US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991

Title:

Operation Desert Storm Is Working

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Address at the Reserve Officers Association annual dinner, Washington, DC Date: Jan 23, 19911/23/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Kuwait Subject: Military Affairs, Democratization [TEXT] (Introductory remarks deleted.) I am proud to share this evening with the leadership of the Reserve Officers Association, and I am deeply honored to be named Minuteman of the Year. But, I know tonight our thoughts go out to men and women earning the honor of a grateful nation at this very moment: the citizen-soldiers--100,000 strong serving now with the coalition forces in the Gulf. And I salute them, each and every one. Those American reservists are part of an allied force standing against the forces of aggression--standing up for what is right. They serve alongside hundreds of thousands of soldiers, sailors, airmen, Marines, and Coast Guardsmen of 27 other nations, all united against the aggression of Saddam Hussein. As we meet here tonight, we are exactly 1 week into Operation Desert Storm. But, it is important to date this conflict not from January 16, but from its true beginning: the assault of August 2, Iraq's unprovoked aggression against the tiny nation of Kuwait. We did not begin a war 7 days ago. Rather, we began to end a war--to right a wrong that the world simply could not ignore. From the day Saddam's forces first crossed into Kuwait, it was clear that this aggression required a swift response from our nation and the world community. What was, and is, at stake is not simply our energy or economic security and the stability of a vital region, but the prospects for peace in the post-Cold War era--the promise of a new world order based upon the rule of law. America was not alone in confronting Saddam. No less than 12 resolutions of the UN Security Council condemned the invasion, demanding Iraq's withdrawal without condition and without delay. The United Nations put in place sanctions to prevent Iraq from reaping any reward from its outlaw act. Countries from six continents sent forces to the Gulf to demonstrate the will of the world community that Saddam's aggression would not stand. Appeasement--peace at any price--was never an answer. Turning a blind eye to Saddam's aggression would not have avoided war; it would only have delayed the world's day of reckoning, postponing what would ultimately have been a far more dangerous, a far more costly conflict. Unfortunately, in spite of more than 5 months of sustained diplomatic efforts by the Arab League, the European Community, the United States, and the United Nations, Saddam Hussein met every overture of peace with open contempt. In the end, despite the world's prayers for peace, Saddam brought war upon himself. Tonight, after 1 week of allied operations, I am pleased to report that Operation Desert Storm is right on schedule. We have dealt--and I salute General [Merrill] McPeak and the airmen flying under the united command out there, from the Navy and the Marines, as well as, of course, the Air Force; I salute them--we dealt a severe setback to Saddam's nuclear ambitions. Our pinpoint attacks have put Saddam out of the nuclear bomb-building business for a long time to come. Allied aircraft enjoy air superiority, and we are using that superiority to systematically deprive Saddam of his ability to wage war effectively. We are knocking out many of their key airfields. We're hitting their early warning radars with great success. We are severely degrading their air defenses. The main danger to allied aircraft now comes from some 20,000 anti-aircraft guns in the Baghdad area alone. And let me say, I am proud of the way our aviators are carrying out their tasks. In head-to-head combat, our jet fighters have destroyed 19 Iraqi jets. And they have hit, at most, one American jet in aerial combat. Step by step, we are making progress toward the objectives that have guided the world's response since August 2: the liberation of Kuwait and the restoration of stability and security in the Gulf. And there can be no doubt: Operation Desert Storm is working. There can be no pause now that Saddam has forced the world into war. We will stay the course--and we will succeed--all the way. As I said on the third day of this campaign, war is never cheap or easy. There will be problems. There will be setbacks. There will be more sacrifices. But let me say I have every reason to be very pleased with our progress to date. Saddam has sickened the world with his use of Scud missiles- -those inaccurate bombs that indiscriminately strike cities and innocent civilians in both Israel and Saudi Arabia. These weapons are nothing more than tools of terror, and they do nothing but strengthen our resolve to act against a dictator unmoved by human decency. Prime Minister John Major of the United Kingdom said it well yesterday. "Saddam", he said, "may yet become a target of his own people. It is perfectly clear that this man is amoral. He takes hostages; he attacks population centers; he threatens prisoners. He's a man without pity, and whatever his fate may be," said Prime Minister Major, "I, for one, will not weep for him." No one should weep for this tyrant when he is brought to justice. No one--anywhere in the world. I watched, along with all of you, that repulsive parade of American airmen on Iraqi television--one more proof of the savagery of Saddam. But I knew as they read their prepared statements criticizing this country that those were false words forced on them by their captors. One--I saw one of Gen. McPeak's kids--one American pilot yesterday was asked why he was sure the pilots were coerced, their statements false. And he said, "I know that because these guys are Americans." He could well have said the same thing about the other pilots being held--from Britain, Italy, and Kuwait--all men of courage and valor, too. Tonight, I repeat my pledge to you, and to all Americans: this will not be another Vietnam. Never again will our armed forces be sent out to do a job with one hand tied behind their back. They will continue to have the support they need to get the job done, get it done quickly, and with as little loss of life as possible. And that support is not just military but moral--measured in the support our servicemen and women receive from every one of us here at home. When the brave men and women of Desert Storm return home, they will return to the love and respect of a grateful nation. And with that in mind, I'd like to say to every family of every man or woman serving overseas, we're thinking of you and you are in our prayers. And that is where I will close--with the aim of protecting American lives and seeing the heroes of Desert Storm return home safe and sound. All life is precious--whether it's the life of an American pilot or an Iraqi child. And yet, if life is precious, so, too, are the living principles of liberty and peace; principles that all Americans cherish above all others; principles that you and your comrades on duty tonight have pledged to defend. Thank you for this warm welcome and for your strong support. And may God bless the United States of America. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Iraqi Missile Attack Against Israel

Description: Excerpts from a statement made at Camp David, MD Date: Jan 19, 19911/19/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Israel Subject: Military Affairs, Democratization [TEXT] The President met with national security advisers at Camp David for about 2 hours today to review the status of Operation Desert Storm. The group reported that significant military achievements had been recorded. Damage assessments continue. General Colin Powell, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, reported that although it is early in the conflict, many of the strategic objectives have been achieved, including those related to Iraq's air defense system. The President feels the operation is proceeding according to pace and has been quite successful. The President continues to be concerned about Iraqi missiles launched against Israel. Iraq is clearly attacking Israel solely for political purposes, to split the coalition. The President called Israeli Prime Minister Shamir for a second time today at approximately 11:30 am EST to express his appreciation for Israel's restraint in responding to the Scud missile attacks. "I understand the anguish of your people and your government," the President said. "We will use every resource possible to suppress and destroy the mobile Scuds." The President thanked the Prime Minister for his personal leadership and cooperation. . . .
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Iraqi Missile Attack Against Israel

Eagleburger Source: Deputy Secretary Eagleburger Description: Tel Aviv, Israel Date: Jan 21, 19911/21/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Israel Subject: Military Affairs, Democratization [TEXT] Last week, Iraq launched an unprovoked attack on Israel using Scud missiles. President Bush expressed the outrage of the United States over this reckless act of terror and aggression, as did leaders of all civilized nations. The President has taken a number of concrete steps to help Israel deal with this threat. These include, among others: -- The continued devotion by the United States and coalition partners of enormous, persistent military and intelligence assets to the objective of destroying Iraqi Scud missile launchers; and -- In an unprecedented action, the immediate transfer to Israel of Patriot anti-missile units, with their US crews and with PAC II missiles. This period has been marked by constant and intensive consultations between our two governments. President Bush and Prime Minister Shamir have talked with each other often and intimately during these critical days. The United States stands with Israel in defending against Iraqi aggression. The United States is--as it has been for many years-- committed to the security of Israel. We recognize and respect the right of every sovereign state to defend itself and, thus, have never questioned Israel's right to respond to attack. We also recognize and respect Israel's desire not to be drawn into this conflict and greatly admire Israel's restraint in the face of Iraq's deliberate and murderous effort to widen the conflict caused by its aggression against Kuwait. The President has, at this time of trial for both our nations, sent us to consult with Israeli leaders. My colleagues and I are proud to be here.
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Iraqi Missile Attack Against Israel

Fitzwater Source: White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater Description: Washington, DC Date: Jan 23, 19911/23/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Israel Subject: Military Affairs, Democratization [TEXT] The President called Prime Minister Shamir at midnight to discuss the latest Iraqi missile attack against Israel. The President expressed his outrage at this unprovoked aggression and extended his sympathy to the Prime Minister over the numerous casualties the attack caused. The President noted that the coalition effort against Iraq was proceeding well and expressed his appreciation for Israel's continued restraint, particularly in view of the continued Iraqi attacks. The President said that the world recognizes these attacks as nothing short of brutal terrorism against innocent civilians. The President thanked the Prime Minister for the reception and consultations that Deputy Secretary Eagleburger has received. The two leaders agreed that both sides should stay in close consultation. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Executive Order Designates Persian Gulf as Combat Zone

Fitzwater Source: White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater Description: Statement and text of executive order; Washington, DC Date: Jan 21, 19911/21/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Kuwait Subject: Military Affairs [TEXT] The President today signed an executive order designating the Arabian Peninsula areas, airspace, and adjacent waters as a combat zone. This designation means that for federal tax purposes, military pay received by enlisted personnel while serving in the combat zone will be exempt from income tax. For commissioned officers in the combat zone, the exclusion is limited to $500 a month. In addition, members of the armed forces in the combat zone will not have to file their income tax returns until at least 180 days after they depart the Persian Gulf.
EXECUTIVE ORDER
Designation of Arabian Peninsula Areas, Airspace, and Adjacent Waters as a Combat Zone By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including Section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 USC 112), I hereby designate, for purposes of that section, the following locations, including the airspace above such locations, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are and have been engaged in combat: -- the Persian Gulf -- the Red Sea -- the Gulf of Oman -- that portion of the Arabian Sea that lies north of 10 degrees north latitude and west of 68 degrees east longitude -- the Gulf of Aden -- the total land areas of Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. For the purpose of this order, the date of the commencing of combatant activities in such zone is hereby designated as January 17, 1991. George Bush(###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Iraqi Mistreatment of POWS

Tutwiler Source: State Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Jan 20, 19911/20/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Kuwait Subject: Military Affairs, POW/MIA Issues [TEXT] The Department of State tonight called in the Iraqi charge to protest the apparent treatment of members of the US Armed Forces and other coalition forces held by the government of Iraq. In a diplomatic note presented to the charge, the United States strongly protested Iraq's apparent treatment of US prisoners of war (POWs) as contrary to the third Geneva Convention of 1949 Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (see pg. 57). The Department of State reminded Iraq that the mistreatment of POWs is a war crime. The United States demanded full Iraqi compliance with the convention and requested immediate access for the International Committee of the Red Cross to any prisoners of war held by Iraq.
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Iraqi Mistreatment of POWS

Tutwiler Source: State Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Jan 21, 19911/21/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq, Kuwait Subject: Military Affairs, POW/MIA Issues [TEXT] Baghdad radio has reported that the government of Iraq intends to locate US and other POWs in Iraq as likely strategic targets of coalition forces. Today, Under Secretary for Political Affairs Robert Kimmitt called in the Iraqi charge to strongly protest such action and to reiterate the protest delivered on January 20 regarding Iraqi treatment of US and other coalition POWs. Under Article 19 of the third Geneva Convention, prisoners of war are to be evacuated as soon as possible after their capture to camps situated in an area away from the combat zone, so that they will be out of danger. Under Article 23 of the third Geneva Convention, no prisoner of war may be sent to, or detained in, areas where he may be exposed to the fire of the combat zone, nor may his presence be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations. Moreover, prisoners of war are to have shelters against air bombardment and other hazards of war to the same extent as the local civilian population. If the government of Iraq places coalition POWs at military targets in Iraq, then Iraqi officials--whether members of the Iraqi armed forces or civilian government personnel--will have committed a war crime. Iraqi individuals who are guilty of authorizing or carrying out war crimes are personally liable and subject to prosecution. A diplomatic note stating the US position was presented by the Under Secretary to the Iraqi charge.
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Iraqi Mistreatment of POWS

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Remarks upon arrival from Camp David, Washington, DC Date: Jan 21, 19911/21/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa, E/C Europe Country: Iraq, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Subject: Military Affairs, POW/MIA Issues [TEXT] Presdient Bush: Let me just say a quick word about the brutal parading of these allied pilots. I was talking to Speaker [of the House Thomas] Foley about this coming down, and it is very clear that this is a direct violation of every convention that protects prisoners. The International Red Cross, I understand, certified to that today. In the first place, this is not going to make a difference in the prosecution of the war against Saddam; it's not going to make a difference. I've said that before. I said that when he brutally held hostages that numbered up into the thousands. And it's not going to make a difference. But I would make the strongest appeal that these people be treated properly; that they be given the treatment that is accorded to them under the international conventions--and they are not being. America is angry about this, and I think the rest of the world is, because this morning I talked to more of our coalition partners. So it is backfiring. If he thought this brutal treatment of pilots is a way to muster world support, he is dead wrong. And I think everybody is upset about it. Speaker [Foley], I won't put words in your mouth, but-- Speaker Foley: I concur absolutely with what the President said. It's a clear violation of the Geneva provisions for the protection of prisoners of war, and it will have very, very strong repercussions, not only throughout the United States, but throughout the world if these violations continue. Q: Mr. President-- A: No, I can't do a press conference. I do want to say something, though, about the Baltic states. I am increasingly concerned. We had a statement on that yesterday. I would again appeal to the Soviet Union leaders to resist using force. And we've heard European countries speaking out on this now, and the world is very much concerned about that as well. Q: --war crimes, sir? Q: Will he be held accountable, Mr. President? Will he be held accountable? A: You can count on it. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Geneva Convention on POWs Treatment

Date: Jan 28, 19911/28/91 Category: Fact Sheets Country: Iraq Subject: POW/MIA Issues [TEXT] Excerpts from Geneva Convention on Treatment of Prisoners of War (POWs) Iraq and the 29 members of the Desert Storm coalition are signatories to the 1949 Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. The following excerpts from that document appear particularly relevant to the status of prisoners of war (POWs) whom Iraq claims to hold. (Emphasis is added.) Article 13 prohibits the public display of POWs:
ARTICLE 13
Prisoners of war must at all times be humanely treated. Any unlawful act or omission by the Detaining Power causing death or seriously endangering the health of a prisoner of war in its custody is prohibited, and will be regarded as a serious breach of the present Convention. In particular, no prisoner of war may be subjected to physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any kind which are not justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the prisoner concerned and carried out in his interest. Likewise, prisoners of war must at all times be protected, particularly against acts of violence or intimidation and against insults and public curiosity. Measures of reprisal against prisoners of war are prohibited. Article 17 establishes strict guidelines on the interrogation of POWs, limiting the amount of information that a prisoner of war must give to his captors:
ARTICLE 17
Every prisoner of war, when questioned on the subject, is bound to give only his surname, first names and rank, date of birth, and army, regimental, personal or serial number, or failing this, equivalent information. If he wilfully infringes this rule, he may render himself liable to a restriction of the privileges accorded to his rank or status. Each Party to a conflict is required to furnish the persons under its jurisdiction who are liable to become prisoners of war, with an identity card showing the owner's surname, first names, rank, army, regimental, personal or serial number or equivalent information, and date of birth. The identity card may, furthermore, bear the signature or the fingerprints, or both, of the owner, and may bear, as well, any other information the Party to the conflict may wish to add concerning persons belonging to its armed forces. As far as possible the card shall measure 6.5 x 10 cm. and shall be issued in duplicate. The identity card shall be shown by the prisoner of war upon demand, but may in no case be taken away from him. No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion, may be inflicted on prisoners of war to secure from them information of any kind whatever. Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted, or exposed to any unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind. Prisoners of war who, owing to their physical or mental condition, are unable to state their identity, shall be handed over to the medical service. The identity of such prisoners shall be established by all possible means, subject to the provisions of the preceding paragraph. The questioning of prisoners of war shall be carried out in a language which they understand. Article 19 requires that POWs be evacuated to areas away from the combat zone:
ARTICLE 19
Prisoners of war shall be evacuated, as soon as possible after their capture, to camps situated in an area far enough from the combat zone for them to be out of danger. Only those prisoners of war who, owing to wounds or sickness, would run greater risks by being evacuated than by remaining where they are, may be temporarily kept back in a danger zone. Prisoners of war shall not be unnecessarily exposed to danger while awaiting evacuation from a fighting zone. Article 22 requires that POWs be held with captive compatriots and be provided with healthy living arrangements:
ARTICLE 22
Prisoners of war may be interned only in premises located on land and affording every guarantee of hygiene and healthfulness. Except in particular cases which are justified by the interest of the prisoners themselves, they shall not be interned in penitentiaries. Prisoners of war interned in unhealthy areas, or where the climate is injurious for them, shall be removed as soon as possible to a more favourable climate. The Detaining Power shall assemble prisoners of war in camps or camp compounds according to their nationality, language and customs, provided that such prisoners shall not be separated from prisoners of war belonging to the armed forces with which they were serving at the time of their capture, except with their consent. Article 23 prohibits POWs from being used as "human shields":
ARTICLE 23
No prisoner of war may at any time be sent to, or detained in areas where he may be exposed to the fire of the combat zone, nor may his presence be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations. Prisoners of war shall have shelters against air bombardment and other hazards of war, to the same extent as the local civilian population. With the exception of those engaged in the protection of their quarters against the aforesaid hazards, they may enter such shelters as soon as possible after the giving of the alarm. Any other protective measure taken in favour of the population shall also apply to them. Detaining Powers shall give the Powers concerned, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers, all useful information regarding the geographical location of prisoner of war camps. Whenever military considerations permit, prisoner of war camps shall be indicated in the day-time by the letters PW or PG, placed so as to be clearly visible from the air. The Powers concerned may, however, agree upon any other system of marking. Only prisoner of war camps shall be marked as such. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Situation in the Baltics

Tutwiler Source: State Department Spokesman Margaret Tutwiler Description: Washington, DC Date: Jan 21, 19911/21/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia, E/C Europe Country: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, USSR (former) Subject: Regional/Civil Unrest, Human Rights, CSCE, EC [TEXT] The United States condemns all intimidation and use of force in the Baltic states and regrets deeply the loss of innocent lives. As the President said yesterday, we urge the Soviet government to act to end its use of force and turn back to seeking a peaceful, political solution of the conflict. We have instructed Ambassador Matlock to follow up in Moscow on the contacts made here in Washington concerning Sunday's events in Riga. Embassy Moscow also is in contact with various Soviet government and republic leaders. In recent days, we have engaged in intensive consultations with our European allies and friends, concerning the situation in the Baltic states. Among member states of CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe], for example, there is nearly universal condemnation of the recent violence in the Baltics. In concert with a number of other states, we plan in the next few days to invoke the human dimension mechanism, in response to what we view as serious violations of the Soviet government's human dimension commitments under various CSCE documents, including the Copenhagen Document and the Charter of Paris adopted last November. The mechanism usually begins with one or more member states formally requesting another member state to explain how its actions conform to its commitments on human and political rights under CSCE. The latter state must respond to the inquiry. The state or states invoking the mechanism may request a bilateral meeting with the other party. They also may bring their inquiry to the attention of other CSCE states and raise their concerns at CSCE meetings related to the human dimension. We also note the decision by the EC [European Community] to postpone this week's scheduled meeting of the EC-USSR Joint Commission. We understand that the EC is reviewing its assistance to the USSR, including the package of measures announced last December. We are undertaking a similar review. As for direct contacts with the Baltic states, our consul general in Leningrad, Richard Miles, visited all three Baltic capitals over the weekend and consulted with each of the Baltic presidents. We are seeking to maintain US government official presence in all three Baltic capitals on a continuous basis. This afternoon Secretary Baker will be meeting with three Baltic leaders: Vice President Kuzmickas of Lithuania, Deputy Prime Minister Ivans of Latvia, and Minister Lippmaa of Estonia. The Secretary will convey this Administration's strong support for the freely and democratically elected governments in the three states and for a peaceful political settlement through dialogue.
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Situation in the Baltics

Baker Source: Secretary Baker Description: Question-and-answer session during a photo opportunity with Latvian, Lithuanian, and Estonian officials, Washington, DC.Washington, DC Date: Jan 22, 19911/22/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia, E/C Europe Country: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, USSR (former) Subject: Regional/Civil Unrest, Human Rights, CSCE, EC [TEXT] Q: You've had a number of meetings on this subject in the last few days. Has the Administration come to a conclusion about how it ought to respond to the way the Soviets have been behaving in the Baltics? A: The United States and Soviet Union have made tremendous progress over the course of the last 2 years in improving the relationship between our two countries, and the events of the last 10 days to 2 weeks or so, I'm afraid to say, could have the effect of putting that progress in jeopardy. We've made known our position to the Soviet Union at a number of levels, including from President Bush to President Gorbachev. I have expressed our concern over the fact that we are deeply disturbed to the new Foreign Minister Bessmertnykh. So, we'll continue to make our views known to the Soviet Union in the hopes that there can be a peaceful resolution to this situation and that the hopes and aspirations of the Baltic peoples to determine their own future can be given effect. We've always said for a long time that the only way to resolve this problem is through some sort of negotiation or some sort of dialogue. Q: What about steps? What about a cutoff, for example, of the very recent and fresh economic benefits that the United States planned for the Soviet Union? A: All of these matters are being reviewed by the United States, as, indeed, I think they are by other countries around the world, including those in Western Europe. Q: But the summit date is only a couple of weeks away. When are you going to make a decision about this, and would you be planning some sort of ministerial with the Foreign Minister? A: As you know, we are engaged right now, have been during the course of the day, in discussions on the strategic arms treaty. [Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Aleksey] Obukhov is in Washington. He has been meeting with [Under Secretary for International Security Affairs Reginald] Bartholomew. I might just say here that with respect to arms control particularly, we think it is important to move that process forward. But with respect to the summit, we will be discussing this internally and as well with the Soviet Union. Q: Some people feel maybe you've been a little preoccupied with the situation in the Gulf and haven't been able to focus fully on the situation in the Baltics. Have you now been able to do that, and- - A: We've been focusing on it. You know, because you've been traveling with me. I think you know what I had to say during the course of our last trip to the Gulf and to Europe. I think that constitutes focusing on this situation.
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Situation in the Baltics

Fitzwater Source: White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater Description: Washington, DC Date: Jan 23, 19911/23/91 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia, E/C Europe Country: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, USSR (former) Subject: Regional/Civil Unrest, Human Rights, CSCE, EC [TEXT] Through a wide array of channels, the United States has sought to make clear to the government of the Soviet Union our condemnation of their intimidation and use of force in the Baltic states. Yesterday, the US ambassador to Moscow, Ambassador Matlock, met with officials of the Soviet Foreign Ministry to reiterate our deep concern about the ongoing situation and to urge the Soviet government to act to end its use of force in the Baltics. We continue to seek a peaceful political solution to the disputes in the Baltic countries. Secretary Baker met yesterday with senior officials from Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to hear firsthand accounts of the situation in their homelands. Also yesterday afternoon, national security advisor Brent Scowcroft met with representatives of the Baltic-American community. The President joined that meeting and spent more than 20 minutes with the group. He stressed our support of the legitimate aspirations of the Baltic people and our hopes that they will be able to determine their own future in a peaceful manner. The President told the Baltic-American leaders that we will continue to press the Soviet leadership to guarantee the rights of the Baltic people. We are supporting the efforts of a variety of international organizations to drive home the point to the Soviets that the legitimate aspirations of the citizens of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia must not be denied. Those meetings all took place yesterday, and we continue to consider this situation in terms of appropriate response. (###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

New American Foreign Policy Volume Released

Description: Washington, DC Date: Jan 28, 18811/28/81 Category: Features Region: Central America, East Asia, Eurasia, E/C Europe Country: United States, Hungary, Poland, Germany, USSR (former), Panama, China Subject: History, Democratization, Trade/Economics, NATO The Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, has released American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1989. This volume presents those official public expressions of policy that best set forth the goals and objectives of United States foreign policy in 1989, the first year of the Bush administration. Major themes covered in the volume are US support for democratic revolution and self-determination, peaceful changes in the communist world, the spread of free enterprise, economic assistance to Poland and Hungary, and the unification of Europe and of Germany. It documents the Baker-Shevardnadze meetings in Moscow and Jackson Hole, and the Bush-Gorbachev summit in Malta. Other topics covered include multilateral discussions on arms control, regional security, and economic and trade policy; the unfolding crisis in Panama; human rights and refugees issues; and efforts to combat terrorism and atmospheric pollution. Significant diplomatic initiatives highlighted in the volume include the Bipartisan Accord on Central America and the Brady plan on Third World debt. Also printed are documents detailing the Paris International conference on Cambodia, the calls for restraint and nonviolence during the student demonstrations in China, NATO's efforts to develop a new security structure, and the reaffirmation of the US commitment to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe process as a forum for East-West cooperation. This 800-page volume, arranged chronologically within 15 geographic and topical chapters, includes a list of documents, editorial annotations, lists of names and abbreviations, and an index. Copies (GPO Stock No. 044-000-02290-7) may be purchased for $35.00 (domestic postpaid) from the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402- 9325. Telephone: (202) 783-3238.(###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Brief History of the State Department--The Early Years

Date: Jan 28, 19911/28/91 Category: Features Region: North America Country: United States Subject: History, State Department [TEXT] Following is the first of many monthly features on the history and functions of the State Department. This edition on the early years of the Department was prepared by the Offices of the Historian and of Public Communication. The Constitution of the United States, drafted in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787 and ratified by the states the following year, gave the President responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations but did not create a foreign ministry. It soon became clear, however, that executive departments would be necessary to support President George Washington in the conduct of federal affairs. Congress approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, and President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal office to be created under the new Constitution. Congress soon decided that there was no need for a separate department for domestic affairs, and, on September 15, 1789, combined domestic and foreign affairs into a single "Department of State." President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson in September 1789 to be the first Secretary of State (see p. 61). Jefferson defined the Department's mission as embracing "the whole domestic administration (war and finance excepted)." Indeed, the original Department of State mandate was exceedingly broad. It was responsible for managing the mint, issuing patents, administering the census, and maintaining the fledgling Library of Congress. Despite its wide-ranging duties, the Department had a staff of eight and an annual operating budget of less than $8,000 per year. In its early years, the Department of State was led by the greatest leaders of the republic: Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, and John Quincy Adams, each of whom also would serve as president. During the first half of the 19th century, the Department of State and its Secretaries played an important role in defining the continental border of the United States through a series of agreements with neighboring states and European powers. Because the young nation was wary of foreign involvement, diplomatic activity was confined to the protection of American trade--and traders--abroad. Although the Secretary of State continued to be the preeminent member of the President's cabinet, Presidents from Andrew Jackson to James Buchanan made important foreign affairs decisions themselves. The Department of State changed little during these years. John Quincy Adams was the first Secretary to introduce basic organizational and management practices in 1818 so that the small agency could handle its slowly expanding responsibilities. In 1833, Secretary Louis McLane carried out the first general reorganization of the Department, the most important aspect of which was the establishment of bureaus, including the Diplomatic, Consular, and Home Bureaus. The number of employees grew to 23 in 1830 and to 42 in 1860. State Department leadership during its early years was in the hands of several remarkable veteran employees, serving in the number two position as Chief Clerk, who provided essential experience and continuity. David Brent, who served the Department from 1808-33, was appointed by John Quincy Adams as the first Chief Clerk, and William S. Derrick held the post for much of the period between 1841 and 1852. During that time he was Acting Secretary on 12 occasions. One of the most colorful Chief Clerks was Nicholas Trist who followed Gen. Winfield Scott's army to Mexico in 1848. Engaging in on-site diplomacy, Trist managed to negotiate a peace treaty, despite efforts to recall him. America's diplomatic service expanded slowly during the late 18th and early 19th centuries when the nation was adamantly opposed to extensive diplomatic contacts with European nations. In 1790, the United States sent minister plenipotentiaries to only two countries--Great Britain and France. By 1830, the number grew to 15; by 1860 to 33. The consular service, however, grew steadily. Consuls, commercial agents, and consular agents protected American ships and crews abroad and promoted the expansion of American commerce. American consular posts increased from 10 in 1790 to 253 in 1860.
Milestones of American Diplomacy
1795: Jay's Treaty required Great Britain to remove troops from northwestern frontier; Pinckney's Treaty with Spain opened mouth of Mississippi River to US navigation. 1801: Jefferson, in his first inaugural address summarized US policy as "peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none." 1803: Louisiana Purchase (from France) removed foreign control of the Mississippi's mouth and doubled US territory. 1814: Treaty of Ghent ending the War of 1812 provided the means to settle the remaining territorial disputes with Great Britain. 1819: Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain transferred Florida and extended the US to its present boundaries in the southeast. 1823: Monroe Doctrine established US policy of opposing European intervention or new colonization in the Western Hemisphere. 1842: Webster-Ashburton Treaty with Great Britain delimited northeastern US (Maine) boundary. 1846: Oregon Treaty with Great Britain extended US sole dominion to the Pacific. 1848: Treaty of Guadelupe-Hidalgo, ending the 1846-48 war with Mexico, confirmed US claim to Texas and completed US expansion to the Pacific. Secretaries of State: 1789-1860 Thomas Jefferson: (1790-93) Edmund Randolph: (1794-95) Thomas Pickering : (1795-1800) John Marshall: (1800-01) James Madison: (1801-09) Robert Smith: (1809-11) James Monroe : (1811-17) John Quincy Adams: (1817-25) Henry Clay: (1825-29) Martin Van Buren: (1829-31) Edward Livingston: (1831-33) Louis McLane: (1833-34) John Forsyth: (1834-41) Daniel Webster: (1841-43) Abel Parker Upshur: (1843-44) John Caldwell Calhoun: (1844-45) James Buchanan : (1845-49) John Middleton Clayton: (1849-50) Daniel Webster: (1850-52) Edward Everett: (1852-53) William Learned Marcy: (1853-57) Lewis Cass: (1857-60) Jeremiah Sullivan Black: (1860-61)(###)
US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 2, No 4, January 28, 1991 Title:

Focus on Central and Eastern Europe

Date: Jan 28, 19911/28/91 Category: Focus on Emerging Democracies Region: E/C Europe Country: Hungary, Czechoslovakia (former), Poland, USSR (former) Subject: Trade/Economics, Development/Relief Aid, International Law
ABA Law Workshops
The American Bar Association (ABA) responded to the immediate legal priorities of the new democracies of Central and Eastern Europe by creating the Central and East European Law Initiative (CEELI). The ABA hopes that CEELI will foster a commitment to a political and economic culture that is based on the rule of law. CEELI's Executive Board members are Homer E. Moyer, Jr., Chairman, L. Stanley Chauvin, Lloyd Cutler, Max Kampelman, and Justice Sandra Day O'Connor. CEELI conducted its first regional technical-assistance workshop in Prague, Czechoslovakia, November 12-17, 1990, focusing on criminal-law revision, which resulted in a request by the Czechoslovak government for follow-up consultations on the role of the defense counsel in criminal proceedings and judicial restructuring. Those consultations will be held soon. A CEELI delegation assisted the Constitutional Drafting Committee of the Romanian Parliament during a symposium on constitutional reform held in Romania November 19-23, 1990. CEELI expects to provide additional assistance to the Romanian Parliament in 1991. CEELI will send a delegation to Bulgaria during the week of January 28 to discuss that country's judicial restructuring. A CEELI workshop on the independence of the judiciary will be held in Yugoslavia February 4-8. CEELI also is providing the Yugoslav government with memoranda on issues concerning federal- state government relations. A CEELI workshop on constitutional reform will be held in Bulgaria February 17-21 and will address issues such as the structure and powers of government bodies, both regional and central, individual rights of citizens in a democratic society, and the independence of the judiciary. CEELI and the World Bank are drafting a paper on the legal framework required for private-sector development in Central and Eastern Europe. The paper will incorporate law firm summaries and analyses of recent legislation in the Central and East European region. Eight Czechoslovak lawyers will arrive in the United States in March for 6-month internships with US law firms, law schools, corporations, judges, and government agencies. The program is administered by the ABA Section on Individual Rights and Responsibilities and is funded in part by a grant from the International Association of Trial Lawyers Foundation. CEELI also has organized working groups to structure legal- assistance projects in the areas of privatization, environmental law, and health law. CEELI also is working on a sister law-school program. Meetings with several of the interested US law schools are scheduled for January. For more information about CEELI or any of its programs, contact Mark Ellis, Executive Director, The Central and East European Law Initiative, American Bar Association, 1800 M Street, NW, Suite 450, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: 202-331-2619. Fax: 202-457-1163.
Financial Services Volunteer Corps (FSVC)
The FSVC is a new program of the Department of State/Agency for International Development (AID) that applies the talent and experience of financial-sector professionals to promote the growth of the private sector and market-oriented economies in Central and East European countries. It was created in response to President Bush's call for volunteerism and comprises professionals from investment and commercial banks and law and accounting firms who provide their services on a voluntary basis. Team assignments are for 1-2 weeks overseas, with some follow-up evaluation from the volunteer's home office. The FSVC's Steering Committee is co- chaired by former Secretary of State Cyrus Vance and former Deputy Secretary of State John Whitehead. The Executive Director is Herbert Okun, former Ambassador to the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Led by Messrs. Vance and Okun, the FSVC conducted a 7-day mission to Yugoslavia December 14-20, 1990. Previous FSVC delegations went to Hungary and Poland, where ongoing programs are being developed. Future delegations will go to Czechoslovakia and possibly other countries. The FSVC expects to use specialists and executives in the following areas: -- Privatization; -- Financial and valuation analysis; -- Corporation law; -- Auditing and accounting; -- Corporate finance; -- Employee stock-option plans; -- Debt/equity swaps; -- Securities markets and law; -- Capital-market development; -- Exchange administration and regulation; -- Brokerage/sales and trading; -- Exchange-market makers; -- Bank regulation; -- Banking operations; -- Commercial lending; -- Credit-guarantee facilities; -- Foreign exchange; and -- Municipal/government bonds. To volunteer or to get additional information, call FSVC Executive Director Herbert Okun at 212-455-3550.
Soviet and Eastern European Research and Training Act
The Soviet and Eastern European Research and Training Act of 1983, also known as Title VIII, seeks to strengthen US expertise on the Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe by targeting graduate and language training; advanced research; public dissemination of research data, methods, and findings; means for contact and collaboration among government and private specialists; and firsthand experience of the area by US specialists. Title VIII's funds are used only for advanced graduate students and scholars who have made a professional commitment to the field. Over the past 6 years, Congress appropriated about $4.6 million annually to the Department of State for Title VIII. For fiscal year (FY) 1991, it appropriated $10 million. The increase, despite tight budgetary times, reflects the belief that the United States needs to keep apace of current events in the region. Each year, the Department of State publishes in the Federal Register a call for applications from national organizations that conduct research and training programs concerned with Soviet and East European studies. These organizations hold their own open, national competitions and make awards. This two-tier award process is regarded as a model for federal support of academic programs. Since the FY 1991 call for applications appeared in the Federal Register in June 1990, well before the federal budget process was completed, the Department of State is conducting a second competition this year to award the $3 million that remains of the $10-million appropriation. The supplemental call for applications appeared in the Federal Register on December 20, 1990, with a deadline of February 15, 1991. A comprehensive overview of the Title VIII program from 1985-1990 and copies of the supplemental FY 1991 call for applications can be obtained from the Soviet-Eastern European Studies Advisory Committee, Office of Research, US Department of State, 1730 K Street NW, Suite 233, Washington, DC 20006. Telephone: 202-632-6081.
Emergency Energy Efficiency Program
A US AID team returned from Central and Eastern Europe in late December after surveying the emergency energy efficiency requirements of the region. They identified quick-start projects such as refinery upgrades and boiler tuning that will make noticeable differences in energy efficiency in the near term. The team will obligate the $10 million allocated for this purpose in January and begin work immediately.
Humphrey Program Expands
The Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship Program has expanded its activities into Central and Eastern Europe. The 1990 program, which officially began with a November 3-10 workshop in Washington, DC, for the first time included participants from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. As part of the Fulbright Exchange Program, the Humphrey program is sponsored by the US Information Agency (USIA). Humphrey fellows spend a year in US universities studying subjects such as administrative planning, resource management, public health, and agriculture. They then gain hands-on professional experience in US government or private- sector organizations through internships.
Czechoslovakia
$1.8 billion in IMF Financing. On January 7, a spokesman for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced a $1.8-billion 14- month program for Czechoslovakia. The program will support Czechoslovakia's economic liberalization and transition to a market economy. The IMF's approval of the program for Czechoslovakia will make loans possible from other international financial institutions, such as the World Bank. Czechoslovakia's economic program, worked out with IMF help, includes removing price controls from 85% of goods sold, closing inefficient state-owned enterprises, establishing commercial banks, and making the currency (the koruna or crown) partially convertible. Hungary and Poland, older members of the IMF, have already qualified for both IMF and World Bank loans. Bulgaria, which joined the IMF at the same time as Czechoslovakia (September 1990), is still negotiating its first program.
Westinghouse To Build Nuclear Plants.
The Czechoslovak government picked Westinghouse Electric Corporation to work with its state agency Skoda to complete two partly finished nuclear plants, to build two others, to modernize existing fossil-fuel power plants, and to build all future such plants.
US Pavilion at Prague Exhibition.
EcoVystava, an unprecedented exhibition of environmental technologies planned for May 1991 in Prague, will offer US industry a unique opportunity to introduce environmental protection products and services to the markets of Central and Eastern Europe. EcoVystava will serve as the US pavilion during the opening weeks of the Universal Czechoslovak Exhibition, a major industrial trade show. More than 6 million visitors from all over Europe are expected to attend. A cooperative venture by the Czechoslovak and US governments, along with private industry, EcoVystava is organized to open business ties that can address two of Central and Eastern Europe's pressing needs--economic modernization and environmental protection. At the US pavilion, EcoVystava will consist of two side-by- side exhibitions--one by USIA and the other by US industry. EcoVystava also has the support of the US Department of Commerce, which has given it the department's official "trade fair certification." The Czechoslovak government has shown its interest and commitment to this trade show by forming a coordinating council of ministers and senior officials from 10 ministries to assist in the planning. The council, chaired by Josef Vavrousek, the federal minister of environment, has identified and ranked the environmental needs of the Czech and Slovak economies. The preliminary report of the council includes more than 60 environment-related products, services, and investment opportunities, from all economic sectors. Among the categories are: -- Energy efficiency and conservation, including natural gas production, fluidized-bed technologies, cogeneration, and renewable energy technologies; -- Technologies and strategies to limit NOx, SO2, and chlorofluorocarbon emissions; -- Solid-waste management; -- Incineration technologies for hazardous substances; and -- Monitoring equipment, such as computer technology, mobile devices, and recording equipment for measuring and controlling harmful substances. Under EcoVystava's business-development program, participants can take part in "matchmaker" meetings set up by a US Department of Commerce trade mission with Czech and Slovak business and government leaders who will be making policy, investment, and equipment-purchasing decisions in Czechoslovakia and other Central and East European countries. The program will include on-site meetings throughout Czechoslovakia at the most important industrial and agricultural sites and power-generating facilities. For more information, contact Bud Grebey or Charles Miller, Conway ∧ Company, 1201 New York Avenue, NW, Suite 850, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: 202-289-0800.
Hungary
1991 Budget. The government submitted its 1991 budget bill to parliament in November, projecting a deficit of 78 billion forints ($1.3 billion). The IMF demands a deficit ceiling of 50 billion forints. The Hungarian government estimates that GDP will decline 3% in 1991 despite the fiscal stimulus, and that the current account deficit will jump to $1.2 billion from $200 million in 1990. Cultural Agreement Signed. During ceremonies in the headquarters of USIA on December 6, Peter Zwack, Hungary's ambassador to the United States, and Bruce Gelb, USIA Director, signed an agreement that will broaden exchanges of students, teachers, and scholars between the two countries. The agreement also formally establishes a Hungarian-American Fulbright Commission.
Poland
Polish-US Economic Council. The 10th annual plenary session of the Polish-US Economic Council met in Warsaw and Krakow, Poland, January 16-19. The 16-year-old organization's principal objectives are to encourage and facilitate trade and investment between Poland and the United States and to promote the development of the private sector and a market economy in Poland. The council operates under the administrative aegis of the US Chamber of Commerce but is autonomous in matters of policy. For information about the organization, call 202-463-5473. Fax: 202-463-3114.
Business-Higher Education Forum Plans.
The Business-Higher Education Forum's Coalition for Democracy and Enterprise sent a 12-member delegation to Warsaw for a November 28-29 series of workshops, round-tables, and discussions with Polish government, industry, academic, and labor officials. Based on those sessions and other planning, the coalition is considering a project of technical assistance focused on three inter-related areas: management training, business incubators, and technology transfer. This project can be adapted to other countries such as Czechoslovakia and Hungary, if enough interest and resources are available. For additional information, call Forum Director Don Blandin at 202-939-9345.
Polish Officials Examine US Local Government
. Under a grant from USIA's Office of Citizen Exchanges, nine Polish local government officials embarked January 2 on a 2-week study tour of local government in the United States. Sponsored by the National Conference of State Legislatures, the tour includes workshops in Chicago, Denver, and Washington, DC.
Economic Update.
The Polish government raised the discount rate to an annual 55% to counter rising inflation, which hit 5.7% for October. Unemployment was 8.1% at the end of November. Poles formed long lines at banks to buy shares in the first five state firms to be privatized.
Radio/TV
. Polish Radio/TV now tunes in to USIA's "Worldnet" and Voice of America feeds, including USIA-TV's new 5- days-a-week special program for Central and East European broadcasters. (###)