US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 2, No 14, April 8, 1991

Title:

US Humanitarian Assistance To Iraqi Refugees

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Presidential statement was released by the White House, Newport Beach, California Date: Apr 5, 19914/5/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Kuwait Subject: Refugees, Human Rights, United Nations [TEXT] The human tragedy unfolding in and around Iraq demands immediate action on a massive scale. At stake are not only the lives of hundreds of thousands of innocent men, women, and children, but the peace and security of the Gulf. Since the beginning of the Gulf war on August 2, the United States has contributed more than $35 million for refugees and displaced persons in the region. Many other countries have also contributed. It is clear, however, that the current tragedy requires a far greater effort. As a result, I have directed that a major new effort be undertaken to assist Iraqi refugees. Beginning this Sunday [April 7], US Air Force transport planes will fly over northern Iraq and drop supplies of food, blankets, clothing, tents, and other relief-related items for refugees and other Iraqi civilians suffering as a result of the situation there. I want to emphasize that this effort is prompted only by humanitarian concerns. We expect the government of Iraq to permit this effort to be carried out without any interference. I want to add that what we are planning to do is intended as a step-up in immediate aid, such as is also being provided by the British, the French, and other coalition partners. We will be consulting with the UN on how it can best provide for the many refugees in and around Iraq on a long-term basis, as necessary. We will continue in this and in other efforts designed to alleviate the plight of the many innocent Iraqis whose lives have been endangered by the brutal and inhumane actions of the Iraqi government. I also want to add that this urgent air-drop is but one of several steps the United States is taking to deal with this terrible situation. I will shortly be signing an order that will authorize up to $10 million from the emergency refugee and migration assistance fund. These funds will help meet the needs of the burgeoning refugee population in the region. Our military forces in southern Iraq will continue to assist refugees and displaced persons. We are also providing considerable economic and food assistance to the government of Turkey to help it sustain the many refugees who have taken refuge there. We are prepared, as well, to deploy a US military medical unit to the border area in southern Turkey to meet emergency needs. The United States is also concerned about the welfare of those Iraqi refugees now fleeing to Iran. We will be communicating--through our established channel--to the government of Iran our willingness to encourage and contribute to international organizations carrying out relief efforts aiding these individuals. In an effort to help innocent people and especially the children of Iraq, we will be donating $869,000 to UNICEF for child immunizations in Iraq. We will also be providing a further $131,000 and 1,000 tons of food to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). In all cases, funds and goods provided to international organizations will be distributed by the organizations themselves to civilians in Iraq. Finally, I have asked Secretary Baker to travel to Turkey, en route to the Middle East, to meet with President Ozal and visit the border area to assess the refugee situation and report back to me. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 14, April 8, 1991 Title:

UN Resolution 688: Repression of Iraqi Civilians

Description: New York, New York Date: Apr 5, 19914/5/91 Category: Fact Sheets Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Kuwait Subject: Refugees, Human Rights, United Nations [TEXT] UN Security Council Resolution 688 On Repression of Iraqi Civilians The Security Council, Mindful of its duties and its responsibilities under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Recalling Article 2, paragraph 7, of the Charter of the United Nations, Gravely concerned by the repression of the Iraqi civilian population in many parts of Iraq, including most recently in Kurdish populated areas which led to a massive flow of refugees towards and across international frontiers and to cross border incursions, which threaten international peace and security in the region, Deeply disturbed by the magnitude of the human suffering involved, Taking note of the letters sent by the representatives of Turkey and France to the United Nations dated 2 April 1991 and 4 April 1991, respectively (S/22435 and S/22442), Taking note also of the letters sent by the Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations dated 3 and 4 April 1991, respectively (S/22436 and S/22447), Reaffirming the commitment of all Member States to the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of Iraq and of all States in the area, Bearing in mind the Secretary-General's report of 20 March 1991 (S/22366), 1. Condemns the repression of the Iraqi civilian population in many parts of Iraq, including most recently in Kurdish populated areas, the consequences of which threaten international peace and security in the region; 2. Demands that Iraq, as a contribution to removing the threat to international peace and security in the region, immediately end this repression and expresses the hope in the same context that an open dialogue will take place to ensure that the human and political rights of all Iraqi citizens are respected; 3. Insists that Iraq allow immediate access by international humanitarian organizations to all those in need of assistance in all parts of Iraq and to make available all necessary facilities for their operations; 4. Requests the Secretary-General to pursue his humanitarian efforts in Iraq and to report forthwith, if appropriate on the basis of a further mission to the region, on the plight of the Iraqi civilian population, and in particular the Kurdish population, suffering from the repression in all its forms inflicted by the Iraqi authorities; 5. Requests further the Secretary-General to use all the resources at his disposal, including those of the relevant United Nations agencies, to address urgently the critical needs of the refugees and displaced Iraqi population; 6. Appeals to all Member States and to all humanitarian organizations to contribute to these humanitarian relief efforts; 7. Demands that Iraq cooperate with the Secretary-General to these ends; 8. Decides to remain seized of the matter. VOTE: 10 for, 3 against (Cuba, Yemen, Zimbabwe), 2 abstentions (China, India). (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 14, April 8, 1991 Title:

UN Resolution 687: Gulf Cease-fire

Description: New York, New York Date: Apr 3, 19914/3/91 Category: Fact Sheets Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Kuwait Subject: Military Affairs, Democratization [TEXT] UN Security Counci Resolution 687--Cease-fire in the Gulf On April 3, 1991, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 687, which established a formal cease-fire between Iraq and the UN coalition. The vote was 12 for, 1 against (Cuba; with Yemen and Ecuador abstaining). Following is a summary of the resolution.
RESOLUTION 687:
-- Affirms the 13 previous resolutions on the Gulf conflict.
International Boundary
-- Declares the boundary between Iraq and Kuwait and the allocation of islands as that agreed by Iraq and Kuwait in 1963. -- Guarantees the inviolability of that boundary and asks Kuwait and Iraq, with the assistance of the Secretary General, to demarcate the 1963 boundary and report back within 1 month.
Observer Force
-- Requests the Secretary General to submit a plan within 3 days for an observer force to monitor a demilitarized zone extending 10 km into Iraq and 5 km into Kuwait and to deploy it immediately after council approval.
Missile Systems and Weapons of Mass Destruction
-- Requires Iraq to agree to the destruction or removal of all chemical and biological weapons and all ballistic missiles with a range of greater than 150 kilometers and to identify their locations within 15 days. -- Requests the Secretary General, in coordination with the coalition and the World Health Organization, to submit a plan to the council within 45 days designating a special commission which will inventory chemical and biological items and ballistic missile sites. -- Provides for a special commission, within 45 days following approval of the plan, to oversee destruction of missile systems and launchers and take possession of all chemical and biological weapons-related items/sites. -- Requires Iraq to submit a list of its nuclear weapons or nuclear weapons-usable material or related facilities to the Secretary General within 15 days and place all nuclear weapons- usable material under the exclusive control of the International Atomic Energy Agency for custody and removal. -- Requests the Secretary General to carry out immediate on- site inspection of Iraq's nuclear capabilities and develop a plan for their destruction within 45 days. -- Requires Iraq to declare that it will not acquire or develop chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons or ballistic missiles in the future. The special commission will develop a plan for on-going monitoring and verification of Iraqi compliance.
Compensation
-- Reaffirms Iraqi liability for direct losses, including environmental damage, and creates a commission and fund to handle compensation. -- Directs the Secretary General to present a plan to the council within 30 days for administering the fund. -- Decides that a percentage of Iraqi oil revenues will go to the fund.
Sanctions
-- Immediately lifts sanctions on food (with notification to the Sanctions Committee) and supplies for essential civilian needs (with Sanctions Committee approval) and provides for council review of remaining import sanctions every 60 days, taking account of Iraqi policies and practices. -- Indicates all sanctions on Iraqi exports will be lifted when Iraq agrees to the destruction of its weapons of mass destruction and missiles, provides their locations to the Special Commission, and agrees not to acquire or develop them in the future, and when the Security Council approves the Secretary General's plan for the compensation fund. -- Institutes an embargo on conventional armaments; weapons of mass destruction; missiles; licensing and technology transfer; personnel or materials for training, technical support, or maintenance. The council will review the embargo on conventional weapons periodically. -- Calls on states to institute controls to ensure compliance with the embargo.
Kuwaiti Property and Detainees
-- Provides for return of Kuwaiti property and confirms Iraqi responsibility to repatriate and account for all Kuwaiti and third country nationals in coordination with the International Committee of the Red Cross.
Terrorism
-- Requires a commitment from Iraq that it will not commit or support acts of terrorism or terrorist organizations.
Cease-fire
-- Declares a cease-fire will go into effect upon formal Iraqi acceptance of the provisions of the resolution. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 14, April 8, 1991 Title:

Statement on Resolution 687

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Hobe Sound, FL Date: Apr 3, 19914/3/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Kuwait Subject: Military Affairs, Democratization [TEXT] I am extremely pleased that the Security Council has voted in favor of Resolution 687. Fourteen times now the United Nations has demonstrated its determination to contribute significantly to the prospects for lasting peace and security in the Gulf region. This latest resolution creates the basis for a formal cease- fire in the Gulf. It comes 8 months since Iraq invaded Kuwait. During these 8 months, the world community has stood up for what is right and just. It is now up to Iraq's government to demonstrate that it is prepared to respect the will of the world community and communicate its formal acceptance of this resolution to the Security Council and the Secretary General. The resolution is unprecedented. It creates a force to monitor the legal border between Iraq and Kuwait; it also provides a UN guarantee of that border. Once this observer force arrives, all remaining US ground forces will be withdrawn from Iraqi territory. The resolution establishes a fund to compensate Kuwait and other claimants for the damage caused by Iraq's aggression. The resolution also includes provisions designed to ensure that Iraq cannot rebuild its military strength to threaten anew the peace of the region. Weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them are to be destroyed; this is to be confirmed by on-site inspection. Certain sanctions will remain in force until such time as Iraq is led by a government that convinces the world of its intent both to live in peace with its neighbors and to devote its resources to the welfare of the Iraqi people. The resolution thus provides the necessary latitude for the international community to adjust its relations with Iraq depending upon Iraq's leadership and behavior. I also want to condemn in the strongest terms continued attacks by Iraqi government forces against defenseless Kurdish and other Iraqi civilians. This sort of behavior will continue to set Iraq apart from the community of civilized nations. I call upon Iraq's leaders to halt these attacks immediately and to allow international organizations to go to work inside Iraq to alleviate the suffering and to ensure that humanitarian aid reaches needy civilians. As a result of these cruel attacks, Turkey is now faced with a mounting refugee problem. The United States is prepared to extend economic help to Turkey through multilateral channels, and we call upon others to do likewise. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 14, April 8, 1991 Title:

UN Security Council Resolution 687

Description: New York, New York Date: Apr 3, 19914/3/91 Category: Fact Sheets Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Kuwait Subject: Military Affairs, Democratization [TEXT] UN Security Council Resolution 687 (April 3, 1991) The Security Council, Recalling its resolutions 660 (1990) of 2 August 1990, 661 (1990) of 6 August 1990, 662 (1990) of 9 August 1990, 664 (1990) of 18 August 1990, 665 (1990) of 25 August 1990, 666 (1990) of 13 September 1990, 667 (1990) of 16 September 1990, 669 (1990) of 24 September 1990, 670 (1990) of 25 September 1990, 674 (1990) of 29 October 1990, 677 (1990) of 28 November 1990, 678 (1990) of 29 November 1990 and 686 (1991) of 2 March 1991, Welcoming the restoration to Kuwait of its sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity and the return of its legitimate Government, Affirming the commitment of all Member States to the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of Kuwait and Iraq, and noting the intention expressed by the Member States cooperating with Kuwait under paragraph 2 of resolution 678 (1990) to bring their military presence in Iraq to an end as soon as possible consistent with paragraph 8 of resolution 686 (1991), Reaffirming the need to be assured of Iraq's peaceful intentions in the light of its unlawful invasion and occupation of Kuwait, Taking note of the letter sent by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Iraq on 27 February 19911 and those sent pursuant to resolution 686 (1991),2 Noting that Iraq and Kuwait, as independent sovereign States, signed at Baghdad on 4 October 1963 "Agreed Minutes Between the State of Kuwait and the Republic of Iraq Regarding the Restoration of Friendly Relations, Recognition and Related Matters," thereby recognizing formally the boundary between Iraq and Kuwait and the allocation of islands, which were registered with the United Nations in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations and in which Iraq recognized the independence and complete sovereignty of the State of Kuwait within its borders as specified and accepted in the letter of the Prime Minister of Iraq dated 21 July 1932, and as accepted by the Ruler of Kuwait in his letter dated 10 August 1932, Conscious of the need for demarcation of the said boundary, Conscious also of the statements by Iraq threatening to use weapons in violation of its obligations under the Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925,3 and of its prior use of chemical weapons and affirming that grave consequences would follow any further use by Iraq of such weapons, Recalling that Iraq has subscribed to the Declaration adopted by all States participating in the Conference of States Parties to the 1925 Geneva Protocol and Other Interested States, held in Paris from 7 to 11 January 1989, establishing the objective of universal elimination of chemical and biological weapons, Recalling also that Iraq has signed the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, of 10 April 1972,4 Noting the importance of Iraq ratifying this Convention, Noting moreover the importance of all States adhering to this Convention and encouraging its forthcoming Review Conference to reinforce the authority, efficiency and universal scope of the convention, Stressing the importance of an early conclusion by the Conference on Disarmament of its work on a Convention on the Universal prohibition of Chemical Weapons and of universal adherence thereto, Aware of the use by Iraq of ballistic missiles in unprovoked attacks and therefore of the need to take specific measures in regard to such missiles located in Iraq, Concerned by the reports in the hands of Member States that Iraq has attempted to acquire materials for a nuclear-weapons programme contrary to its obligations under the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of 1 July 1968,5 Recalling the objective of the establishment of a nuclear- weapons-free zone in the region of the Middle East, Conscious of the threat that all weapons of mass destruction pose to peace and security in the area and of the need to work towards the establishment in the Middle East of a zone free of such weapons, Conscious also of the objective of achieving balanced and comprehensive control of armaments in the region, Conscious further of the importance of achieving the objectives noted above using all available means, including a dialogue among the States of the region, Noting that resolution 686 (1991) marked the lifting of the measures imposed by resolution 661 (1990) in so far as they applied to Kuwait, Noting that despite the progress being made in fulfilling the obligations of resolution 686 (1991), many Kuwaiti and third country nationals are still not accounted for and property remains unreturned, Recalling the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages,6 opened for signature at New York on 18 December 1979, which categorizes all acts of taking hostages as manifestations of international terrorism, Deploring threats made by Iraq during the recent conflict to make use of terrorism against targets outside Iraq and the taking of hostages by Iraq, Taking note with grave concern of the reports of the Secretary-General of 20 March 19917 and 28 March 1991,8 and conscious of the necessity to meet urgently the humanitarian needs in Kuwait and Iraq, Bearing in mind its objective of restoring international peace and security in the area as set out in recent resolutions of the Security Council, Conscious of the need to take the following measures acting under Chapter VII of the Charter, 1. Affirms all thirteen resolutions noted above, except as expressly changed below to achieve the goals of this resolution, including a formal cease-fire;
A
2. Demands that Iraq and Kuwait respect the inviolability of the international boundary and the allocation of islands set out in the "Agreed Minutes Between the State of Kuwait and the Republic of Iraq Regarding the Restoration of Friendly Relations, Recognition and Related Matters," signed by them in the exercise of their sovereignty at Baghdad on 4 October 1963 and registered with the United Nations and published by the United Nations in document 7063, United Nations, Treaty Series, 1964; 3. Calls upon the Secretary-General to lend his assistance to make arrangements with Iraq and Kuwait to demarcate the boundary between Iraq and Kuwait, drawing on appropriate material, including the map transmitted by Security Council document S/22412 and to report back to the security Council within one month; 4. Decides to guarantee the inviolability of the above- mentioned international boundary and to take as appropriate all necessary measures to that end in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations;
B
5. Requests the Secretary-General, after consulting with Iraq and Kuwait, to submit within three days to the Security Council for its approval a plan for the immediate deployment of a United Nations observer unit to monitor the Khor Abdullah and a demilitarized zone, which is hereby established, extending ten kilometres into Iraq and five kilometres into Kuwait from the boundary referred to in the "Agreed Minutes Between the State of Kuwait and the Republic of Iraq Regarding the Restoration of Friendly Relations, Recognition and Related Matters" of 4 October 1963; to deter violations of the boundary through its presence in and surveillance of the demilitarized zone; to observe any hostile or potentially hostile action mounted from the territory of one State to the other; and for the Secretary-General to report regularly to the Security Council on the operations of the unit, and immediately if there are serious violations of the zone or potential threats to peace; 6. Notes that as soon as the Secretary-General notifies the Security Council of the completion of the deployment of the United Nations observer unit, the conditions will be established for the Member States cooperating with Kuwait in accordance with resolution 678 (1990) to bring their military presence in Iraq to an end consistent with resolution 686 (1991);
C
7. Invites Iraq to reaffirm unconditionally its obligations under the Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925, and to ratify the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, of 10 April 1972; 8. Decides that Iraq shall unconditionally accept the destruction, removal, or rendering harmless, under international supervision, of: (a) All chemical and biological weapons and all stocks of agents and all related subsystems and components and all research, development, support and manufacturing facilities; (b) All ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 kilometres and related major parts, and repair and production facilities; 9. Decides, for the implementation of paragraph 8 above, the following: (a) Iraq shall submit to the Secretary-General, within fifteen days of the adoption of the present resolution, a declaration of the locations, amounts and types of all items specified in paragraph 8 and agree to urgent, on-site inspection as specified below; (b) The Secretary-General, in consultation with the appropriate governments and where appropriate, , with the Director-General of the World Health Organization, within forty- five days of the passage of the present resolution, shall develop, and submit to the Council for approval, a plan calling for the completion of the following acts within forty-five days of such approval: (i) The forming of a Special Commission, which shall carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq's biological, chemical and missile capabilities, based on Iraq's declarations and the designation of any additional locations by the Special Commission itself; (ii) The yielding by Iraq of possession to the Special Commission for destruction, removal or rendering harmless, taking into account the requirements of public safety, of all items specified under paragraph 8 (a) above, including items at the additional locations designated by the Special Commission under paragraph 9 (b) (i) above and the destruction by Iraq, under the supervision of the Special Commission, of all its missile capabilities, including launchers, as specified under paragraph 8 (b) above; (iii) The provision by the Special Commission of the assistance and cooperation to the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency required in paragraphs 12 and 13 below; 10. Decides that Iraq shall unconditionally undertake not to use, develop, construct or acquire any of the items specified in paragraphs 8 and 9 above and requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with the Special Commission, to develop a plan for the future ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq's compliance with this paragraph, to be submitted to the Security Council for approval within one hundred and twenty days of the passage of this resolution; 11. Invites Iraq to reaffirm unconditionally its obligations under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of 1 July 1968; 12. Decides that Iraq shall unconditionally agree not to acquire or develop nuclear weapons or nuclear-weapons- usable material or any subsystems or components or any research, development, support or manufacturing facilities related to the above; to submit to the Secretary-General and the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency within fifteen days of the adoption of the present resolution a declaration of the locations, amounts, and types of all items specified above; to place all of its nuclear-weapons-usable materials under the exclusive control, for custody and removal, of the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the assistance and cooperation of the Special Commission as provided for in the plan of the Secretary-General discussed in paragraph 9 (b) above; to accept, in accordance with the arrangements provided for in paragraph 13 below, urgent on- site inspection and the destruction, removal or rendering harmless as appropriate of all items specified above; and to accept the plan discussed in paragraph 13 below for the future ongoing monitoring and verification of its compliance with these undertakings; 13. Requests the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, through the Secretary-General, with the assistance and cooperation of the Special Commission as provided for in the plan of the Secretary-General in paragraph 9(b) above, to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq's nuclear capabilities based on Iraq's declarations and the designation of any additional locations by the Special Commission; to develop a plan for submission to the Security Council within forty-five days calling for the destruction, removal, or rendering harmless as appropriate of all items listed in paragraph 12 above; to carry out the plan within forty-five days following approval by the Security Council; and to develop a plan, taking into account the rights and obligations of Iraq under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of 1 July 1968, for the future ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq's compliance with paragraph 12 above, including an inventory of all nuclear material in Iraq subject to the Agency's verification and inspections of the International Atomic Energy Agency to confirm that the Agency's safeguards cover all relevant nuclear activities in Iraq, to be submitted to the Security Council for approval within one hundred and twenty days of the passage of the present resolution; 14. Takes note that the actions to be taken by Iraq in paragraphs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 of the present resolution represent steps towards the goal of establishing in the Middle East a zone free from weapons of mass destruction and all missiles for their delivery and the objective of a global ban on chemical weapons;
D
15. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council on the steps taken to facilitate the return of all Kuwaiti property seized by Iraq, including a list of any property that Kuwait claims has not been returned or which has not been returned intact;
E
16. Reaffirms that Iraq, without prejudice to the debts and obligations of Iraq arising prior to 2 August 1990, which will be addressed through the normal mechanisms, is liable under international law for any direct loss, damage, including environmental damage and the depletion of natural resources, or injury to foreign Governments, nationals and corporations, as a result of Iraq's unlawful invasion and occupation of Kuwait; 17. Decides that all Iraqi statements made since 2 August 1990 repudiating its foreign debt are null and void, and demands that Iraq adhere scrupulously to all of its obligations concerning servicing and repayment of its foreign debt; 18. Decides also to create a fund to pay compensation for claims that fall within paragraph 16 above and to establish a Commission that will administer the fund; 19. Directs the Secretary-General to develop and present to the Security Council for decision, no later than thirty days following the adoption of the present resolution, recommendations for the fund to meet the requirement for the payment of claims established in accordance with paragraph 18 above and for a program to implement the decisions in paragraphs 16, 17 and 18 above, including: administration of the fund; mechanisms for determining the appropriate level of Iraq's contribution to the fund based on a percentage of the value of the exports of petroleum and petroleum products from Iraq not to exceed a figure to be suggested to the Council by the Secretary-General, taking into account the requirements of the people of Iraq, Iraq's payment capacity as assessed in conjunction with the international financial institutions taking into consideration external debt service, and the needs of the Iraqi economy; arrangements for ensuring that payments are made to the fund; the process by which funds will be allocated and claims paid; appropriate procedures for evaluating losses, listing claims and verifying their validity and resolving disputed claims in respect of Iraq's liability as specified in paragraph 16 above; and the composition of the Commission designated above;
F
20. Decides, effective immediately, that the prohibitions against the sale or supply to Iraq of commodities or products, other than medicine and health supplies, and prohibitions against financial transactions related thereto contained in resolution 661 (1990) shall not apply to foodstuffs notified to the Security Council Committee established by resolution 661 (1990) concerning the situation between Iraq and Kuwait or, with the approval of that Committee, under the simplified and accelerated "no-objection" procedure, to materials and supplies for essential civilian needs as identified in the report of the Secretary General dated 20 March 1991, 9 and in any further findings of humanitarian need by the Committee; 21. Decides that the Security Council shall review the provisions of paragraph 20 above every sixty days in the light of the policies and practices of the Government of Iraq, including the implementation of all relevant resolutions of the Security Council, for the purpose of determining whether to reduce or lift the prohibitions referred to therein; 22. Decides that upon the approval by the Security Council of the program called for in paragraph 19 above and upon Council agreement that Iraq has completed all actions contemplated in paragraphs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 above, the prohibitions against the import of commodities and products originating in Iraq and the prohibitions against financial transactions related thereto contained in resolution 661 (1990) shall have no further force or effect; 23. Decides that, pending action by the Security Council under paragraph 22 above, the Security Council Committee established by resolution 661 (1990) shall be empowered to approve, when required to assure adequate financial resources on the part of Iraq to carry out the activities under paragraph 20 above, exceptions to the prohibition against the import of commodities and products originating in Iraq; 24. Decides that, in accordance with resolution 661 (1990) and subsequent related resolutions and until a further decision is taken by the Security Council, all States shall continue to prevent the sale or supply, or the promotion or facilitation of such sale or supply, to Iraq by their nationals, or from their territories or using their flag vessels or aircraft, of: (a) Arms and related materiel of all types, specifically including the sale or transfer through other means of all forms of conventional military equipment, including for paramilitary forces, and spare parts and components and their means of production, of such equipment; (b) Items specified and defined in paragraphs 8 and 12 above not otherwise covered above; (c) Technology under licensing or other transfer arrangements used in the production, utilization or stockpiling of items specified in subparagraphs (a) and (b) above; (d) Personnel or materials for training or technical support services relating to the design, development, manufacture, use, maintenance or support of items specified in subparagraphs (a) and (b) above; 25. Calls upon all States and international organizations to act strictly in accordance with paragraph 24 above, notwithstanding the existence of any contracts, agreements, licences or any other arrangements; 26. Requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with appropriate governments, to develop within sixty days, for the approval of the Security Council, guidelines to facilitate full international implementation of paragraphs 24 and 25 above and paragraph 27 below, and to make them available to all States and to establish a procedure for updating these guidelines periodically; 27. Calls upon all States to maintain such national controls and procedures and to take such other actions consistent with the guidelines to be established by the Security Council under paragraph 26 above as may be necessary to ensure compliance with the terms of paragraph 24 above, and calls upon international organizations to take all appropriate steps to assist in ensuring such full compliance; 28. Agrees to review its decisions in paragraphs 22, 23, 24 and 25 above, except for the items specified and defined in paragraphs 8 and 12 above, on a regular basis and in any case one hundred and twenty days following passage of the present resolution, taking into account Iraq's compliance with the resolution and general progress towards the control of armaments in the region; 29. Decides that all States, including Iraq, shall take the necessary measures to ensure that no claim shall lie at the instance of the Government of Iraq, or of any person or body in Iraq, or of any person claiming through or for the benefit of any such person or body, in connection with any contract or other transaction where its performance was affected by reason of the measures taken by the Security Council in resolution 661 (1990) and related resolutions;
G
30. Decides that, in furtherance of its commitment to facilitate the repatriation of all Kuwaiti and third country nationals, Iraq shall extend all necessary cooperation to the International Committee of the Red Cross, providing lists of such persons, facilitating the access of the International Committee of the Red Cross to all such persons wherever located or detained and facilitating the search by the International Committee of the Red Cross for those Kuwaiti and third country nationals still unaccounted for; 31. Invites the International Committee of the Red Cross to keep the Secretary-General apprised as appropriate of all activities undertaken in connection with facilitating the repatriation or return of all Kuwaiti and third country nationals or their remains present in Iraq on or after 2 August 1990; 32. Requires Iraq to inform the Security Council that it will not commit or support any act of international terrorism or allow any organization directed towards commission of such acts to operate within its territory and to condemn unequivocally and renounce all acts, methods and practices of terrorism;
I
33. Declares that, upon official notification by Iraq to the Secretary-General and to the Security Council of its acceptance of the provisions above, a formal cease-fire is effective between Iraq and Kuwait and the Member States cooperating with Kuwait in accordance with resolution 678 (1990); 34. Decides to remain seized of the matter and to take such further steps as may be required for the implementation of the present resolution and to secure peace and security in the area. VOTE: 12 for, 1 against (Cuba), 2 abstentions (Yemen and Ecuador). 1S/22275, annex. 2S/22273, S/22276, S/22320, S/22321 and S/22330. 3League of Nations, Treaty Series, vol. XCIV (1929), No. 2138. 4General Assembly resolution 2826 (XXVI), annex. 5General Assembly resolution 2373 (XXII). 6General Assembly resolution 34/146. 7S/22366. 8S/22409. 9S/22366. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 14, April 8, 1991 Title:

Issues Between the United States and Japan

Date: Apr 8, 19914/8/91 Category: Fact Sheets Region: East Asia Country: Japan Subject: Trade/Economics, Development/Relief Aid, Security Assistance and Sales, Resource Management, Military Affairs, History [TEXT] Issues and Relations Between the United States and Japan The April 4 discussions between President Bush and Prime Minister Kaifu in Newport Beach, California, covered the spectrum of the US-Japan partnership -- economics and trade, foreign-policy cooperation, the Middle East, and the US-Japan security relationship. Prime Minister Kaifu's last visit to the United States was in September-October 1990, when he met with President Bush in New York during the UN General Assembly. In July 1990, the two leaders met during the Houston economic summit, and they held a bilateral summit in Palm Springs, California, in March 1990.
General Background.
Japan is the most important ally of the United States in East Asia, our second-largest trading partner, and our foremost economic and technological competitor. Eleven percent of US exports go to Japan, and the US buys about one-third of Japan's exports. The US and Japan share close global and regional political interests and pursue bilateral and multilateral efforts to create a more open global trading system.
Japan's Domestic Politics and Economy
The ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), which has been in power for nearly 40 years, elected Toshiki Kaifu LDP president, and thus prime minister, in August 1989. His current term as party president ends this fall. In February 1990, the LDP won an impressive election victory for the lower house of the Diet (parliament), where it holds a stable majority. However, the ruling party lost control of the upper house in the 1989 elections, creating difficulties for the government in winning approval for some legislation. The Japan Socialist Party is the largest opposition party. Japan, the second-largest economy in the world, had an estimated GNP of $2.9 trillion in 1990. It is a major financial power, with the largest banks and stock market in the world. Real GNP growth in 1990 was 5.6%. Its per capita GNP is approximately $24,000.
US-Japan Global Partnership
The United States and Japan are actively engaged in coordinating policies on a broad agenda of international issues in what we have called the "global partnership." Recent areas of successful collaboration include:
Aid Cooperation
US-Japan bilateral aid cooperation is one of the success stories of the global partnership. The United States and Japan are the world's largest aid donors, and our cooperation flows naturally from our shared values and interests. Japan became the world's largest donor of foreign assistance in 1989 with aid flows totaling $9 billion. Japanese aid to other Asian countries far exceeds our own, but Japan also is a major donor to Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East. The US and Japan hold subcabinet- level consultations regularly to coordinate our policies on foreign assistance. The United States also encourages Japan's efforts to open its markets to developing countries' products.
Persian Gulf Crisis
The Japanese government has shown unwavering support for the political and economic measures taken by the international community to meet the Iraqi challenge and has provided substantial financial support for the Gulf effort. The Japanese government has pledged about $13 billion to the overall Gulf effort: -- A $9 billion pledge to Operation Desert Storm in January 1991, which the Diet approved on March 1. The US government received the first contribution of $5.8 billion in late March. Japan made an additional disbursement of more than $2 billion to the United States on April 2. -- An additional offer last year to Operation Desert Shield of $2 billion to support the multinational forces in the Gulf. Disbursement of cash and in-kind contributions is almost complete. -- $2.1 billion in highly concessional and untied commodity loans and other forms of economic assistance to the front-line states. All money has been allocated. About $800 million has been disbursed to date. -- $60 million in refugee relief for the affected region in the Middle East, which has been disbursed. This assistance includes Japanese government charters of Japanese civilian aircraft to evacuate refugees from the region and return them to their home countries.
Cooperation in Petroleum Stockpile Drawdown
. An area in which US-Japan cooperation produced tangible and far- reaching benefits for the world economy was the coordinated efforts through the International Energy Agency (IEA) to ensure sufficient availability of oil following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990. Japan's support for an early IEA decision to draw down stockpiles and its rapid announcement of its own measures following the invasion, which were second only to those of the United States, helped avert shortages and massive international oil-price hikes.
US-Japan Security Relationship
. The 1960 US-Japanese Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security has been a major factor in maintaining peace and stability in East Asia. Under the treaty, Japan hosts 55,000 US troops and is a home port for the US 7th Fleet, including the aircraft carrier Midway. Those forces not only defend Japan but also serve US regional strategic interests. The US-Japan security alliance is the cornerstone of our forward-deployed presence in Asia and is the foundation of the overall US-Japan relationship. Secretary of State Baker and Foreign Minister Nakayama signed a new 5-year host-nation-support agreement on January 14, 1991, which substantially increases Japan's support for US forces stationed there. Japan already was paying more than $3 billion annually, by far the most of any US ally. During the next 5 years, it will provide nearly $17 billion to the United States in host-nation- support payments, which is the most generous such cooperation we receive from any ally. By 1995, Japan will pay 53% of the cost of the presence of US forces in Japan.
Trade Relations
Japan is America's largest trading partner after Canada, with two- way merchandise trade totaling $138 billion in 1990. Historically, the US trade deficit with Japan has been a highly visible sign of our bilateral trade and economic problems. The US trade deficit with Japan has fallen in recent years from a high of about $60 billion in 1987 to $41 billion in 1990, which is about 40% of the total US trade deficit. The improvement is due largely to increased US exports to Japan, up 9% from 1989 to $49 billion in 1990, and decreased imports from Japan, down 4% to $90 billion. The United States has engaged the Japanese on several fronts to address the trade deficit. In 1990, the United States achieved agreements for market access on supercomputers, satellites, wood products, and amorphous metals. The two governments are working to implement the Structural Impediments Initiative, aimed at removing structural barriers to market access and balance-of- payments adjustments. The US government also is taking policy steps to improve the competitiveness of US industry and is increasing export-promotion activities in Japan. A focus of US-Japan trade relations is coordination in multilateral forums, with successful conclusion of the Uruguay Round as a major US policy goal. Serious differences remain between the United States and the European Community, especially on agriculture, but the United States also has been disappointed with Japan's positions. On agricultural reform, which has become the centerpiece of the new round of negotiations, Japan has refused any market liberalization involving rice. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 14, April 8, 1991 Title:

Country Profile: Japan

Date: Apr 8, 19914/8/91 Category: Country Data Region: East Asia Country: Japan Subject: Trade/Economics, History, International Organizations [TEXT] Official Name: Japan
Geography
Area: 377,765 sq. km. (145,856 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than California. Cities: Capital--Tokyo. Other major cities--Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Kobe, Kyoto. Terrain: Rugged, mountainous islands. Climate: Varies from subtropical to temperate.
People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Japanese. Population (mid-1989 est.): 123 million. Annual growth rate (1989): 0.5%. Ethnic groups: Japanese; Korean 1%. Religions: Shintoism and Buddhism; Christian 1%. Language: Japanese. Education: Literacy--99%. Life expectancy (1987)--males 76 yrs., females 81 yrs. Work force (61 million, 1988): Agriculture--8%. Trade, manufacturing, mining, and construction--32%. Services--43%. Government--7%.
Government
Type: Parliamentary democracy. Constitution: May 3, 1947. Branches: Executive--prime minister (head of government). Legislative--bicameral Diet (House of Representatives and House of Councillors). Judicial--Civil law system with Anglo-American influence. Subdivisions: 47 prefectures. Political parties: Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Japan Socialist Party (JSP), Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), Komeito (Clean Government Party), Japan Communist Party (JCP). Suffrage: Universal over 20. Flag: Red sun on white field.
Economy
GNP (1990): $3 trillion. Real growth rate (1989): 6%. Per capita GNP (1989): $23,950. Natural resources: Negligible mineral resources, fish. Agriculture: Products--rice, vegetables, fruits, milk, meat, silk. Industry: Types--machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles, autos, chemicals, electrical and electronic equipment. Trade (1990): Exports--$280 billion: motor vehicles, machinery and equipment, electrical and electronic products, metals and metal products. Major markets--US 34%, Western Europe 21%, developing countries 38%, communist countries 5%. Imports--$216 billion: fossil fuels, metal ore, raw materials, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment. Major suppliers-- US 23%, Western Europe 17%, developing countries 47%, communist countries 7%. Fiscal year: April 1-March 31. Total net official development assistance: $9 billion (1989 disbursements, 0.3% of GNP).
Membership in International Organizations
UN and several of its specialized and related agencies, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Court of Justice (ICJ), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), International Labor Organization (ILO), International Energy Agency (IEA), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), INTELSAT. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 14, April 8, 1991 Title:

The Artic and US Foreign Policy, 1970-90

Date: Apr 8, 19914/8/91 Category: Chronologies Region: Polar Regions Country: Antarctica Subject: Resource Management, Environment, Security Assistance and Sales, Trade/Economics, Science/Technology [TEXT] The following introduction was written by Samuel Frye, a retired Foreign Service officer, for the Office of the Historian. The chronology is excerpted from an appendix to "The Arctic and United States Foreign Policy," a study for the historian that is nearing completion. It focuses on events relating to the development of US foreign policy and the northern polar region. The United States is an Arctic country. For more than 200 years, American foreign affairs and diplomatic involvement in the far north have been shaped by boundary and sovereignty questions, commercial and economic development, exploration and scientific research, environmental issues, and national security concerns. Since the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867, American interests in the Arctic often have clashed but sometimes coincided with the activities first of the czars and, after 1917, with the rulers of the Soviet Union. World War II and the advent of the intercontinental ballistic missile age in the 1950s changed dramatically the strategic concepts of Arctic sea and land use, bringing the northern polar areas into the front lines of the Cold War and possible nuclear confrontation. Growing world demand for energy and mineral resources focused attention on the rich potential of both in Arctic lands. Encouraged by the success of the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, US policymakers in the 1960s began to consider the possibility of peaceful international cooperation for Arctic technological development and the reduction of Cold war tensions in the area through multilateral exchanges, possible environmental agreements, and relaxation of travel restrictions. In the 1970s and 1980s, the United States enacted the statutory framework to provide for the development and implementation of a comprehensive US Arctic policy. At the US-USSR summit in December 1987, President Reagan and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev expressed support for development of bilateral and regional cooperation among Arctic countries, including coordinating scientific research and protecting the region's environment. Building upon this new foundation in Arctic cooperation, Secretary Baker and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze signed two agreements in September 1989, greatly expanding bilateral Arctic cooperation, relaxing travel restrictions, and encouraging a variety of people-to-people exchanges. At the June 1990 Washington summit, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev signed a bilateral maritime boundary agreement and provided for the establishment of an international park in the Bering Strait region. At the beginning of the 1990s, the hostility of the Cold War in the Arctic regions appeared to be giving way to governmental and non-governmental cooperation in Arctic environmental, social, political, and economic areas.
Chronology
1970
January 1--Congress passed the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The law provided a declaration of national environmental policy, required environmental impact statements of proposed federal actions, and established the Council on Environmental Quality (Public Law 91-90; 83 Stat. 852). April 15--The National Security Council (NSC), issued a directive for the preparation of an inter-agency review of US Arctic policy.
1971
August 9--The ad hoc Inter-agency Committee on US Arctic Policy sent a report to President Richard M. Nixon in response to the NSC directive of April 15, 1970, presenting recommendations for an Arctic policy statement, a coordination mechanism for US policy, and international Arctic cooperation. December 18--President Nixon signed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, providing Alaska natives with title to 40 million acres of land and compensation of $962.5 million to extinguish aboriginal title to any additional lands in Alaska. Twelve regional native corporations were established for fund distributions to individuals and village corporations (Public Law 92-203; 85 Stat. 688). This landmark legislation influenced consideration of claims by indigenous peoples with governments worldwide and fully opened the way for massive resource development in the US Arctic, including the Prudhoe Bay oil field. December 22--The NSC issued National Security Decision Memorandum (NSDM) 144, "United States Arctic Policy and Arctic Policy Group." President Nixon decided that the policy of the United States was to provide for essential US security interests in the Arctic, including freedom of the seas and superjacent space, support sound and rational Arctic development, and promote mutually beneficial international Arctic cooperation. NSDM 144 created the Inter-agency Arctic Policy Group (IAPG), chaired by the State Department, to oversee implementation of US Arctic policy and review and coordinate programs in the Arctic with the exception of Arctic-related matters internal to Alaska. It also approved development of a coordinated US Arctic research plan, including possible cooperation with other countries.
1972
July 21--In response to NSDM 144 of December 22, 1971, the Inter- agency Arctic Policy Group submitted its first report, "US Arctic Programs: Review and Recommendations," to President Nixon. The report requested approval of a draft "Northlands and Arctic Cooperation Compact" as the basis for developing an Arctic international cooperation framework, and recommended an international conference on Arctic cooperation hosted by the United States. October 21--Congress passed the Marine Mammal Protection Act, establishing a national policy for the protection of marine mammals and the Marine Mammal Commission. The act had wide-ranging implications for US Arctic policy. Commission responsibilities included reviewing international conventions such as the Whaling Convention Act of 1946 and the 1957 Interim Convention on North Pacific Fur Seals, and recommending to the Secretary of State policies for existing or new international arrangements for the protection and conservation of marine mammals. The act included regulated exceptions for Alaska natives for subsistence hunting and other activities (Public Law 92-522; 86 Stat. 1027). October 27--Congress enacted the Coastal Zone Management Act, affirming a national interest in the effective protection and development of US coastal areas, including the Arctic Ocean, by encouraging and assisting coastal states to implement rational coastal management programs (Public Law 92-583; 86 Stat. 1280). The concept of a single international coastal zone management regime for the entire North American Arctic coast became the principal initial focus in the development by 1977 of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference.
1973
January 22--The National Security Council issued National Security Decision Memorandum (NSDM) 202, "Arctic Program Review and Recommendations," which reaffirmed President Nixon's decision that the United States actively develop and pursue bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the Arctic in areas of scientific research, resource development, and environmental protection. However, NSDM 202 ruled out US discussions with Canada, the Soviet Union, and other countries with Arctic interests with the aim of promoting the establishment of a multinational Northlands and Arctic Compact and the convening of an international conference to this end. NSDM 202 ended US government consideration during the 1970s of an international structure for Arctic cooperation. The Inter-agency Arctic Policy Group, although remaining formally constituted, did not hold any meetings until near the end of the Carter Administration in 1979. Arctic issues were subsumed in the work of the 3rd UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, which convened in 1974. November 15--The United States, Canada, Denmark, Norway, and the Soviet Union signed an agreement for the Conservation of Polar Bears, which recognized the polar bear as a significant Arctic resource requiring special protection through coordinated national measures by countries in the Arctic region. One feature of the agreement was its operation through a group of polar bear specialists from the Species Survival Commission, International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The agreement entered into force for the United States on November 1, 1976 (27 UST 3918; TIAS 8409).
1976
April 13--Congress passed the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, establishing a 200-nautical-mile fishery conservation zone contiguous to the US territorial sea. The State Department, with the Commerce Department, was to allocate allowable levels of foreign fishing in the United States zone, and the State Department was to negotiate new international fishing agreements, issue registration permits for each foreign national fishing vessel, and determine and certify for the Treasury Department foreign compliance with the act. The act established the North Pacific Fishery Management Council with authority over the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and Pacific Ocean seaward of Alaska, and set the stage for increased United States participation in the rich Bering offshore fishery worked largely by Japan and the Soviet Union (Public Law 94-265; 90 Stat. 331). November 19--The United States and the Soviet Union signed a Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Birds and Their Environment. This wide-ranging convention identified and protected birds with common US-USSR flyways, breeding, wintering, and feeding areas. Indigenous peoples in Alaskan and Soviet areas were excepted from convention regulations regarding subsistence hunting as determined by national regulations (29 UST 4647; TIAS 9073).
1977
June 12-17--The Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) held its first meeting at Barrow, Alaska, marking the beginning of an Inuit (Eskimo) international institutional response to questions about an Inuit future as a united people. Inuit representatives attended from Alaska, Canada, and Denmark (Greenland). Resolutions called upon those governments to negotiate a uniform Arctic resources development regime and an international Arctic policy; establish Inuit health care, education, and cultural exchange programs; allow restriction-free Inuit travel across the Arctic; and demilitarize the Arctic. The ICC's establishment attracted the attention of indigenous movements worldwide. Subsequent triennial ICC meetings provided the only continuing forum for multilateral discussion and implementation of international cooperation in the Arctic. July 28--The first oil from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Ocean reached the marine shipping terminal at Valdez, Alaska, through the 800- mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline, completing a 3-year construction project. The North Slope's eventual output would provide more than 20% of US oil production.
1978
June 30--President Jimmy Carter's science adviser announced the dissolution of the Inter-agency Arctic Research Coordinating Committee (IARCC) in accordance with the President's Reorganization Plan 1 of October 18, 1977, and Executive Order 12039 of February 26, 1978. IARCC functions for coordinating polar research in Alaska and on the continental shelf were assigned to the Interior Department and to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for off-shore and Gulf of Alaska research. The National Science Foundation assumed responsibility for assessing the need for additional Arctic research coordination and establishing appropriate mechanisms. The Inter-agency Arctic Policy Committee, chaired by the State Department, continued its mandate to coordinate international affairs activities related to US Arctic activities.
1979
November 8--Zbigniew Brzezinski, Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, sent a memorandum on Arctic policy to the Secretaries of State and Defense reconstituting the Inter- agency Arctic Policy Group (IAPG) chaired by the Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs. The IAPG had been dormant since 1973, subsequent to the issuance of NSDM 202 on January 22, 1973.
1980
December 2--Congress passed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Public Law 96-487; 94 Stat. 2371). Section 1107 called for an Arctic research study by the Interior, Defense, and Energy Departments, including "developing a comprehensive Arctic policy for the federal government" that accommodates the development and use of Arctic resources with consideration for the unique nature of the Arctic environment and the needs of Native residents. The State Department convened the IAPG, reconstituted in 1979 by the NSC, to explore international implications of the Alaska National Interest Lands legislation.
1982
October 22--The State Department sent an IAPG memorandum to the White House recommending that President Reagan reaffirm the policy set forth in the 1971 NSDM 144 in a new national Arctic policy statement.
1983
April 14--The White House issued National Security Decision Directive (NSDD) 90, "United States Arctic Policy." President Reagan cited unique and critical US interests in the Arctic region related directly to national defense, resource and energy development, scientific inquiry, and environmental protection. The President reaffirmed the major policy elements of the 1971 NSDM 144, including promotion of mutually beneficial international Arctic cooperation, and charged the IAPG with reviewing and coordinating policy implementation and US international programs and activities in the Arctic. Although not responsible for domestic Arctic matters, the IAPG was directed to ensure close cooperation of agencies concerned with those domestic matters. The IAPG also was instructed to prepare reports on how best to coordinate US Arctic activities with other nations, and to determine what federal services, by priority, the US government might have to provide in the Arctic over the next decade. May 12--The UN Economic and Social Council recognized the ICC as a UN non-governmental organization in consultative status.
1984
July 31--Congress passed the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984, providing for a comprehensive national policy dealing with US research needs and objectives in the Arctic. The act established an independent national Arctic Research Commission and an Inter- agency Arctic Research Policy Committee chaired by the National Science Foundation. The act completed the statutory framework for the development and implementation of US Arctic policy. Coordination and promotion of cooperative scientific research programs with other countries were subject to the foreign policy guidance of the Secretary of State (Public Law 98-373; 98 Stat. 1242). October--The 1957 Interim Convention on the Conservation of the North Pacific Fur Seals expired. The US Senate failed to ratify a protocol extending the convention to 1988 because of pressure from environmental groups calling for cessation of all fur seal harvesting. With no convention in force, US fur seal herds on the Pribilof Islands were to be managed under the Marine Mammal Act of 1972. December 22--In response to National Security Decision Directive 900, April 14, 1983, the State Department transmitted an IAPG memorandum, "US Government Services That Will Probably Be Needed In The Arctic By The End Of The Decade," to the White House. The report listed 14 areas in which services would be needed, surveyed current and projected development throughout the Arctic, and suggested that the most significant changes in the US Arctic would concern oil and gas development, national defense activities, improvement in transportation, increasing US participation in Bering Sea fisheries, and minimizing environmental impact and political activism among the Inuit.
1986
March 19--The International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) was established, with the secretariat located at the School of Health Sciences at the University of Alaska, Anchorage. The union provided a structure for bringing together northern medical research on a worldwide basis by promoting international cooperation, encouraging and supporting research and the exchange of scientific information in circumpolar health sciences, and participating in the International Council of Scientific Unions. The non-government group American Society for Circumpolar Health, founded in 1967, represents the United States in the IUCH. June 2--As a result of informal discussions among scientists from Arctic nations during a meeting of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), an initiative about establishing a non- governmental body as a forum to explore Arctic research issues and develop cooperative research plans was favorably received by Finland, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Norway, Poland, the Soviet Union, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Working from a subsequent proposal prepared at a consultative meeting on February 13, 1987, eight Arctic countries in March 1988 unanimously agreed that an International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) should be established as a non-governmental body.
1987
June 23--The Inter-agency Arctic Research Policy Committee, chaired by the National Science Foundation, transmitted to President Reagan the US Arctic Research Plan in accordance with the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984. The plan included a statement of US Arctic research policy and goals and objectives in Arctic research, including a statement of national needs and priorities in the areas of national security, rational resource development, and acquisition of new scientific knowledge in the Arctic. The plan was developed in consultation with the Arctic Research Commission, the governor and other officials of Alaska, Arctic residents, the private sector, and public groups. July 17--The United States and Canada signed an agreement on the conservation of the porcupine caribou herd, establishing an international porcupine caribou board. The board was to administer the agreement by ensuring opportunity for customary and traditional uses of the herd, and cooperation and communication between governments on research and herd management. Alaskan state and native Alaskan groups played an influential role in the formulation of the US negotiating position. December 10--President Reagan and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev issued a joint statement at the conclusion of the December 7-10, US-USSR summit, noting that they had exchanged views on means of encouraging expanded contacts and cooperation on issues relating to the Arctic. The two leaders expressed support for development of bilateral and regional cooperation among Arctic countries on these matters, including coordination of scientific research and protection of the region's environment (American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1987, Doc. 193, p. 360).
1988
January 11--After 2 years of discussions, the United States and Canada agreed on a framework for Arctic cooperation, affirming that navigation and resource development in the Arctic must not damage the unique environment of the region and the well-being of its inhabitants. Both sides agreed to facilitate navigation by their icebreakers in their respective waters and to develop and share research information. The United States pledged that all navigation by US icebreakers within waters claimed by Canada to be internal would be undertaken with Canadian consent. Both sides agreed that nothing in the agreement would affect respective US or Canadian positions on the Law of the Sea in this or other maritime areas or respective positions regarding third parties. President Reagan noted that the agreement is a "pragmatic solution based on our special bilateral relationship, our common interest in cooperating on Arctic matters, and the nature of the area . . . without prejudice to our respective legal positions, and it sets no precedents for other areas." (Department of State Press Release #3, January 14, 1988.) May 31--The United States and the Soviet Union signed a Comprehensive Agreement on Mutual Fisheries Relations providing the US fishing industry for the first time with access to Soviet waters and reciprocal access by Soviet fishermen to the US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The agreement provided a basis for expanded bilateral cooperation on fisheries issues, including the unregulated fisheries of the central Bering Sea. December 10--Building on preliminary meetings in 1986 and 1987, a planning group with representatives from Canada, Denmark and Greenland, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the United States, and the Soviet Union, proposed a draft "Founding Articles for an International Arctic Science Committee" (IASC), including the framework for a non-governmental organization to encourage and facilitate international consultation and cooperation for Arctic scientific research.
1989
September 20-26--At the initiative of the Finnish government, representatives of the eight countries with Arctic territory attended a consultative meeting for the protection of the Arctic environment. The group explored possibilities for international cooperation in protecting the Arctic environment, including integrated action programs for research, continuing field investigations of environmental problems affecting northern areas, and compilation of a definitive list of all existing multilateral and bilateral agreements on the protection and preservation of the Arctic. September 23--The United States and the Soviet Union signed an agreement creating the Bering Strait Regional Commission to promote cooperation in the Strait and to provide a forum for resolving minor regional disputes at the local level. The commission, with three Soviet and three American members, was to investigate and resolve unintentional border crossings, return fishing equipment, and assist in arranging emergency services, medical treatment, search and rescue activities, and death notification (Department of State Bulletin, November 1989, p. 22). September 23--The United States and the Soviet Union signed an agreement, "Concerning Mutual Visits by Inhabitants of the Bering Strait Region," replacing a 1938 agreement that was terminated by the Soviet Union in 1948. The new agreement allowed native inhabitants of the Strait area to visit relatives and others in prescribed areas in the respective countries by using established entry and exit checkpoints after notifying the Bering Straits Commission. The arrangement recodified age-old regional trading and cultural interchange (Department of State Bulletin, November 1989, p. 24).
1990
April 18-23--Representatives of the eight countries with Arctic territory attended a preparatory meeting for the protection of the Arctic environment as a sequel to a 1989 Finnish initiative. Conference themes included the need for international ecological cooperation in the Arctic region, improving Arctic environmental protection through strengthening and broader application of existing legal instruments, and development of an Arctic environmental protection strategy. Finland offered to host a 1991 meeting for high-level officials to discuss Arctic environmental protection. June 1--At the conclusion of the Washington summit with Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, President Bush announced the signing of a US-USSR Maritime Boundary Agreement resolving differences concerning national boundaries and resource jurisdiction in the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean. After 9 years of negotiation, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed that the line in the 1867 US-Russia Convention ceding Alaska is the maritime boundary along its entire length. Further provisions ensured that all areas within 200 miles of either coast fall under the resource jurisdiction of one or the other party. The USSR transferred three "special areas" to US jurisdiction within 200 miles of the Soviet coast but on the US side of the maritime boundary. The United States transferred one "special area" within 200 miles of the US coast but on the USSR side of the maritime boundary. The agreement placed 70% of the Bering Sea under US jurisdiction (Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, June 4, 1990, p. 868). June 1--The United States and the Soviet Union issued a Joint Statement on the Establishment of a US-USSR International Park in the Region of the Bering Strait. Presidents Bush and Gorbachev, at the conclusion of the Washington summit, expressed support for bilateral expansion of cooperation in the fields of environment and cultural heritage by protecting jointly the land and sea areas of the Bering Strait. Both countries recognized the common heritage of the Bering area and will seek during 1990-91 to sign a protocol formally establishing the International Park, and to work out all details connected with the functioning of the park (Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, June 4, 1990, p. 865). August 28--Representatives of national scientific organizations from the eight countries with Arctic territory, with the United States represented by the National Academy of Sciences, signed an agreement establishing a non-governmental International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The IASC was to cover all fields of Arctic science and to provide a forum for discussion, cooperation, and exchange of information. Working bodies were to assist in coordinating regional Arctic science programs and to help integrate Arctic science with studies of global environmental systems. IASC membership was to be open to all countries with significant Arctic science programs. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 14, April 8, 1991 Title:

Focus on Central and Eastern Europe

Date: Apr 8, 19914/8/91 Category: Focus on Emerging Democracies Region: E/C Europe Country: Poland, Hungary, Romania Subject: Trade/Economics, International Organizations, Science/Technology, EC, State Department [TEXT] Focus on Central and Eastern Europe: Summary of Initiatives The US government is leading unprecedented public- and private- sector initiatives to promote democracy and free-market economies in Central and Eastern Europe. Focus on Central and Eastern Europe is a periodic update of those initiatives.
American Business and Private Sector Development Initiative
President Bush has announced a new $45-million initiative to help the new democracies of Central and Eastern Europe. The "American Business and Private Sector Development Initiative for Central and Eastern Europe" was introduced on March 20 during a state visit to Washington by Polish President Lech Walesa--the first such visit by a Polish head of state. About $21 million is available immediately from fiscal year 1991 funds. The initiative aims to promote the growth of US investment in the region, participation by US firms in infrastructure development, and increased involvement of small and medium-sized US companies in bilateral trade. It will be carried out by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the Department of Commerce, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), and the US Trade and Development Program in partnership with the American private sector. The long-term involvement of US private business is critical to the success of the economic reforms underway throughout Central and Eastern Europe. US trade and investment can play a major role in supporting political and economic changes in the region and should promote US business interests as well. Primary emphasis will be on five key sectors identified by the Central and East European countries and the United States as being of special importance: agriculture and agribusiness, energy, environment, telecommunications, and housing. The initiative will: -- Establish an American Business Center in Warsaw, Poland, to provide office space and technical business services on a user- fee basis to US businesses; -- Develop consortia of US businesses to support groups of mainly small and medium-sized US companies wishing to enter the market. Grants will assist US trade and business associations in selected sectors in establishing a presence in the region; -- Expand the Commerce Department's Eastern Europe Business Information Center to develop information and provide assistance to US as well as Central and East European companies interested in trade and investment; -- Create a USAID capital-development initiative to assist Central and East European governments and private-sector firms in designing infrastructure projects in ways that will encourage the involvement of US companies; -- Provide additional funding for feasibility studies by the US Trade and Development Program related to the five sectors described above; and, -- If authorized by the US Congress, expand OPIC's pilot equity-investment program to include Central and Eastern Europe so that OPIC can make direct investments in promising joint ventures in the region. Michael Farren, Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade, explained to reporters on March 21 that President Bush's initiative is "only the most recent" in a series of steps by the Bush Administration to help the new democratic governments of Central and Eastern Europe. He said that it is intended to ease the transfer of US commercial expertise and increase the flow of US capital to the region. Ambassador Robert L. Barry, Special Adviser for East European Assistance to the Deputy Secretary of State, said that US investment in Poland is "disappointingly low." Barry added that he hoped President Bush's new initiative would get more small and medium-sized US businesses involved in the Polish market. For more information about this initiative, call: -- USAID (Office of European Affairs): 202-647-3853; -- Department of Commerce (Eastern Europe Business Information Center): 202-377-2645; -- OPIC (Public Affairs): 202-457-7093; -- US Trade and Development Program (Regional Director for Central and Eastern Europe): 703-875-4357; or -- Department of State (Office of the Special Adviser for East European Assistance): 202-647-0695.
Trade Enhancement Initiatives
From the beginning of its efforts to support political and economic reform in Central and Eastern Europe, the US government has emphasized trade as well as aid. The United States has led the way in extending increased access to its own market and in encouraging the European Community and others to do the same. GSP Duty-Free Benefits. President Bush is expected to approve a significant expansion of duty-free benefits covering $182 million in Central and East European exports under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). Czechoslovakia will be added to the list of beneficiaries, which includes Hungary, Poland, and Yugoslavia. These increases are in addition to the current $500 million in duty- free imports from Central and Eastern Europe. Moreover, the President has changed the effective date of $176 million in benefits from July 1 to May 1, 1991. More than half of the expanded GSP benefits will go to Poland ($93.3 million of the $182.4 million). This action will more than double the amount of Poland's duty-free exports under GSP. Overcoming Informational Barriers to Trade. The Bush Administration will sponsor a series of seminars for Central and East European countries designed to enhance understanding of US laws and procedures. -- The Department of Commerce will conduct seminars on US anti-dumping and countervailing-duty laws. They will focus on the methodology used to analyze dumping in non-market economic cases. The Commerce Department also will discuss the implications of the move toward greater market orientation. -- Commerce, State, and US Trade Representative officials will conduct seminars to help ensure that businesses are familiar with the benefits and procedures under the Generalized System of Preferences. -- US embassies in Central and East European countries will help provide information on quota fill rates to chambers of commerce and local producers. -- The Commerce Department and the Office of Management and Budget will hold seminars on recommended government procurement laws and procedures that would result in savings, purchase of improved products, and fair competition and also would enable those countries to join the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Agreement on Government Procurement.
Regional Economic Development Initiative
The Bush Administration aims to promote new commercial ties between companies and business organizations in comparable economic regions of the United States and Central and Eastern Europe to increase trade with the region's burgeoning private sector. A new program, using existing Commerce Department resources (e.g., the Eastern Europe Business Information Center and US Foreign Commercial Service officers), will focus on building a data base of regional and local business leaders and groups in the United States and Central and Eastern Europe. That information will be particularly useful in matching small and medium-sized US companies with counterparts in Central and Eastern Europe's private sector and in promoting new trade and investment ties.
Removing Trade Barriers
President Bush is prepared to send to Poland and other reforming Central and East European countries a team of experts, led by an official from the Office of the US Trade Representative, to conduct a review of internal and external barriers to expanded trade with the region and to propose specific solutions to problems identified.
Access to the European Community.
President Bush has asked the European Community (EC) to redouble its efforts to open its markets to Central and East European countries and to open all sectors, including agriculture, for liberalization under the free-trade-area agreements now under negotiation with Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland. The EC is Central and Eastern Europe's largest market with the greatest potential for trade expansion.
Reduction of Poland's Debt
On March 20, during President Walesa's visit to Washington, DC, President Bush warmly endorsed the historic agreement between the Polish government and its official creditors in the Paris Club to reduce Poland's debt obligations to government creditors, including the United States. The agreement is a strong signal of government- creditor support for Polish economic and political reforms. Together with a new 3-year program with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and continued Polish reforms, it should help encourage new private investment and capital flows to Poland and provide a sound basis for sustained economic growth. The agreement is the successful culmination of vigorous US efforts to achieve a multilateral agreement offering substantial benefits to Poland. Specifically, the Paris Club agreement provides for the reduction of Polish debt by at least 50% in real terms. The debt reduction will be formally adopted by the Paris Club once Poland's IMF program has been approved (expected in April). The restructuring will occur in two stages: -- The first stage involves 30% relief on a net present value basis and includes cash-flow relief of 80% for the crucial first 3 years of the agreement. -- The second stage consists of 20% relief on a net present value basis upon successful completion by Poland of the 3-year IMF program. In each stage, creditor governments will have the option of pursuing equivalent relief through debt reduction, interest reduction, or capitalization of interest on concessional terms. Governments also have the option of further reducing Polish obligations beyond the 50% level through: -- Additional bilateral relief; and -- The voluntary conversion of up to 10% of outstanding claims via debt-equity, debt-for-nature, or other debt swaps. To lead this effort, President Bush announced on March 20 that the United States was prepared to reduce Polish debt to the United States by a total of 70% in real terms from $3.8 billion to $1.14 billion. It will be done in two ways: -- Additional bilateral debt reduction; and -- A write-off of 10% of Poland's stock of debt to the United States. This action will enable the Polish government to provide local currency resources to fund a foundation for the environment. The unilateral actions taken by the United States raise the total debt reduction under the multilateral Paris Club agreement from the agreed minimum 50% level to 52%. President Bush strongly encouraged other creditor governments to take similar additional actions and provide bilateral relief beyond the 50% level. Poland is rapidly reorienting its political and economic relations in order to pursue an independent foreign policy and to develop an internationally competitive free-market economy. As it does so, the close cooperation that exists in Polish-US relations can be expected to continue and to intensify.
Hungary
United Technologies To Build Plant. United Technologies Corporation announced in March that it would build a $10-million plant in Hungary to produce electrical-distribution systems for export to automobile manufacturers throughout Western Europe. The Hartford, Connecticut-based conglomerate plans to begin manufacturing this year. It is the third US firm to put a plant in Hungary to make either cars or car parts (General Motors Corporation and Ford Motor Company are the other two). The plant will be in the town of Godollo, which is about 20 miles northeast of the capital of Budapest. The work force is expected to increase from 50 to 1,000 within 5 years, United Technologies officials told the press. The plant will be run completely by Hungarian managers trained in other United Technologies auto-parts plants in Europe.
Romania
Contribution to Libraries by University Microfilms International. Alan Green, Jr., the US Ambassador to Romania, in March presented microfilm and microfiche worth $50,000 to the directors of two prominent Romanian libraries. University Microfilms International, through the American Library Association, donated the materials, which contained a collection of US scholarly journals and magazines. In an interview after the presentation ceremony in Romania's leading independent newspaper (Romania Libera), the director of the University of Bucharest's library praised US support of Romanian libraries, including a US Information Agency library fellow who will organize a training program in that university. The director concluded, "Romanian scholars and students will have the opportunity . . . to have access to the international flow of scholarly information through this remarkable donation which is the repository of a huge potential in all areas of knowledge." (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 14, April 8, 1991 Title:

Current Treaty Actions: March -- April 1991

Date: Mar 30, 19913/30/91 Category: Treaties/Agreements Region: E/C Europe, MidEast/North Africa Country: China, Canada, Costa Rica, Denmark, Israel, Italy, South Korea, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Marshall Islands Subject: Trade/Economics, International Law, Arms Control, Science/Technology, Resource Management, Terrorism, Environment, Narcotics, Human Rights, United Nations [TEXT]
Multilateral
:
Aviation
Convention on international civil aviation. Done at Chicago Dec. 7, 1944. Entered into force Apr. 4,1947. TIAS 1591. Protocol on the authentic trilingual text of the convention on international civil aviation (TIAS 1591), with annex. Done at Buenos Aires Sept. 24, 1968. TIAS 6605. Adherence deposited: Albania, Mar. 28, 1991.
Biological Weapons
Convention on the prohibition of the development, production, and stockpiling of bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons and on their destruction. Done at Washington, London, and Moscow Apr. 10, 1972. Entered into force Mar. 26, 1975. TIAS 8062. Accession deposited: Zimbabwe, Nov. 5, 1990.
Gas
Protocol for the prohibition of the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous, or other gases, and of bacteriological methods of warfare. Done at Geneva June 17, 1925. Entered into force Feb. 8, 1928; for the US Apr. 10, 1975. TIAS 8061. Accession deposited: Angola, Oct. 30, 1990.1
International Court of Justice
Declaration recognizing as compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice under Art. 36, para. 2 of the statute of the Court. 59 Stat. 1055; TS 993.2 Declaration deposited: Poland, Sept. 25, 1990.
Narcotic Drugs
United Nations convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, with annex and final act. Done at Vienna Dec. 20, 1988. Entered into force Nov. 11, 1990. [Senate] Treaty Doc. 101-4. Ratifications deposited: USSR, Dec. 17, 1990; Egypt, Mar. 15, 1991. Accession deposited: Oman, Mar. 15, 1991.
Pollution
Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. Done at Geneva Nov. 13, 1979. Entered into force Mar. 16, 1983. TIAS 10541. Ratification deposited: Romania, Feb. 27, 1991. Convention for the protection of the ozone layer, with annexes. Done at Vienna Mar. 22, 1985. Entered into force Sept. 22, 1988. (Senate) Treaty Doc. 99-9. Accession deposited: India, Mar. 18, 1991.
Seabed Operations
Memorandum of understanding on the avoidance of overlaps and conflicts relating to deep seabed areas, with annexes. Signed at New York Feb. 22, 1991. Entered into force Feb. 22, 1991.
Terrorism
Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crimes against internationally protected persons, including diplomatic agents. Done at New York Dec. 14, 1973. Entered into force Feb. 20, 1977. TIAS 8532. Accession deposited: Sri Lanka, Feb. 27, 1991.
Torture
Convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. Done at New York Dec. 10, 1984. Entered into force June 26, 1987.3 Accession deposited: Romania, Dec. 18, 1990.
Treaties
Vienna convention on the law of treaties, with annex. Done at Vienna May 23, 1969. Entered into force Jan. 27, 1980.3 Accession deposited: Oman, Oct. 18, 1990.4 Treaties--International Organizations Vienna convention on the law of treaties between states and international organizations or between international organizations, with annex. Done at Vienna Mar. 21, 1986.5 Accession deposited: Czechoslovakia, Oct. 19, 1990.
United Nations
Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice. Signed at San Francisco June 26, 1945. Entered into force Oct. 24, 1945. 59 Stat. 1031, TS 993. Admitted to membership: Liechtenstein, Sept. 18, 1990.
Bilateral
Albania
Memorandum of understanding concerning the re-establishment of diplomatic relations. Signed at Washington Mar. 15, 1991. Entered into force Mar. 15, 1991. Treaty of naturalization. Signed at Tirana Apr. 5, 1932. Entered into force Jul. 22, 1935. TS 892; 49 Stat, (2) 3241. Terminated: Mar. 15, 1991.
Bahrain
Agreement concerning the deployment of US forces, with exchange of letters. Signed at Manama Jan. 13, 1991. Entered into force Jan. 13, 1991.
Canada
Agreement on air quality, with annexes. Signed at Ottawa Mar. 13, 1991. Entered into force Mar. 13, 1991.
China
Agreement concerning the mutual provision of properties for use of the two countries, with appendices. Signed at Beijing Mar. 23, 1991. Entered into force Apr. 22, 1991.
Costa Rica
Agreement for the exchange of information with respect to taxes, with exchange of notes. Signed at San Jose Mar. 15, 1989. Entered into force Feb. 12, 1991.
Denmark
Memorandum of understanding concerning use of Sondrestrom Aviation Facility, Kulusuk Airfield, and other matters related to US military activities in Greenland. Signed at Copenhagen Mar. 13, 1991. Entered into force Mar. 13, 1991.
Israel
Memorandum of understanding concerning cooperation in the field of environmental protection, with annexes. Signed at Jerusalem Feb. 20, 1991. Entered into force Feb. 20, 1991.
Italy
Protocol amending the air transport agreement of June 22, 1970 (TIAS 6957). Signed at Washington Oct. 25, 1988. Entered into force Mar. 28, 1991.
Korea
Memorandum of understanding for a cooperative technology project concerning coastal/harbor defense, with annex. Signed at Washington and Taejon Nov. 13 and 26, 1990. Entered into force: Nov. 26, 1990. Agreement for the establishment of the Joint US Military Affairs Group to the Republic of Korea. Signed at Seoul Jan. 25, 1991. Entered into force Feb. 27, 1991.
Marshall Islands
Agreement for the exchange of information with respect to taxes, with attachment and exchange of notes. Signed at Majuro March 14, 1991. Entered into force Mar. 14, 1991.
United Arab Emirates
Agreement relating to trade in textiles and textile products, with annexes. Effected by exchange of notes at Abu Dhabi Jan. 26 and Feb. 5, 1991. Entered into force Feb. 5, 1991; effective Jan. 1, 1989.
United Kingdom
Memorandum of understanding concerning the measures to be taken for the transfer to, and security and safeguarding of, MK IV radar instrumentation system technical information, software, and equipment in the United Kingdom. Signed at Washington Feb. 6, 1991. Entered into force Feb. 6, 1991. 1 With reservation. 2 With conditions. 3 Not in force for the US. 4 With declaration. 5 Not in force. (###)