterating our strong support for the European Community's continuing efforts to bring about a genuine cease-fire and political settlement. We urge all parties to reach out of the abyss of violence into which they have descended and grasp hold of this opportunity for peace. The rest of Europe is moving forward to political and economic freedom.
Guidelines for Democratic Action
No one is moving forward more vigorously than the peoples of the Soviet Union. For the peoples of this land, this is truly democracy's season. And, with you, the American people rejoice in its coming. Here in Moscow, we breathe the warm wind of new-won freedoms. But we know that difficult winter months are ahead, and spring is distant. The peoples of this vast land face tremendous challenges ahead in the coming weeks and months. But for the first time, after decades of totalitarianism and central planning, each and every citizen knows now that the hard choices are genuinely his or hers to make. Each Soviet citizen now has an unprecedented opportunity to gain control of his or her own destiny. And how the men and women of this country choose to meet the challenges ahead will surely test--and reveal--the strength of their commitment to democratic values. The scope, depth, and consequences of the decisions that the citizens of this country are now making are indeed unprecedented. But in shaping their democratic future, they are not without guidelines for action, or standards of accountability. At this time of change in all aspects of Soviet national life, we should take this opportunity to address all Soviet citizens and their leaders. My message is simple: The courage you showed in August must be continued and consolidated now in enduring political and economic freedom. As you work to build democracy and free markets, the West will stand with you. The path ahead is charted by enduring principles, universal democratic principles that can help you meet the challenge of change peacefully and legitimately. In particular, I'd urge you to follow five fundamental principles. One, it's important that you determine the future of this country peacefully, consistent with democratic values and practices and the principles of the Helsinki Final Act. If, indeed, your ultimate objective is a thriving democracy, you can do nothing less. Intimidation, illegality, and violence are not handmaidens of democracy, they are the harbingers of despotism. Just as you faced down tanks, see these evils of intolerance squarely for what they are. Two, we urge all to respect existing borders, internal and external; any change of borders should only occur legitimately by peaceful and consensual means, consistent with CSCE principles. The agreements recently achieved by some republics underscore this principle. The alternative is spiraling instability. Autarky, score-settling and the threat or use of force for territorial gain cannot be legitimate elements of the new Euro-Atlantic community. European history is replete with too many examples of how such irresponsible behavior has led to immense suffering on this continent. Three, we urge support for democracy and the rule of law. We support peaceful change only through orderly democratic processes, especially elections. As Dr. [Andrei] Sakharov so often said: Democratic means are the only way to achieve democratic ends. CSCE's Office for Free Elections, which we hope soon will become an Office for Democratic Institutions, can be constructive in this effort. Four, we urge you to safeguard human rights, based on full respect for the individual and including the equal treatment of minorities. In a thriving, pluralistic society--and certainly in any multinational system--every citizen at one time or another, and with regard to one issue or another, finds himself or herself in the minority. As Thomas Jefferson put it in his Inaugural Address over 200 years ago: "Though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will, to be rightful, must be reasonable; the minority possess their equal right, which equal laws must protect, and to violate would be oppression." Consistent with commitments made in Copenhagen, and Geneva, leaders at all levels of government must forthrightly condemn and combat racial and ethnic hatred, anti- semitism, xenophobia and discrimination, as well as persecution on religious and ideological grounds. Five, we urge you to respect international law and obligations, especially adherence to the provisions of the Helsinki Final Act and the Charter of Paris. This will best prepare you to join in the democratic commonwealth of nations. The right to participate in this commonwealth is not a function of power or geography. It is a function of values--shared values. These five principles embody those shared democratic values. They represent the path to a new future, to full membership in the democratic commonwealth. That's why today, here in Moscow, I'd like to repeat the request I made a week ago: I urge all leaders--at all levels of government--to voice their support for these principles. And I'd urge all the members of CSCE to voice their support, too. CSCE has no divisions of tanks. It has instead the moral authority that flows from principles like these. But as we saw on the streets of this city, 3 weeks ago, at critical moments people armed with principles have overwhelmed tanks. Clearly, these principles are not just guides to action but also standards of accountability. Those who follow these principles should know they are building the only sure basis for our support and assistance--a common bond held solid by enduring values. Those who fail to heed these principles, who irresponsibly trample on the rights of others while neglecting their own obligations need to know something, too: They risk [losing] positive relations and support from the outside when their actions undercut the basic principles upon which democracy and the CSCE are built.
Moscow Meeting on the Human Dimension
Let me turn now to the agenda of this meeting. This Moscow meeting is no occasion to indulge in euphoric self-congratulation. Those very people who successfully defied and defeated the coup know only too well that respect for human rights, the rule of law, and democratic processes have yet to be consolidated here in the Soviet Union. There can be no clearer indication of how deeply this is understood than the fact that one of the very first acts of the Extraordinary Congress of People's Deputies was the passage of a declaration on human rights and freedoms-- the first such declaration in the history of the Soviet Union. Elsewhere, in Central and Eastern Europe, democracy's hard work continues. Here, too, turning CSCE's human dimension commitments into reality remains a major challenge for citizens and their governments alike. For two centuries, we Americans have placed the highest priority on translating our own Bill of Rights into daily practice and we know well that fine intentions and noble words on parchment-- while a splendid beginning--do not a democracy make. Democracy derives its life from the citizen. Similarly, the CSCE process is only as meaningful as the positive impact it can have on the lives of our peoples. That is why my government considers it vitally important that we make full use of the opportunity presented by the Moscow meeting for a thorough review of implementation. In particular, we'd like to see this meeting endorse the proposal I made in June in my speech in Berlin to broaden the Office of Free Elections into an Office for Democratic Institutions. We would also like to see adoption of our proposal to strengthen the human dimensions mechanism to allow CSCE to better help resolve human rights issues, including those involving national minorities. Our approach includes provision for a mediation function, giving CSCE greater ability and flexibility to deal with increasingly pressing problems. In Berlin in June, I also proposed CSCE involvement to help move toward defense conversion efforts and to cope with potential migration problems in Europe. I hope we can discuss these proposals and move forward with concrete action in these areas. We recognize that there is no set formula for putting democratic principles into practice that can serve for all times, all places, all peoples, and all circumstances. But it is in the thoughtful and determined search for solutions by citizens and their elected leaders that democracies gain maturity and legitimacy in the eyes of their citizens and the international community.
Heroes for Our Time
That is a search that began here in earnest 3 weeks ago. It is a search for which we all need to express words of deep appreciation to absent friends of human rights and of this process. In her "Poem Without a Hero," the great Russian poet Anna Akhmatova traced the momentous events of her age as she was fated to live them through revolution, civil war, the Terror, and foreign invasion. The poem opens on the eve of World War I, in 1913, the first year of what Akhmatova called "not the calendar, but the real 20th century"-- a century of upheaval and human tragedy on an unprecedented scale. The poem ends, as it only could have, on a somber note. Sadly, Akhmatova did not live long enough to see democracy's season arrive in her long-suffering native land. Nor did countless millions for whom her poetry bears witness the human suffering and the nobility of the human spirit. It came too late for the 11 Helsinki monitors who perished in Soviet prison camps, or in foreign exile, and who, before their deaths, were made to suffer long years of persecution for defending human rights. It came too late as well for Sakharov, and for the three young men who gave their lives just last month defending the people's democratic principles against tanks. All these courageous men and women hastened democracy's arrival. These are the true heroes of our time. So, I believe that it is only fitting that I close these remarks today urging that our work here in Moscow be worthy of their hopes, their courage, and their sacrifices. Together, we can make a meaningful contribution to the consolidation of democracy for the peoples of the Soviet Union and throughout Europe. By our efforts, we can help make 1991 the first real year of the 21st century--a century that we hope will give rise to a new Europe, a new Atlanticism, and a new world order based on human and democratic values, thriving market economies, and peaceful international relations. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Boucher Source: State Department Deputy Spokesman Richard Boucher Description: Washington, DC Date: Sep 10, 19919/10/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Subject: Human Rights, United Nations, International Law [TEXT] In keeping with his commitment to a new world order based upon respect for international law and human rights, President Bush has urged the Senate to renew its consideration of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights with a view to providing advice and consent to ratification. In letters addressed August 8 to the Chairman and ranking minority member of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, the President stressed that "US ratification of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights at this moment in history would underscore our national commitment to fostering democratic values through international law." He noted that US ratification would also strengthen our ability to influence the development of appropriate human rights principles in the international community and provide an additional and effective tool in our efforts to improve respect for fundamental freedoms in many problem countries around the world. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was adopted by unanimous vote of the United Nations General Assembly on December 16, 1966. The Covenant amplifies the basic civil and political rights proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. At present, 95 states are parties to the Covenant, including all of the UN members of Western Europe. The Covenant was signed by President Carter in 1977 and was transmitted to the Senate in 1978. The Covenant articulates the essential freedoms people must enjoy in a democratic society, including the fundamental principles incorporated in our own Bill of Rights. Among the basic human rights guaranteed by the Covenant are the rights of the individual to life, liberty and security of the person; to freedom from slavery, torture and arbitrary arrest; to fair trial and equality before the law; to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; to freedom of opinion, information and assembly; to vote and to participate in government; and other related rights. The Covenant provides for enjoyment of these rights without discrimination. The Covenant establishes an implementing organ, the Human Rights Committee, composed of 18 individual experts. The Committee functions to oversee compliance by the States parties with their obligation to respect and ensure observance of the rights recognized in the Covenant. It does so primarily by considering reports from States Parties and, where appropriate, considering complaints by one State Party against another. In his recent letters, President Bush promised assistance to the Senate Committee on Foreign relations in acting on the Covenant without delay. "Subject to a few essential reservations and understandings, it is entirely consonant with the fundamental principles incorporated in our own Bill of Rights," he said. The Department of State, in consultation with other concerned departments of the United States government as well as interested parties on the Hill and in the private sector, will be developing the necessary reservations, understandings, and declarations, which the Administration will propose for approval by the Senate as part of its advice and consent to ratification of the Covenant. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

New Opportunities in US-Soviet Relations

Baker, Gorbachev Source: Secretary Baker, Soviet President Gorbachev Description: Opening statements at a news conference, Moscow, USSR Date: Sep 11, 19919/11/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia, North America Country: USSR (former), United States Subject: Arms Control, Democratization, Mideast Peace Process, Trade/Economics [TEXT]
President Gorbachev:
Good afternoon. As we have promised, we are reporting to you about our talks. Let me say a couple of words, then Secretary Baker will say a couple of words, and then we'll respond to a few questions. Naturally, we have discussed with the Secretary of State the situation that the Soviet Union, and the entire international community, has just had to go through. I thanked Secretary Baker for the very clear and firm position adopted by President Bush and by Secretary Baker during the coup, and for the solidarity of the American people with democratic forces in the Soviet Union and the President of the Soviet Union. And I reported to the Secretary our analysis of the situation and the lessons that we have learned from the situation. We had a discussion that centered basically around two things. One is our cooperation--our economic cooperation--under new conditions, and we discussed a number of very specific points in that regard. In that very substantive discussion, we have decided that in his new situation with new circumstances [that] we will develop new forms of cooperation to make that coordination effective and to synchronize our efforts. The other area that we focused on was foreign policy and, specifically our continued cooperation between the Soviet Union and the United States. I drew the attention of the Secretary to the statement of the President of the Soviet Union and the leaders of the republics, which specifically said that we remain committed to the foreign policy course of recent years, which we have conducted in close cooperation with the United States. What is more, we believe that the current situation, the new phase in the evolution of our country--creates and opens up new opportunities for furthering the course of that cooperation. We agreed to continue to cooperate as before on the Middle East--specifically to advance the process toward a peace conference. We continued the discussion that we began with President Bush during the summit--specifically our discussion at Novo Ogaryeva [President Gorbachev's dacha] with President Bush about our interaction and cooperation of Afghanistan. We want to reach the desired result in the settlement of this problem . . . . The ministers will continue the discussion, and we believe that the discussion should result in new steps to accelerate the internal process in Afghanistan which will, we believe, result in democratic forms and some kind of national consensus in that country. We have agreed that we will move toward the ratification of the CFE [Conventional Armed Forces in Europe] Treaty and of the START [Strategic Arms Reduction Talks] Treaty. The Secretary of State was interested in learning more about what I and President Yeltsin said during the CNN interview--the CNN discussion--with the Americans about our further relationship with Cuba. I once again reaffirmed to the Secretary that we intend to transfer our relations with Cuba to a plane of mutually beneficial trade and economic ties and that we will remove other elements from that relationship--the elements that were born in a different time in a different era. In that context, I told the Secretary that we will soon begin discussions with the Cuban leadership about the control of the Soviet training brigade that was stationed in Cuba some time ago and that is still there. To sum up, I would like once again to tell you my view--which the Secretary of State, I understand, supports--that we should not only continue the cooperation between the Soviet Union and the United States but we should develop that cooperation and take it further, because we do have new opportunities.
Secretary Baker
Mr. President, I think that is a very complete summary of the discussions which we have had today. Let me thank you very much for receiving me and our delegation on somewhat short notice. The President felt it was very important for me to come to the Soviet Union as quickly as possible in the aftermath of the extraordinary events that have been taking place here. I think you know how we feel about the outcome of those events. I think you know that it was the strong hope of the United States during those critical days that the coup would not succeed. It was, of course, our hope that you and your family would be safe, as we are pleased with the way things turned out, because we think that this will permit us to continue the cooperation between our two nations that had developed under your leadership and President Bush's leadership and will permit us indeed to enhance that cooperation. There are new opportunities, and we do want to continue to cooperate with you and to cooperate with President Yeltsin and other reformers in the Soviet Union in order to assist in this dynamic transformation, political and economic, that you are going through. And when I say I think there will be enhanced opportunities for cooperation, I don't limit that to political or economic. I think that there will be enhanced opportunities on both the political and economic side. I thank you for your statement with respect to the question of the training brigade in Cuba. That will be very important in terms of public opinion in the United States. And I would add only one comment to the very complete summary that I think you've given of our talks. And that is to say that we spent quite a bit of time talking about the importance of quickly producing a credible economic reform program for discussion with the international financial institutions. And there was complete agreement between us on this question. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

New Opportunities in US-Soviet Relations

Baker, Yelstin Source: Secretary Baker, Russian President Yelstin Description: Opening statements at the Supreme Soviet, Moscow,USSR Date: Sep 11, 19919/11/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia, North America Country: USSR (former), United States, Japan, Afghanistan, Cuba Subject: Arms Control, Democratization, Trade/Economics [TEXT]
President Yeltsin:
What did we talk about? Well, we talked for a long time. And, based on these notes, we looked at 20 issues--20 exactly. These included: the issue of a new union and the principles of its formation; questions of relations between the center and the new sovereign republics; the question of the union treaty; the issue of the implementation of our general programs during this transitional, critical period for our country--technical aid, humanitarian aid, and, joint programs. We discussed which programs to implement. Further, we discussed: the question of Soviet-American, Russian-American relations, from the viewpoint of reducing strategic and tactical nuclear weapons; conventional arms; reforms in the army; the question of the Japanese Northern [Territories], the islands to which, so to speak, Japan is now laying claim--the Kuriles Islands; the questions of the management of strategic nuclear weapons and control of them--by whom it will be exercised, so that there will be confidence among everyone, not only the Americans but the entire world, that only the center, only one person controls them in this country; the question of agreements made over the next few years; the question of food deliveries, especially in the first months of next year; the issue of ceasing aid to Afghanistan, to Cuba, including the cessation of arms deliveries- -have I listed twenty? Well, I've had at least 10 to list, and you can do the other 10.
Secretary Baker:
For the benefit of our American colleagues, Mr. President, let me quickly summarize, if I can, what you've said. You've said that we've covered a wide range of subjects. We talked about 20 different, specific items, and you're quite right. You've listed a number of them: relations between the union and the republics, and between the republics themselves; economic cooperation; the transformation that's going on here in the Soviet Union, politically and economically; a number of different foreign policy problems, including questions of Afghanistan, Cuba, the Northern Territories, the Middle East. We talked at length, as you just mentioned, about the central control--that is, one central control point for nuclear weapons within the Soviet Union. We talked about the future of consultations between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the republics of the Soviet Union, particularly, of course, the Russian Republic. I should say, for the benefit of our traveling American press, Mr. President, that I told you, and I want to repeat right here, that it's the view of the American people, and the view of President Bush and all of us, that the recent attempt at unconstitutional overthrow of the duly constituted Government of the Soviet Union might well have succeeded but for your courageous leadership in mounting the defense right here outside the White House, and that the United States, and, indeed, the world as a whole--those who believe in freedom and in democracy and in human rights and in the benefits of a free market economic program--owe you a vast debt of gratitude. Beyond that, I would simply say that we have had a very, very full and productive dialogue across a very broad range of subjects, and the ones I have just mentioned are not all of them. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

US-Soviet Joint Statement on Afghanistan

Description: Text of Joint statement and commentary released by Secretary Baker and Soviet Foreign Minister Pankin, Moscow, USSR Date: Sep 13, 19919/13/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: South Asia Country: Afghanistan Subject: United Nations, Democratization, Military Affairs [TEXT]
Joint Statement:
The United States and the USSR, consistent with the UN General Assembly resolutions adopted at the 43rd, 44th, and 45th sessions and with their commitment to the Geneva accords on Afghanistan, recognize the fundamental right of the Afghan people to determine their own destiny free from outside interference. In this regard, they support the statement of the UN Secretary General dated May 21, 1991, and reaffirm the need for a political settlement in Afghanistan that ensures an independent and non-aligned Afghanistan at peace with its neighbors and that establishes a new, broad-based government through an electoral process that respects Afghan political and Islamic traditions. The United States and the USSR agree that a transition period is required to reach these goals. To this end, they call for and pledge to support a democratic and free electoral process that is not subject to manipulation or interference by anyone. The results of the electoral process must be respected and fully implemented by all. They request the United Nations, with the support of concerned governments, including those of Islamic countries, to work with the Afghans to convene a credible and impartial transition mechanism whose functions would include directing and managing a credible electoral process fully consistent with these principles. This transition mechanism, working closely with the UN and others as necessary, would have independent authority with all powers required to prepare for, conduct, and implement the results of this electoral process leading to the establishment of a new government that will have the broad support of the Afghan people. The details of these and other powers and functions would be decided through an intra-Afghan dialogue. The United States and the USSR agree that a cessation of hostilities is essential for the peaceful conduct of elections during the transition period and for a lasting political settlement. To facilitate this cessation, they agree to discontinue their weapons deliveries to all Afghan sides. They also agree that a cease-fire and a cutoff of weapons deliveries from all other sources should follow this step. They agree further to work toward withdrawal of major weapons systems from Afghanistan. The United States and the USSR also reiterate their commitment to support an international humanitarian assistance effort to promote the prompt repatriation of refugees and reconstruction of Afghanistan. To these ends, they reaffirm their willingness to promote in every way possible the efforts of the UN Secretary General to contribute in practical ways to the early settlement of this conflict. Commentary: Today, the USSR and the United States issued a joint statement on Afghanistan specifying agreed approaches of the sides to a political settlement in that country along the lines of the UN Secretary General's statement of May 21, 1991. Settlement of the issue of "negative symmetry," that is discontinuation of Soviet and US arms supplies to the conflicting Afghan sides, is one of the crucial elements of this agreement. The USSR and the United States agreed to cut off such supplies beginning January 1, 1992. They further agreed that neither the USSR nor the US will intensify arms supplies to any Afghan side in the interim. It is also hoped that during the remaining time the issue of the Soviet POWs will be settled. The United States pledges its best efforts to resolve this important humanitarian question. It is also expected that other countries involved in the Afghan conflict should also follow the USSR and the United States in limiting their assistance to Afghanistan to humanitarian assistance only. We expect that our joint steps will facilitate launching an intra-Afghan negotiating process and should lead to a pause followed by a complete cessation of military operations.(###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

US Efforts To Promote Progress and Democracy in the Baltic States

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Excerpt from remarks during a meeting with the heads of the Baltic legations, Washington, DC Date: Sep 11, 19919/11/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: E/C Europe Country: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Subject: Democratization, United Nations, Trade/Economics [TEXT] Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are free again, and we welcome them back to the commonwealth of freedom. It is our responsibility--all of us as Americans--to help the Baltics integrate fully into the West; to nurture these young democracies; to transform--help them transform their economies toward a free market that we all know works so well. And I'm, therefore, very pleased to announce today a series of measures--beginning measures--to start this process, which the Secretary of State will be discussing with the Baltic leaders when he visits the region in so many hours from now. But first, I'm pleased to announce that--and this is a fait accompli, I'm pleased to say, also--that the United States will sponsor Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania for membership in the United Nations at the General Assembly on September 17, just as we supported them for membership in the CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] earlier this week. Second, as many of you know, the United States safeguarded for over 50 years financial assets of the Baltic governments. And we look forward to working with the independent Baltic states on arrangements for unfreezing the gold and other assets as soon as possible and move forward on that just as quickly as we can. Third, we will move quickly to normalize our own economic relationship with the Baltics by extending the most-favored-nation treatment, and including them under the Trade Enhancement Initiative designed to increase their trade with the West. And we'll also provide GSP [Generalized System of Preferences] and OPIC [Overseas Private Investment Corporation] benefits, and we'll continue the work we've already started to provide medicine for the Baltic hospitals. Fourth, we will help the Baltics to integrate into the world economy. This is a big one, a very important one--economic integration. We will encourage the IMF [International Monetary Fund] and the World Bank to work closely with the Baltics to prepare them for membership. We hope that membership in the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development will proceed on a fast track, and we will also support Baltic participation in the OECD [Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development] center for economies in transition. And fifth, we will work closely with our allies in the G-24 [Group of 24] process to coordinate economic assistance to the Baltic states. For our part, the United States intends to extend a variety of technical assistance and other programs under the Support for Eastern European Democracies Act. Finally, I'm delighted to announce today that we will move immediately to establish a Peace Corps program for Estonia and Latvia and Lithuania. Let me say in closing that as the United States was true to the Baltic States in captivity, we will continue to be true to them as democratic partners and the years ahead. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

UN Security Council Resolutions on the Baltic States

Description: New York, New York Date: Sep 12, 19919/12/91 Category: Fact Sheets Region: E/C Europe Country: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Subject: United Nations [TEXT]
Resolution 709 (Sept. 12, 1991)
The Security Council, Having examined the application of the Republic of Estonia for admission to the United Nations, Recommends to the General Assembly that the Republic of Estonia be admitted to membership in the United Nations.
Resolution 710 (Sept. 12, 1991)
The Security Council, Having examined the application of the Republic of Latvia for admission to the United Nations, Recommends to the General Assembly that the Republic of Latvia be admitted to membership in the United Nations.
Resolution 711 (Sept. 12, 1991)
The Security Council, Having examined the application of the Republic of Lithuania for admission to the United Nations, Recommends to the General Assembly that the Republic of Lithuania be admitted to membership in the United Nations. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

US-Mexico Binational Commission Meeting

Baker Source: Secretary Baker Description: Opening statement at a news conference, US-Mexico Binational Commission meeting, Mexico City, Mexico Date: Sep 9, 19919/9/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: North America Country: Mexico, United States Subject: Environment, Human Rights, Immigration, Narcotics [TEXT] Ladies and Gentlemen, we've had a very full day, and we've had, I think, a very productive day. As [Mexican Foreign] Secretary Solana has said--and, I think, as our joint statement attests--we have accomplished a lot of substantive work in our meetings. I would like to highlight for you just six points. First of all, we agreed to push ahead to completion a comprehensive, integrated environmental plan to preserve our common heritage of water, soil, and air along our very extensive common border. Second, we agreed to strengthen our cooperation in combatting drug trafficking, with an increased effort to combat money laundering and the spread of trafficking in Central America. Third, we agreed to improve our joint efforts to protect workers' rights and enforce health and safety standards. Fourth, we agreed to increase our exchange programs among teachers, students, journalists, and other professions. Fifth, we discussed how to remove the remaining barriers to our very important agricultural trade. Sixth, we held important discussions on cooperation on immigration and consular affairs, improvement of border crossings, and we welcomed--for the first time--representatives of our housing, transportation, and labor departments to the work of the BNC [Binational Commission]. In addition to the substance of what we have achieved here today, I think that it's worth noting that this Binational Commission is also a very unique process or procedure. There is no other country in the world with whom our President's Cabinet meets as a whole regularly and systematically to conduct important business at the highest level. And, I think, that that is as clear an expression as could exist of the special nature of the US-Mexican relationship. Most of you know, I think, that I will be flying from Mexico directly on to Moscow, with a stop at Andrews [Air Force Base], and, of course, a refueling stop in Shannon, Ireland. But the fact that I'm going from Mexico to Moscow, I think, provides a point of which we ought to take note. The dramatic and revolutionary changes that are taking place in the world today are not just going on in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. There are equally dramatic changes, we believe, underway here in Mexico; perhaps quieter, but equally dramatic. Under President Salinas' leadership, Mexico has emerged from an economic crisis with renewed strength and confidence, restoring strong real growth and attracting investment from around the world. We think that Mexico's success offers a lesson for the rest of the world that free market reforms combined with political courage and will reap real dividends for ordinary citizens. Together with Canada, the two of us are negotiating the world's largest free trading regime uniting 360 million people and economic activity involving some $7 trillion in goods and services. And this North American Free Trade Agreement is the first step towards building a hemisphere in which trade is free--all the way from Alaska to Argentina. Finally, as I said this morning, Mexico and the United States are pioneers in constructing something history has never known-- the world's first completely democratic hemisphere. And I think that we are well on the way towards that goal. So, ladies and gentlemen, I leave Mexico with increased confidence in the future of this great nation, the future of the US- Mexico relationship, and the future of our hemisphere as a whole.
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

US-Mexico Binational Commission Joint Statement

Description: Text of a joint statement, Mexico City, Mexico Date: Sep 9, 19919/9/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: North America Country: Mexico, United States Subject: Environment, Human Rights, Immigration, Narcotics, Resource Management, Travel [TEXT] The ninth meeting of the US-Mexico Binational Commission took place in Mexico City on September 9, 1991. The two delegations, convinced that their continuing dialogue contributes to mutual understanding and cooperation, discussed the full bilateral agenda of the Binational Commission. They welcomed the positive spirit of cooperation that has grown increasingly stronger between the two governments in the context of mutual respect for national sovereignty and identity. They agreed that this effective cooperation has resulted in concrete progress in a wide variety of areas that contribute in a meaningful way to improving the quality of their peoples' lives. During their most recent meeting, in Houston, Presidents Bush and Salinas reaffirmed the significance of the North American Free Trade Agreement as a vehicle for an enhanced quality of life through shared prosperity, and continued progress in economic reform, trade liberalization and development. Both delegations today reaffirmed their conviction that this agreement will symbolize the new dynamism characteristic of their relationship, and the tangible cooperation that underlies it. They emphasized the positive impact that ongoing negotiations towards a North American Free Trade Agreement [NAFTA] have had on prospects for economic growth in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. The delegations agreed that the successful ratification and implementation would result in even stronger growth and will be an important step toward expanded trade throughout the hemisphere. The two delegations praised the substantial progress achieved on environmental issues, particularly in the development of an integrated environmental plan to address environmental concerns in the border region, as instructed by Presidents Bush and Salinas at the November 1990 Summit. The delegations expressed satisfaction at the growing coordination and understanding between their governments in anti- narcotics activity. Citing the entry into force of the mutual legal assistance treaty, they emphasized the importance of its prompt and effective implementation. The delegations noted the establishment of the US/Mexico mixed permanent commission on narcotic substances and endorsed the results of its first meeting. Both delegations supported the strong progress made in labor cooperation under the Joint Cooperative Program and discussed future joint activities in a number of key areas. The delegations shared their concern about, and condemned, instances of violence on both sides of the border. They reaffirmed their commitment to intensifying efforts to reduce criminality and other causes of violence in the border region. In this context, both noted with satisfaction progress toward enhanced communication and coordination between authorities of the two nations. In keeping with their respective laws, they reviewed steps being taken in both countries to facilitate border crossings and trade so important to communities on both sides of the border. They reviewed with satisfaction the continuing improvements in construction and infra- structure programs at crossing points and emphasized the importance of coordinated planning for future requirements. The delegations reviewed transportation issues. They agreed to have these topics incorporated into the Binational Commission and to include the respective secretaries in the next commission meeting. The delegations welcomed the innovative new programs in culture, science, technology, and human resources being launched by the recently formed US-Mexico Commission for Educational and Cultural Exchange. The two heads of the delegation reviewed the excellent state of bilateral relations between the US and Mexico and consulted on a wide range of international topics of mutual interest. They discussed the benefits of the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative and committed themselves to working for a successful conclusion to the GATT [General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade] Uruguay Round before the end of the year. Both delegations exchanged views on the international situation in general. They fully endorsed the United Nations' peace efforts in El Salvador, expressing their desire that a definitive cease-fire and settlement can be reached soon on the basis of an agreed plan. The 1991 US-Mexico Binational Commission Meeting, co- chaired by the US Secretary of State of the United States of America, James A. Baker, III, and the Secretary of Foreign Relations of Mexico, Fernando Solana, was organized in working groups which examined issues in specific areas: -- The Migration and Consular Affairs Working Group was chaired by Gene McNary, Commissioner of the US Immigration and Naturalization Service and Miguel Limon Rojas, Under Secretary for Population and Migration Services of the Secretariat of Government. -- The Financial Cooperation Working Group was chaired by Olin Wethington, Assistant Secretary of the US Treasury and Secretary Pedro Aspe of the Mexican Treasury and Public Credit. -- The Trade and Investment Working Group was co-chaired by Secretary of State James A. Baker, III, and US Trade Representative Carla Hills on the US side, and the Secretary of Commerce and Industrial Development, Jaime Serra Puche and the Secretary of Foreign Relations, Fernando Solana on the Mexican side. -- The Business Development, Fisheries, and Tourism Working Group was chaired by, respectively, Robert A. Mosbacher, US Secretary of Commerce and Secretary of Commerce and Industrial Development Jaime Serra Puche; by Secretary of Commerce, Robert A. Mosbacher and Mexican Secretary of Fisheries, Guillermo Jimenez Morales; by Secretary of Commerce, Robert A. Mosbacher and Secretary of Tourism, Pedro Joaquin Coldwell. -- The Agricultural Working Group was chaired by US Secretary of Agriculture, Edward Madigan and Secretary of Agriculture for Mexico, Carlos Hank Gonzalez. -- The Environmental Working Group was chaired by William Reilly, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and Secretary for Urban Development and Ecology, Patricio Chirinos. -- The Housing and Urban Development Working Group was chaired by the Secretary for Housing and Urban Development, Jack Kemp and Secretary of Urban Development and Ecology, Patricio Chirinos. -- The Education, Cultural Affairs and Exchanges Working Group was chaired by Henry E. Catto, Director of the United States Information Agency, and Secretary of Education, Manuel Bartlett; and by US Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education, John MacDonald and Victor Flores Olea, President of the National Council for Culture and the Arts, and Javier Barros Valero, Under Secretary of the Secretariat of Foreign Relations. -- The Labor Working Group was chaired by Deputy Under Secretary for International Labor Affairs, Shellyn McCaffrey and the Deputy Secretary of Labor, Norma Samaniego. -- The Legal Affairs and Anti-Narcotics Cooperation Working Group was co-chaired by Secretary of State James A. Baker, III, and Acting Attorney General, William Barr for the United States and the Attorney General of Mexico, Ignacio Morales Lechuga and Secretary for Foreign Relations, Fernando Solana on the Mexican side. -- The Border Cooperation Working Group was chaired by Donna Hrinak, US Deputy Assistant Secretary for Mexico and the Caribbean and Under Secretary for Foreign Relations, Sergio Gonzalez Galvez. In total, 11 US cabinet members and agency heads and 10 members of the Mexican cabinet participated. The high level of representation reflects the importance both nations attach to their relationship. In addition, US and Mexican representatives of their respective Departments of Labor and of Housing and Urban Development participated in new working groups established at this meeting for the first time. The expansion in the number of working groups and range of substantive themes treated reflect the mutual interest of both governments in meeting the new challenges of the bilateral and global agenda. Following is a more detailed review of the 1991 BNC Working Group discussions.
Migration and Consular Affairs
Both governments agreed that Cooperation on Migration and Consular Affairs is outstanding. Both sides noted a significant decrease in instances of alleged mistreatment of their respective citizens. Nevertheless, they both reaffirmed their commitment to satisfactorily conclude investigations of outstanding cases of alleged mistreatment. Positive initiatives by both governments and legal-judicial reforms by the Government of Mexico during the past year are indicative of the continued commitment of both governments to uphold the civil and human rights of individuals. Both countries expressed concern over the problems of child custody and child abduction and, in that regard, the US delegation expressed satisfaction to the Mexican delegation on their country's recent accession to the Hague Convention on the civil aspects of International Child Abduction.
Financial Cooperation
The Financial Cooperation Working Group of the US-Mexico Binational Commission discussed the current economic situation in both countries. It noted the remarkable progress of the Mexican economy, both in terms of controlling inflation and restoring economic growth. The delegations also noted with satisfaction the continuing progress of Mexico's privatization program. The representatives of the two governments commended the progress secured thus far in the negotiation of a bilateral treaty to avoid double taxation of income. Following a review of ongoing cooperative money-laundering control initiatives, the delegates reaffirmed the commitment of their respective governments to continued progress in this area. The delegations noted that their governments continue to work toward mutually satisfactory solutions of issues in the areas of taxes and money laundering. They also expressed their pleasure regarding progress made on customs cooperation which has facilitated and increased the bilateral flows of goods and services.
Trade and Investment
The delegations began with agreement on the need for a successful conclusion of the Uruguay Round of international trade negotiations, and exchanged ideas for reactivating the process. Regarding the NAFTA process, both delegations noted the substantial progress achieved so far in the discussions in identifying issues and exchanging information, and expressed confidence that the various negotiating groups would be prepared to move to the negotiating phase in the fall. On the bilateral front, they took note of the successful resolution of trade issues which had surfaced in the previous year and saluted the cooperative, non-confrontational manner in which these issues has been resolved.
Business Development, Fisheries, and Tourism
Business Development: Discussions focused on business development activities, most notably the successful promotion efforts of the Joint Committee for Investment and Trade (JCIT) over the past year. Secretaries Mosbacher and Serra and other senior trade officials led "Partnership for Growth" Conferences in 19 cities throughout the United States and Mexico, addressing over three thousand business persons. Several business development missions were taken to Mexico under JCIT auspices, including missions on environmental trade and investment and on tourism trade and investment. These missions were enthusiastically received, generating significant investments and sales and the potential for future joint ventures and business leads. In May 1991, the two secretaries met in Monterrey with US and Mexican business leaders to discuss prospects for a North American Free Trade Agreement. The delegations reaffirmed their commitment to continue to promote trade and investment opportunities while NAFTA negotiations are underway and discussed plans for additional business development missions in 1991, including a new environmental mission that will follow up on the successful pollution control equipment mission of 1990 and a housing and real estate mission. The two delegations also agreed to give attention to additional trade and investment opportunities for US Hispanic businesses and to cooperate regarding trade data and other statistical information. The increased attention to environmental protection in both countries was welcomed by the two delegations. They applauded plans to establish a US-Mexico environmental business committee to serve as a forum for technical cooperation, joint business development activities, and information exchange with the purpose of assisting small to medium sized Mexican businesses in meeting environmental standards. The delegations agreed to discuss this cooperation on environmental affairs in future meetings of the Binational Commission. Fisheries: In the area of fisheries, Mexico discussed its fisheries modernization program and explained the conditions existing in Mexico to promote investment in fisheries and aquaculture. Both delegations expressed their common interest in continuing cooperation by means of competent international organizations or bilateral agreements to assure, consistent with recognized scientific expertise, the reduction or elimination of the capture of protected marine species during commercial fishing operation and their decision to seek to resolve differences in this regard. Both delegations examined the subject of development of multilateral mechanisms for the protection of marine species during commercial fishing operation and the issue of the application of commercial sanctions based on environmental objectives. Discussion on these issues will continue in future meetings. Tourism: The delegations ratified the need to promote increased tourism between both countries and agreed to move towards the timely harmonization of tourism statistics, including tourist and money flows. They also discussed the need to increase the scope of the "two-nations vacation" pilot program in other countries. The delegations also discussed the launching of a jointly-funded consumer research study, surface transportation issues, and tourism investment seminars.
The two secretaries of agriculture were confident that the working group's deliberations strengthened their mutual understanding and cooperation in all areas, particularly with regard to the ongoing NAFTA negotiations. In this context, they recognized the importance of exchanging agricultural data in order to have up-to- date information in this important area. They noted the success of efforts to improve cooperation in the areas of agricultural trade and development; two-way agricultural trade between 1980 and 1990 rose from $3.5 billion to more than $5 billion. Progress similarly continues in identifying and resolving trade issues related to sanitary and phytosanitary restrictions. Since the last BNC meeting, several important issues in these fields have been resolved, including the removal of US restrictions on Mexican citrus imports and Mexican certification of new animal quarantine facilities in the United States.
Environmental Cooperation
The United States and Mexico reviewed the full range of activities in the environmental area, along the border, and in Mexico City, highlighting the success of cooperation in this area since the 1990 Binational Commission meeting. Both sides emphasized their commitment to continued environmental cooperation. Special attention was given to the progress being made in developing an integrated border environmental plan to address environmental concerns in the border region. The delegation leaders agreed to a schedule of hearings on both sides of the border in order to obtain public input to the plan. This will enable the two agencies to take views of the general public into account prior to completion of the plan, as instructed by the two Presidents at the November 1990 summit. Both sides noted the success of efforts through the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) to abate water pollution problems along the border. At the BNC meeting, the two delegations agreed to continue to pursue the goal of effective protection of transboundary water resources. The two delegations also reviewed cooperative activities under the 1989 Mexico City Environment Agreement, aimed at addressing environmental issues in the Mexico City region. Mexico's recent accession to the convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species was welcomed as an important conservation measure.
Housing and Urban Development
The delegations agreed to strengthen their working relationship within the framework of the 1979 US-Mexico Agreement on Housing and Urban Development. They also agreed to explore new ways to exchange information on housing stocks and on how to assist their citizens through social organization, the encouragement of private sector initiatives, and new methods of financing which would strengthen cooperation among those seeking housing. These new approaches will be particularly relevant to reactivating cooperation in the areas of housing and urban development in the border region. The first border meeting in this new phase of the Bilateral Agreement is under consideration for early 1992 and would involve local and state officials as well as representatives of private business organization and community associations.
Education, Cultural Affairs, and Exchanges
The two delegations expressed their satisfaction over programs recently developed in the areas of educational and cultural cooperation. They were particularly pleased by advances associated with the Memorandum of Understanding on Education and the recently inaugurated US-Mexico Commission for Educational and Cultural Exchange. Both sides expressed their agreement to explore forms of scientific cooperation based on programs that will be established at a later date. With activities scheduled for 1992-93, was examined [stet]. This Annex is expected to be signed by the two secretaries of education during the Border Educators' Conference. Discussions focused as well on advances achieved by the US- Mexico Commission for Educational and Cultural Exchange that have helped create a binational mechanism for financing scholarships and educational and cultural exchange programs. These developments, representing public and private sector cooperation, have led to initiatives establishing a new "Fund for Culture" and a debt conversion program in science, technology, and human resources. Both sides expressed their agreement to explore forms of scientific cooperation based on programs that will be established at a later date. The delegations took note of sustained increases in cultural and educational exchange that, in recent months, have given these activities a high profile in the spectrum of priority bilateral affairs. The working group examined the possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the area of educational exchange in North America. At the same time, the working group established a framework for additional collaboration in various areas of artistic and cultural activity; notably strengthened communication and consultations on library, museum, and publishing issues. Progress also is being achieved in promoting exhibitions and musical performances, by distinguished orchestral groups and by soloists. Special attention was paid to the presentation in the United States of "Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries" as well as to the parallel programming that has accompanied this successful exhibition. Note was taken as well of the numerous US artistic and cultural exhibitions that have been presented in Mexico, especially the major retrospective of Robert Motherwell's work which opens tonight [Sept. 9, 1991] at the Rufino Tamayo Museum in Mexico City.
The labor working group noted with satisfaction the progress made since the inception of their joint cooperative program. The establishment of a labor working group within the Binational Commission was agreed to at the April 26 Coordinating Committee Meeting of the BNC and a Memorandum of Understanding [MOU] regarding cooperation was signed May 3. At the September 9 meeting, activities under the MOU were reviewed, particularly those related to occupational health and safety and to child labor, productivity, on-the-job training, and labor statistics. The chairpersons reiterated their commitment to the joint cooperative program already underway and agreed to undertake additional activities related to the informal sector, comparative labor relations systems and cooperative credit institutions for workers.
Law Enforcement and Anti-Narcotics Cooperation
The working group noted the increased cooperation between the two nations in anti-narcotics investigations and noted with satisfaction the success of the second Binational Prosecutors Conference held in late January in Tucson, Arizona. Arrangements were confirmed for the third Binational Prosecutors Conference to be held in Mexico later this fall and the importance of prompt and effective implementation of the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty was emphasized. The group confirmed the intent of the two governments to cooperate on matters of money laundering and asset forfeiture and renewed their commitment to seek prompt extradition and/or domestic prosecution of fugitives from justice in both countries. They applauded the establishment of the US/Mexico Mixed Permanent Commission on Cooperation Against Narcotics Trafficking and Drug Dependency and endorsed the accomplishments of the Commission in enhancing counter-narcotics cooperation between the two countries.
Border Cooperation
The group noted that two new international bridges were opened during the year, construction began on a third one, and the Binational Committee on Bridges and Border Crossings announced approval by both governments of new land crossings projects. Also, the group noted that it has under consideration several projects and proposals for new ports along the border. In addition to the new crossings, both countries are developing new techniques and procedures to expedite the inspection process which at times causes delays at certain crossings. The International Boundary and Water Commission [IBWC] is nearing completion of its Nogales Expansion Project and has begun work on the Nuevo Laredo and Tijuana sewage collection/treatment projects. Regarding the pollution of the New river in the Mexicali/Calexico area, the IBWC reports that it is intensively continuing technical discussions with the goal of signing during 1991 a Conceptual Minute Agreement for the long-term solution of this border sanitation problem. Both delegations expressed their support for the annual border governors and border mayors conferences which supplement federal efforts at increasing trade, tourism and other cross-border activities. The delegations agreed that the IBWC will begin bilateral testing of new and sturdier boundary markers at the Otay Mesa and Mexicali/Imperial Valley sections of the border. At the conclusion of the Binational Commission meeting, the delegations declared their satisfaction at the progress attained and agreed to hold the tenth meeting of the commission in the United States on a date in 1992 yet to be determined. (###)
Background: US-Mexico Binational Commission
Former Presidents Ronald Reagan and Jose Lopez Portillo established the US-Mexico Binational Commission when the Mexican President visited Washington on June 9, 1981. It serves as a forum for regular meetings among cabinet-level officials from both countries and is chaired by the US Secretary of State and the Mexican Secretary of Foreign Relations. The Binational Commission normally meets once a year. These meetings are valued by both sides as action-generating events which, along with regular US-Mexico presidential summits, sustain momentum toward mutual policy objectives. They also demonstrate the importance each country attaches to bilateral relations. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

The US and Senegal: Sharing A Common Commitment to Peace

Bush, Diouf Source: President Bush, Senegal President Diouf Description: Remarks at a White House arrival ceremony, Washington, DC Date: Sep 10, 19919/10/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa, MidEast/North Africa Country: Senegal Subject: Democratization, Military Affairs [TEXT]
President Bush:
To President and Mrs. Diouf, ladies and gentlemen, a sincere welcome. On behalf of the United States of America--long known for its fidelity to freedom and human dignity--I am honored to welcome President Diouf, the President of a nation which so clearly echoes those beliefs. A Senegalese proverb says: "Misunderstandings don't exist; only the failure to communicate exists." Mr. President, because you have communicated to the world what Senegal embodies, there can be no misunderstanding about the ideals and aspirations that link our two societies and peoples. For those who follow Senegalese history, it is obvious why Senegal has become one of our closest friends in Africa. Ever since its independence in 1960, Senegal has adhered to the principles of a democratic political system. Your robust free press can publish the full spectrum of political thought and opinion. Like us, you have an independent judiciary--vital to any government which operates by the rule of law. And let me mention, too, your enviable record in the field of human rights. These facts, of course, could describe, we think, our country, the United States of America. We both share a fundamental commitment to the peaceful solution of conflicts. We both believe in the inalienable rights of all. In Senegal it's said, "Man is the best cure for his own ills." Well, Mr. President, the whole world has begun to vanquish the ills of tyranny and totalitarianism. Bayonets and barbed wire cannot conquer man's yearning to be free. Last year at this time, Senegal was preparing to send 500 soldiers to the Gulf to participate in Operation Desert Shield. Shortly after the end of Operation Desert Storm, a tragic plane crash in Saudi Arabia claimed the lives of 93 of those brave Senegalese soldiers as they returned to their base near the Gulf after a pilgrimage to Mecca. So Senegal paid proportionately the highest price of any coalition partner in freeing Kuwait from naked aggression. We mourn your lost countrymen, but know that they died for the noblest cause of all--the unstoppable tide of freedom that today is changing history swiftly, dramatically. Future generations will look to our age and say: "Here--here, in the 1990s--began the new world order." And thus, we welcome not only an old and dear friend to Washington, but a friend who shares our values, who will fight for freedom, and who has a deep appreciation and respect for the American way of life. Mr. President, just as your people love America, so does America love the nation of your birth. God bless you and Senegal and the United States of America. And once again, welcome to our shores.
President Abdou Diouf:
Mr. President, the words of welcome you have just spoken are those of a true friend. I was deeply moved by them and by the warmth of this beautiful ceremony. Allow me, therefore, at the very outset to express heartfelt thanks to you on behalf of my wife and on my own and that of the delegation accompanying me. Mr. President and dear friend, Madam Bush, your excellencies, ladies and gentlemen: This is the third time in the space of 2 years that I find myself in this great and beautiful country. This time, however, my visit is of special significance. To begin with, it is my first state visit and the second one by a Senegalese president. It is also significant because it takes place in the background of a particular international setting marked by the end of an era and the heralding of a new order on which we Senegalese and Americans are pinning equal hopes. Add to this the fact that, with the strengthening of the Senegalese democracy, our approach becomes more identical to yours, and this in turn makes your model more appealing to us. Lastly, I note that, since the end of the Gulf war, I am the first African president to be received on a state visit by your country. I fully appreciate the significance of this gesture, and I should like to express my gratitude for the thoughtful demonstration of friendship toward me and my country. At this juncture I should like to dedicate my profound thoughts to the worthy sons of America fallen on the field of honor. As my country suffered the loss of 93 soldiers in Saudi Arabia, I can well appreciate the grief of those who lost their loved ones and to whom I should like to offer once again my condolences. We can take comfort in the fact that their sacrifice has not been in vain, for despite the Gulf war and its aftermath, despite the institutional tremors that have shaken the Soviet Union over the past few weeks, the international atmosphere is, happily, one of detente which our peoples long for. The progress made in arms reduction with the signing of the START [Strategic Arms Reduction Talks] Treaty, following the adoption of the Paris Charter for a new Europe, the triumph of democratic demands across the world and particularly in Africa, the dismantling of the legal basis of apartheid--we still have to draw inferences from it--are all encouraging signs as we approach the end of the 20th century. Indeed, never before in the history of mankind has the sound of freedom resounded so loudly and so far and wide. Never have freedom and peace combined so harmoniously for so many human beings and peoples. Yet, this is no permanent achievement. Quite the contrary, it is frail because of the major challenge that is still confronting us--poverty. This is a challenge to us all. Mr. President, I know that this cause is so dear to your heart. I know and I appreciate the efforts your government is making to face up to it. Africa, which had apprehended that it would be marginalized to the benefit of the countries of Eastern Europe, is now resolutely committed to the fight for integration--a must for its development. The adoption and signing at the June 1991 OAU [Organization for African Unity] summit of the treaty establishing the African Economic Community is a clear manifestation of this commitment. In my capacity as the current Chairman of the ECOWAS [Economic Community of West African States], I will leave no stone unturned to translate that commitment into concrete achievements within our subregion. I am confident that countries like yours, together with international institutions which have always been by our side, will support us in our endeavors. Mr. President, I cannot end without expressing once again my thanks for the warmth of your welcome, without renewing my determination to continue striving with you for the triumph of our common values and ideals for the greater well-being of all men and the whole of mankind. I hope that our efforts to that end will be successful and I express my most sincere wishes for your and your family's good health and happiness, and for the sustained prosperity of the friendly American people. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

US Deplores Liberia-Sierra Leone Border Clashes

Tutwiler Source: State Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Sep 6, 19919/6/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Sierra Leone, Liberia Subject: Military Affairs, Regional/Civil Unrest [TEXT] The US Government opposes and deplores all armed incursions across the Liberia-Sierra Leone border from either side. Allegations that the US supports factions engaging in such provocations are absurd. Cross-border conflict is a threat to regional stability and counterproductive to the cause of peace in Liberia. Violence cannot resolve the crisis in Liberia, and those who resort to violence place the peace process and their own credibility at risk. The people of Liberia have already suffered enough. Restraint is especially critical now, as preparations for the upcoming round of negotiations in Yamoussoukro [Cote d'Ivoire] proceed. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

US-Senegal: A Special Relationship

Cohen Source: Heman J. Cohen, Assistant Secretary for African Affairs Description: Excerpts from a briefing by Assistant Secretary for African Affairs Herman J. Cohen on the meeting between President Bush and President Diouf, the White House, Washington, DC Date: Sep 10, 19919/10/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa, MidEast/North Africa Country: Senegal Subject: Military Affairs [TEXT] President Abdou Diouf of Senegal is in the United States for a state visit. Today is the first day of a 3-day visit, and the first event was a meeting with President Bush. During the meeting, President Bush expressed his appreciation for Senegal's cooperation in the Gulf during the war. He characterized the Senegalese participation in Desert Shield and Desert Storm as a deep and serious commitment to peace, freedom, and liberty in the world. President Bush also wanted to highlight, during this visit, Senegal's commitment to democracy as one of the few multi-party democracies in Africa today. And President Bush also said that in Africa there is a special relationship between the United States and Senegal, and we are generally on the same wavelength on most issues. President Diouf congratulated President Bush for the vigor and intelligence with which he led the world during the crisis in the Gulf. He agreed with President Bush's characterization of the relationship as being excellent. In the context of the bilateral relationship, President Bush announced that we are forgiving $42 million worth of debt which Senegal incurred in the purchase of agricultural commodities under Public Law 480 in previous years. President Diouf expressed great appreciation for that announcement. In connection with that, President Diouf said that Senegal will continue its commitment to a free market system and to structural economic reform. There was a lengthy discussion on the crisis in Liberia. President Bush asked President Diouf for his analysis. President Diouf said it is a heartbreaking situation. As President of the Economic Community of West African States-- ECOWAS--President Diouf said this crisis has gone on much too long; that action must be taken to bring it to a closure as soon as possible; and that solution in Liberia can only be a democratic one. And the first step is the silencing of the weapons. He said that there will be a meeting in Cote d'Ivoire on September 16 to work out a solution. And he assured President Bush that they would not close that meeting until they've reached an agreement leading to the disarmament of the parties and the holding of a democratic election within 6 months in Liberia. President Diouf said if it would be useful, Senegal would be willing to send troops to join the ECOWAS forces already there. If that would give a sense of confidence to the various parties, they would be glad to make a troop commitment....(###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

Country Profile: Senegal

Date: Sep 16, 19919/16/91 Category: Country Data Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Senegal Subject: History, Trade/Economics Official Name: Republic of Senegal
Area: 196,840 sq. km. (76,000 sq. mi.); about the size of South Dakota. Cities: Capital--Dakar. Other cities--Thies, Kaolack, Saint-Louis, Ziguinchor. Terrain: Flat or rising to foothills. Climate: Tropical/Sahelian--desert or grasslands in the north, heavier vegetation in the south and southeast.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Senegalese (sing. and pl.). Population (est. 1990): 7 million. Annual growth rate: 3%. Ethnic groups: Wolof 43%, Fulani (Peulh) and Toucouleur 23%, Serer 15%, Diola, Mandingo, and others 19%. Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 5%, traditional 1%. Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo. Education: Attendance--primary 60%, secondary 15%. Literacy-- 28%. Health: Infant mortality rate--78/1,000. Life expectancy--48 yrs. Work force (3.4 million, 1989): Agriculture--70% (subsistence or cash crops). Wage earners (250,000)--private sector 40%, government and parastatal 60%.
Type: Republic. Independence: April 4, 1960. Constitution: March 3, 1963, last revised 1984. Branches: Executive--president (chief of state, commander in chief of armed forces). Legislative--unicameral National Assembly (single chamber with 120 deputies). Judicial--Supreme Court (appointed by the president from sitting magistrates.) Administrative subdivisions: 10 regions, 30 departments, 95 arrondissements. Political parties: 17 political parties are registered; major parties include the Socialist Party (PS), the Democratic Party of Senegal (PDS), the People's Liberation Party (PLP), the Democratic League/Movement for a Labor Party (LD/MPT), and the Independence and Labor Party (PIT). Suffrage: Universal at 21. Defense (1989): $95.9 million. Flag: Three vertical bands--green, yellow, red, with a green star centered in the yellow band.
GDP (1989): $4.9 billion. Annual growth rate: 6%. Per capita GDP (1988): $630. Inflation rate (1989): 2%. Natural resources: Fish, phosphate. Agriculture (22% of GDP): Products--peanuts, millet, sorghum, manioc, rice, cotton. Industry (24% of GDP): Types--fishing, agricultural product processing, light manufacturing, mining. Trade (1989): Exports--$778 million: seafood, peanut products, phosphate rock. Major markets--France, other EC, US, Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA) zone. Imports-- $987 million: food, consumer goods, petroleum, machinery, transport equipment. Major suppliers--France, Nigeria, Algeria, Thailand, US. Economic aid received (1988): $566 million from all sources, ($32 million from the US in 1989).
Membership in International Organizations
UN and some of its specialized and related agencies, Non-Aligned Movement, Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Organization of African Unity (OAU), West African Monetary Union, Interstate Committee to Combat the Sahel Drought (CILSS), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), West African Economic Community (CEAO), Senegal River Development Organization (OMVS), Gambia River Development Organization (OMVG). (###)
Regional Importance
Former President Senghor advocated dialogue between nations and believed negotiation and compromise to be the best means of resolving international differences. To a large extent, President Diouf has continued this policy. Senegal has traditionally supported functional integration among French-speaking West African states through the West African Economic Community. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

Protecting the Antarctic Environment

Date: Sep 16, 19919/16/91 Category: Fact Sheets Region: Polar Regions Country: Antarctica Subject: Environment, Resource Management, Science/Technology, International Law [TEXT] The United States is committed to protecting the Antarctic environment and ensuring that human activities do not compromise the opportunities this unique area offers for scientific research. This commitment is a fundamental element of US-Antarctic policy and complements our objective of maintaining Antarctica as a zone for peaceful activity. This also has been the primary goal of the Antarctic Treaty since it entered into effect 30 years ago. In an effort to improve the protection of the Antarctic environment, parties to the Antarctic Treaty, including the United States, have recently completed negotiation of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty which will provide further environmental safeguards.
The Antarctic Treaty System
The Antarctic Treaty is open to any member of the United Nations and provides the necessary international framework, consistent with the UN Charter, to manage human activities in Antarctica. Environmental protection is a priority issue at the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings open to the 26 Antarctic Treaty Consultative parties as well as 14 treaty parties that attend as observers. These meetings have led to a wide range of environmental protection measures, which have elaborated the provisions of the treaty and deal with new activities and circumstances, as well as separate international agreements.
Protocol on Environmental Protection
A major addition to the Antarctic Treaty system will be the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty that resulted from negotiations launched in 1990. President Bush announced on July 3, 1991, that the US would sign the new protocol. It builds upon the Antarctic Treaty and provides for improved environmental protection measures that can be strengthened in the future. In October 1991, Consultative Parties are expected to sign the protocol in Madrid. It sets forth basic principles on the protection of the Antarctic environment, establishes an advisory body, and provides for a system of annexes to incorporate detailed mandatory rules for environmental protection. The annexes establish legally binding measures on the conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, waste disposal, marine pollution, and environmental impact assessment procedures which will be subject to compulsory and binding dispute settlement. Future annexes could be added following entry into force of the protocol. Except for scientific research, the protocol prohibits any activities relating to Antarctic mineral resources and provides that this prohibition can be reviewed at any time after 50 years following entry into force of the protocol.
Conservation Issues
The new protocol will complement the existing far-reaching agreements within the Treaty system to conserve living species in Antarctica. The 1964 Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora prohibits (except for scientific purposes) the taking of plants, birds and marine mammals native to the continent and establishes a system of specially protected areas in which human access is strictly limited. These measures are updated and strengthened in the protocol's annex on the conservation of flora and fauna. There are also two other international treaties which address conservation issues. The 1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources applies an innovative ecosystem approach to conservation. The parties (26 nations and the European Community) have made significant progress in understanding the interrelationships and population dynamics of the species found in Antarctic waters and in their protection and conservation. They have placed major restrictions upon commercial fisheries, including catch quotas, gear regulation, and area and seasonal closures, as well as a system of inspection of fishing vessels at sea. In addition, 14 countries are party to the 1972 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Seals, which provides a means for protecting seal populations from harvesting.
Next Steps
The Antarctic Treaty system incorporates a dynamic network of measures to protect the Antarctic environment. The successful negotiation and anticipated signing of the environmental protocol in 1991 testifies to the success of this system. Pending entry into force of the protocol, the United States will strive for early implementation of its stringent environmental measures.(###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 37, September 16, 1991 Title:

Economic Policy Coordination: The G-7 and the Dollar

Date: Sep 16, 19919/16/91 Category: Fact Sheets Region: North America, Europe, East Asia Country: Japan, United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany Subject: Trade/Economics [TEXT]
Leaders of the seven largest industrialized democracies (United States, Japan, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, and Canada) have met annually since 1975 to address global issues of common concern and to develop cooperative economic and political approaches. These Group of Seven (G-7) summit meetings reflect a heightened recognition of the need for close cooperation as a result of the growing integration of the world economy and the globalization of financial markets. Since 1985, more formal arrangements for the coordination of economic policies have been developed involving regular meetings of the finance ministers and central bank governors of the G-7 countries. G-7 meetings are designed to foster more consistent and compatible economic policies and performance among the participants to achieve shared objectives of sustained global growth with low inflation, reduced trade imbalances, and greater exchange market flexibility.
Plaza and Louvre Accords
The divergence of economic policies and performance among the major industrial countries from 1982 to 1985 led to a sharp rise in the US dollar and the emergence of substantial trade imbalances. The US current account position went from rough balance to a deficit of more than $100 billion during this period, with faster growth in the United States than in most other major countries contributing to this outcome. In September 1985, then-Treasury Secretary James A. Baker, III, and his counterparts from Japan, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom met as the Group of Five (G-5) at the Plaza Hotel in New York. They agreed on coordinated economic and exchange rate policies to reduce global trade imbalances and to achieve a substantial depreciation of the US dollar, thereby bringing currency values more in line with fundamental economic realities. The ensuing broad-based decline of the dollar indicates that coordination among the largest economies can have a potent effect on the international economy and currency markets. At a February 1987 meeting at the Louvre in Paris, the G-7 agreed on specific policy commitments to improve global growth and reduce trade imbalances. The substantial exchange rate changes that had occurred since the Plaza accord had brought currencies within ranges broadly consistent with economic fundamentals. The group agreed to cooperate closely to foster stability of exchange rates around prevailing levels.
Recent Developments
The dramatic events of the past 2 years, including the changes in the Soviet Union, the move toward market-based economic systems in Eastern Europe, and the Persian Gulf crisis and its aftermath have posed many challenges to the G-7 countries. External imbalances have lessened significantly, particularly in the United States. Exchange rates sometimes have fluctuated significantly, as should be expected when economic fundamentals are changing so rapidly. In this environment, the G-7 framework has provided an important forum for addressing challenges in a coordinated fashion.
Milestones in the Coordination Process
The coordination process has developed gradually in recent years and is now an accepted feature of the international economy. Milestones (in addition to the Plaza and Louvre accords) include: Tokyo Summit (May 1986). Agreement was reached to establish a framework for multilateral surveillance of economic policies with economic indicators. The G-7 was formed to conduct the coordination effort, with the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund invited to participate. December 1987 Statement. After the October 1987 stock market crash, the G-7 agreed on coordinated monetary and fiscal measures to sustain global growth, continue external adjustments, and prevent a further decline of the dollar. April 1988 Statement. The G-7 agreed to use a commodity price indicator as an additional economic measuring tool in the surveillance and policy coordination process. September 1989 Statement. The G-7 said that the rise in the dollar that had occurred recently was inconsistent with long-run economic fundamentals and would be resisted. In 1989, G-7 countries used net interventions of more than $60 billion to limit the dollar's rise. (###)