US Department of State Dispatch Supplement VOL. 2, NO 2, May 1991

Title:

CSCE Vienna Document: 1990

Date: Nov 17, 199011/17/90 Category: Treaties/Agreements Region: Europe, E/C Europe Country: Germany, United States, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Spain, France, United Kingdom, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Czechoslovakia (former), Turkey, USSR (former) Subject: International Law, Arms Control, Security Assistance and Sales [TEXT]

[Introduction]

Document of the negotiations on confidence- and security-building measures convened in accordance with the relevant provisions of the concluding document of the November 1990 Vienna meeting of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe. (1) The representatives of the participating States of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE), Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, the Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Yugoslavia, met in Vienna from 9 March 1989, in accordance with the provisions relating to the Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe contained in the Concluding Documents of the Madrid and Vienna Follow-up Meetings of the CSCE. (2) The participating States recalled that the aim of the Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe is, as a substantial and integral part of the multilateral process initiated by the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, to undertake, in stages, new, effective and concrete actions designed to make progress in strengthening confidence and security and in achieving disarmament, so as to give effect and expression to the duty of States to refrain from the threat or use of force in their mutual relations as well as in their international relations in general. (3) Opening statements were made by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and other Heads of Delegation. (4) From 16 January to 5 February 1990, the participating States held discussions in a seminar setting on military doctrine in relation to the posture, structure and activities of conventional forces in the zone of application for confidence- and security- building measures.* Encouraged by the course of these discussions, the participating States decided to hold a second seminar on military doctrine in the spring of 1991 in Vienna. * Annex 1 (5) The participating States have adopted the present document which integrates a set of new confidence- and security- building measures with measures adopted in the Document of the Stockholm Conference which have been further developed in the light of experience gained. (6) The participating States recognised that the mutually complementary confidence- and security-building measures which are adopted in the present document and which are in accordance with the mandates of the Madrid and Vienna Follow-up Meetings of the CSCE serve by their scope and nature and by their implementation to strengthen confidence and security in Europe. (7) The participating States also recognised that the negotiations will continue in accordance with the mandates of the Madrid and Vienna Follow-up Meetings of the CSCE in order to further build upon and expand the results already achieved and that proposals which have been submitted remain subject to further negotiations. (8) The participating States recalled the declaration on Refraining from the Threat or Use of Force contained in paragraphs (9) to (27) of the Document of the Stockholm Conference and stressed its continuing validity as seen in the light of the Charter of Paris for a New Europe. (9) The participating States have adopted the following:

I. ANNUAL EXCHANGE OF MILITARY INFORMATION

Information on Military Forces
(10) The participating States will exchange annually information on their military forces concerning the military organization, manpower and major weapon and equipment systems, as specified below, in the zone of application for confidence- and security- building measures (CSBMs). (11) The information will be provided in an agreed format to all other participating States not later than 15 December of each year. It will be valid as of 1 January of the following year and will include: (11.1) 1. Information on the command organisation of those military forces referred to under points 2 and 3 specifying the designation and subordination of all formations** and units*** at each level of command down to and including brigade/regiment or equivalent level. (11.2) 2. For each formation and combat unit**** of land forces down to and including brigade/regiment or equivalent level the information will indicate: (11.2.1) --the designation and subordination; (11.2.2) --whether it is active or non-active*****; * In this context, formations are armies, corps and divisions and their equivalents. *** In this context, units are brigades, regiments and their equivalents. **** In this context, combat units are infantry, armoured, mechanised, motorised rifle, artillery, combat engineer and army aviation units. Those combat units which are airmobile or airborne will also be included. ***** In this context, non-active formations or combat units are those manned from zero to fifteen per cent of their authorised combat strength. This term includes low strength formations and units. (11.2.3) --the normal peacetime location of its headquarters indicated by exact geographic terms and/or co-ordinates; (11.2.4) --the peacetime authorised personnel strength; (11.2.5) --the major organic weapon and equipment systems, specifying the numbers of each type of: (11.2.5.1) --battle tanks; (11.2.5.2) --helicopters; (11.2.5.3) --armoured combat vehicles; (11.2.5.4) --anti-tank guided missile launchers permanently/integrally mounted on armoured vehicles; (11.2.5.5) --self-propelled and towed artillery pieces, mortars and multiple rocket launchers (100 mm calibre and above); (11.2.5.6) --armoured vehicle launched bridges. (11.3) For each amphibious formation and amphibious combat unit* permanently located in the zone of application down to and including brigade/regiment or equivalent level, the information will include the items as set out above. (11.4) 3. For each air formation and air combat unit** of the air forces, air defence aviation and of naval aviation permanently based on land down to and including wing/air regiment or equivalent level the information will include: * Combat unit as defined above. ** In this context, air combat units are units, the majority of whose organic aircraft are combat aircraft. *** As an exception, this information need not be provided on air defence aviation units. (11.4.1) --the designation and subordination; (11.4.2) --the normal peacetime location of the headquarters indicated by exact geographic terms and/or co-ordinates; (11.4.3) --the normal peacetime location of the unit indicated by the air base or military airfield on which the unit is based, specifying: (11.4.3.1) --the designation or, if applicable, name of the air base or military airfield and (11.4.3.2) --its location indicated by exact geographic terms and/or co-ordinates; (11.4.4) --the peacetime authorised personnel strength***; (11.4.5) --the numbers of each type of: (11.4.5.1) --combat aircraft; (11.4.5.2) --helicopters organic to the formation or unit. *** As an exception, this information need not be provided on air defense aviation units.
Information on Plans for the Deployment of Major Weapons and Equipment Systems
(12) The participating States will exchange annually information on their plans for the deployment of major weapon and equipment systems as specified in the provisions on Information on Military Forces within the zone of application for CSBMs. (13) The information will be provided in an agreed format to all other participating States not later than 15 December of each year. It will cover plans for the following year and will include: (13.1) --the type and name of the weapon/equipment systems to be deployed; (13.2) --the total number of each weapon/equipment system; (13.3) --whenever possible, the number of each weapon/equipment system planned to be allocated to each formation or unit; (13.4) --the extent to which the deployment will add to or replace existing weapon/equipment systems.
Information on Military Budgets
(14) The participating States will exchange annually information on their military budgets for the forthcoming fiscal year, itemising defence expenditures on the basis of the categories set out in the United Nations "Instrument for Standardised International Reporting of Military Expenditures" adopted on 12 December 1980. (15) The information will be provided to all other participating States not later than two months after the military budget has been approved by the competent national authorities. (16) Each participating State may ask for clarification from any other participating State of the budgetary information provided. Questions should be submitted within a period of two months following the receipt of a participating State's budgetary information. Participating States will make every effort to answer such questions fully and promptly. The questions and replies may be transmitted to all other participating States.

II. RISK REDUCTION

Mechanism for Consultation and Co-operation as Regards Unusual Military Activities (17) Participating States will, in accordance with the following provisions, consult and co-operate with each other about any unusual and unscheduled activities of their military forces outside their normal peacetime locations which are militarily significant, within the zone of application for CSBMs and about which a participating State expresses its security concern. (17.1) The participating State which has concerns about such an activity may transmit a request for an explanation to another participating State where the activity is taking place. (17.1.1) The request will state the cause, or causes, of the concern and, to the extent possible, the type and location, or area, of the activity. (17.1.2) The reply will be transmitted within not more than 48 hours. (17.1.3) The reply will give answers to questions raised, as well as any other relevant information which might help to clarify the activity giving rise to concern. (17.1.4) The request and the reply will be transmitted to all other participating States without delay. (17.2) The requesting State, after considering the reply provided, may then request a meeting to discuss the matter. (17.2.1) The requesting State may ask for a meeting with the responding State. (17.2.1.1) Such a meeting will be convened within not more than 48 hours. (17.2.1.2) The request for such a meeting will be transmitted to all participating States without delay. (17.2.1.3) The responding State is entitled to ask other interested participating States, in particular those which might be involved in the activity, to participate in the meeting. (17.2.1.4) Such a meeting will be held at a venue to be mutually agreed upon by the requesting and the responding States. If there is no agreement, the meeting will be held at the Conflict Prevention Centre. (17.2.1.5) The requesting and responding States will, jointly or separately, transmit a report of the meeting to all other participating States without delay. (17.2.2) The requesting State may ask for a meeting of all participating States. (17.2.2.1) Such a meeting will be convened within not more than 48 hours. (17.2.2.2) The Conflict Prevention Centre will serve as the forum for such a meeting. (17.2.2.3) Participating States involved in the matter to be discussed undertake to be represented at such a meeting. (17.3) The communications between participating States provided for above will be transmitted preferably through the CSBM communications network.
Co-operation as Regards Hazardous Incidents of a Military Nature
(18) Participating States will co-operate by reporting and clarifying hazardous incidents of a military nature within the zone of application for CSBMs in order to prevent possible misunderstandings and mitigate the effects on another participating State. (18.1) Each participating State will designate a point to contact in case of such hazardous incidents and will so inform all other participating States. A list of such points will be kept available at the Conflict Prevention Centre. (18.2) In the event of such a hazardous incident the participating State whose military forces are involved in the incident should provide the information available to other participating States in an expeditious manner. Any participating State affected by such an incident may also request clarification as appropriate. Such requests will receive a prompt response. (18.3) Communications between participating States will be transmitted preferably through the CSBM communications network. (18.4) Matters relating to information about such hazardous incidents may be discussed by participating States at the Conflict Prevention Centre, either at the annual implementation assessment meeting at the Centre, or at additional meetings convened there. (18.5) These provisions will not affect the rights and obligations of participating States under any international agreement concerning hazardous incidents, nor will they preclude additional methods of reporting and clarifying hazardous incidents.

III. CONTACTS

Visits to Air Bases
(19) Each participating State with air combat units reported under paragraph (11) will arrange visits for representatives of all other participating States to one of its normal peacetime air bases* on which such units are located in order to provide the visitors with the opportunity to view activity at the air base, including preparations to carry out the functions of the air base and to gain an impression of the approximate number of air sorties and type of missions being flown. * In this context, the term normal peacetime air base is understood to mean the normal peacetime location of the air combat unit indicated by the air base or military airfield on which the unit is based. (20) No participating State will be obliged to arrange more than one such visit in any five-year period. (21) Prior indications given by participating States of forthcoming schedules for such visits for the subsequent year(s) may be discussed at the annual implementation assessment meetings. (22) As a rule, up to two visitors from each participating State will be invited. (23) Invitations will be extended to all participating States 42 days or more in advance of the visit. The invitation will indicate a preliminary programme, including: place, date and time of assembly; planned duration; languages to be used; arrangements for board, lodging and transportation; equipment permitted to be used during the visit; and any other information that may be considered useful. (24) When the air base to be visited is located on the territory of another participating State, the invitations will be issued by the participating State on whose territory the air base is located. In such cases, the responsibilities as host delegated by this State to the participating State arranging the visit will be specified in the invitation. (25) Replies to the invitation, indicating the names and ranks of the visitors, will be given not later than 21 days after the issue of the invitation. If the invitation is not accepted in time, it will be assumed that no visitors will be sent. (26) The visit to the air base will last for a minimum of 24 hours. (27) In the course of the visit, the visitors will be given a briefing on the purpose and functions of the air base and on current activity at the air base. They will have the opportunity to communicate with commanders and troops, including those of support/logistic units located at the air base. (28) The visitors will be provided with the opportunity to view all types of aircraft located at the air base. (29) At the close of the visit, the host State will provide an opportunity for the visitors to meet together and with host State officials and senior air base personnel to discuss the course of the visit. (30) The host State will determine the programme for the visit and access granted to visitors at the air base. (31) The visitors will follow the instructions issued by the host State in accordance with the provisions set out in this document. (32) The visitors will be provided with appropriate accommodation in a location suitable for carrying out the visit. (33) The invited State will cover the travel expenses of its representatives to and from the place of assembly specified in the invitation. (34) Participating States should, in due co-operation with the visitors, ensure that no action is taken which could be harmful to the safety of visitors.
Military Contacts
(35) To improve further their mutual relations in the interest of strengthening the process of confidence and security building, the participating States will, as appropriate, promote and facilitate: (35.1) --exchanges and visits between senior military/defence representatives; (35.2) --contacts between relevant military institutions; (35.3) --attendance by military representatives of other participating States at courses of instruction; (35.4) --exchanges between military commanders and officers of commands down to brigade/ regiment or equivalent level; (35.5) --exchanges and contacts between academics and experts in military studies and related areas; (35.6) --sporting and cultural events between members of their armed forces.

IV. PRIOR NOTIFICATION OF CERTAIN MILITARY ACTIVITIES

(36) The participating States will give notification in writing through diplomatic channels in an agreed form of content, to all other participating States 42 days or more in advance of the start of notifiable* military activities in the zone of application for confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs). (37) Notification will be given by the participating State on whose territory the activity in question is planned to take place even if the forces of that State are not engaged in the activity or their strength is below the notifiable level. This will not relieve other participating States of their obligation to give notification, if their involvement in the planned military activity reaches the notifiable level. (38) Each of the following military activities in the field conducted as a single activity in the zone of application for CSBMs at or above the levels defined below, will be notified: (38.1) The engagement of formations of land forces** of the participating States in the same exercise activity conducted under a single operational command independently or in combination with any possible air or naval components. * In this document, the term notifiable means subject to notification. ** In this context, the term land forces includes amphibious, airmobile and airborne forces. (38.1.1) This military activity will be subject to notification whenever it involves at any time during the activity: --at least 13,000 troops, including support troops, or --at least 300 battle tanks if organized into a divisional structure or at least two brigades/regiments, not necessarily subordinate to the same division. (38.1.2) The participation of air forces of the participating States will be included in the notification if it is foreseen that in the course of the activity 200 or more sorties by aircraft, excluding helicopters, will be flown. (38.2) The engagement of military forces either in an amphibious landing or in a parachute assault by airborne forces in the zone of application for CSBMs. (38.2.1) These military activities will be subject to notification whenever the amphibious landing involves at least 3,000 troops or whenever the parachute drop involves at least 3,000 troops. (38.3) The engagement of formations of land forces of the participating States in a transfer from outside the zone of application for CSBMs to arrival points in the zone, or from inside the zone of application for CSBMs to points of concentration in the zone, to participate in a notifiable exercise activity or to be concentrated. (38.3.1) The arrival or concentration of these forces will be subject to notification whenever it involves, at any time during the activity: --at least 13,000 troops, including support troops, or --at least 300 battle tanks if organized into a divisional structure or at least two brigades/regiments, not necessarily subordinate to the same division. (38.3.2) Forces which have been transferred into the zone will be subject to all provisions of agreed CSBMs when they depart their arrival points to participate in a notifiable exercise activity or to be concentrated within the zone of application for CSBMs. (39) Notifiable military activities carried out without advance notice to the troops involved, are exceptions to the requirement for prior notification to be made 42 days in advance. (39.1) Notification of such activities, above the agreed thresholds, will be given at the time the troops involved commence such activities. (40) Notification will be given in writing of each notifiable military activity in the following agreed form: (41) A--General information (41.1) The designation of the military activity; (41.2) The general purpose of the military activity; (41.3) The names of the States involved in the military activity; (41.4) The level of command, organizing and commanding the military activity; (41.5) The start and end dates of the military activity. (42) B--Information on different types of notifiable military activities (42.1) The engagement of formations of land forces of the participating States in the same exercise activity conducted under a single operational command independently or in combination with any possible air or naval components: (42.1.1) The total number of troops taking part in the military activity (i.e. ground troops, amphibious troops, airmobile and airborne troops) and the number of troops participating for each State involved, if applicable; (42.1.2) The designation, subordination, number and type of formations and units participating for each State down to and including brigade/regiment or equivalent level; (42.1.3) The total number of battle tanks for each State and the total number of anti-tank guided missile launchers mounted on armoured vehicles; (42.1.4) The total number of artillery pieces and multiple rocket launchers (100 mm calibre or above); (42.1.5) The total number of helicopters, by category; (42.1.6) Envisaged number of sorties by aircraft, excluding helicopters; (42.1.7) Purpose of air missions; (42.1.8) Categories of aircraft involved; (42.1.9) The level of command, organizing and commanding the air force participation; (42.1.10) Naval ship-to-shore gunfire; (42.1.11) Indication of other naval ship-to-shore support; (42.1.12) The level of command, organizing and commanding the naval force participation. (42.2) The engagement of military forces either in an amphibious landing or in a parachute assault by airborne forces in the zone of application for CSBMs: (42.2.1) The total number of amphibious troops involved in notifiable amphibious landings, and/or the total number of airborne troops involved in notifiable parachute assaults; (42.2.2) In the case of a notifiable amphibious landing, the point or points of embarkation, if in the zone of application for CSBMs. (42.3) The engagement of formations of land forces of the participating States in a transfer from outside the zone of application for CSBMs to arrival points in the zone, or from inside the zone of application for CSBMs to points of concentration in the zone, to participate in a notifiable exercise activity or to be concentrated: (42.3.1) The total number of troops transferred; (42.3.2) Number and type of divisions participating in the transfer; (42.3.3) The total number of battle tanks participating in a notifiable arrival or concentration; (42.3.4) Geographical co-ordinates for the points of arrival and for the points of concentration. (43) C--The envisaged area and timeframe of the activity (43.1) The area of the military activity delimited by geographic features together with geographic co-ordinates, as appropriate; (43.2) The start and end dates of each phase (transfers, deployment, concentration of forces, active exercise phase, recovery phase) of activities in the zone of application for CSBMs of participating formations, the tactical purpose and corresponding geographical areas (delimited by geographical co-ordinates) for each phase; (43.3) Brief description of each phase. (44) D--Other information (44.1) Changes, if any, in relation to information provided in the annual calendar regarding the activity; (44.2) Relationship of the activity to other notifiable activities.

V. OBSERVATION OF CERTAIN MILITARY ACTIVITIES

(45) The participating States will invite observers from all other participating States to the following notifiable military activities: (45.1) --The engagement of formations of land forces* of the participating States in the same exercise activity conducted under a single operational command independently or in combination with any possible air or naval components. * In this context, the term land forces includes amphibious, airmobile and airborne forces. (45.2) --The engagement of military forces either in an amphibious landing or in a parachute assault by airborne forces in the zone of application for CSBMs. (45.3) --In the case of the engagement of formations of land forces of the participating States in a transfer from outside the zone of application for CSBMs to arrival points in the zone, or from inside the zone of application for CSBMs to points of concentration in the zone, to participate in a notifiable exercise activity or to be concentrated, the concentration of these forces. Forces which have been transferred into the zone will be subject to all provisions of agreed confidence- and security-building measures when they depart their arrival points to participate in a notifiable exercise activity or to be concentrated within the zone of application for CSBMs. (45.4) The above-mentioned activities will be subject to observation whenever the number of troops engaged meets or exceeds 17,000 troops, except in the case of either an amphibious landing or a parachute assault by airborne forces, which will be subject to observation whenever the number of troops engaged meets or exceeds 5,000 troops. (46) The host State will extend the invitations in writing through diplomatic channels to all other participating States at the time of notification. The host State will be the participating State on whose territory the notified activity will take place. (47) The host State may delegate some of its responsibilities as host to another participating State engaged in the military activity on the territory of the host State. In such cases, the host State will specify the allocation of responsibilities in its invitation to observe the activity. (48) Each participating State may send up to two observers to the military activity to be observed. (49) The invited State may decide whether to send military and/or civilian observers, including members of its personnel accredited to the host State. Military observers will, normally, wear their uniforms and insignia while performing their tasks. (50) Replies to the invitation will be given in writing not later than 21 days after the issue of the invitation. (51) The participating States accepting an invitation will provide the names and ranks of their observers in their reply to the invitation. If the invitation is not accepted in time, it will be assumed that no observers will be sent. (52) Together with the invitation the host State will provide a general observation programme, including the following information: (52.1) --the date, time and place of assembly of observers; (52.2) --planned duration of the observation programme; (52.3) --languages to be used in interpretation and/or translation; (52.4) --arrangements for board, lodging and transportation of the observers; (52.5) --arrangements for observation equipment which will be issued to the observers by the host State; (52.6) --possible authorization by the host State of the use of special equipment that the observers may bring with them; (52.7) --arrangements for special clothing to be issued to the observers because of weather or environmental factors. (53) The observers may make requests with regard to the observation programme. The host State will, if possible, accede to them. (54) The host State will determine a duration of observation which permits the observers to observe a notifiable military activity from the time that agreed thresholds for observation are met or exceeded until, for the last time during the activity, the thresholds for observation are no longer met. (55) The host State will provide the observers with transportation to the area of the notified activity and back. This transportation will be provided from either the capital or another suitable location to be announced in the invitation, so that the observers are in position before the start of the observation programme. (56) The invited State will cover the travel expenses for its observers to the capital, or another suitable location specified in the invitation, of the host State, and back. (57) The observers will be provided equal treatment and offered equal opportunities to carry out their functions. (58) The observers will be granted, during their mission, the privileges and immunities accorded to diplomatic agents in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. (59) The participating States will ensure that official personnel and troops taking part in an observed military activity, as well as other armed personnel located in the area of the military activity, are adequately informed regarding the presence, status and functions of observers. Participating States should, in due co- operation with the observers, ensure that no action is taken which could be harmful to the safety of observers. (60) The host State will not be required to permit observation of restricted locations, installations or defence sites. (61) In order to allow the observers to confirm that the notified activity is non-threatening in character and that it is carried out in conformity with the appropriate provisions of the notification, the host State will: (61.1) --at the commencement of the observation programme give a briefing on the purpose, the basic situation, the phases of the activity and possible changes as compared with the notification and provide the observers with an observation programme with a daily schedule; (61.2) --provide the observers with a map with a scale of 1 to not more than 250,000 depicting the area of the notified military activity and the initial tactical situation in this area. To depict the entire area of the notified military activity, smaller-scale maps may be additionally provided; (61.3) --provide the observers with appropriate observation equipment; in addition, the observers will be permitted to use their own binoculars, maps, photo and video cameras, dictaphones and hand-held passive night-vision devices. The above-mentioned equipment will be subject to examination and approval by the host State. It is understood that the host State may limit the use of certain equipment in restricted locations, installations or defence sites; (61.4) --be encouraged, whenever feasible and with due consideration for the security of the observers, to provide an aerial survey, preferably by helicopter, of the area of the military activity. If carried out, such a survey should provide the observers with the opportunity to observe from the air the disposition of forces engaged in the activity in order to help them gain a general impression of its scope and scale. At least one observer from each participating State represented at the observation should be given the opportunity to participate in the survey. Helicopters and/or aircraft may be provided by the host State or by another participating State at the request of and in agreement with the host State; (61.5) --in the course of the observation programme give the observers daily briefings with the help of maps on the various phases of the military activity and their development and inform the observers about their positions geographically; in the case of a land force activity conducted in combination with air or naval components, briefings will be given by representatives of these forces; (61.6) --provide opportunities to observe directly forces of the State(s) engaged in the military activity so that the observers get an impression of the flow of the entire activity; to this end, the observers will be given the opportunity to observe combat and support units of all participating formations of a divisional or equivalent level and, whenever possible, to visit units below divisional or equivalent level and communicate with commanders and troops. Commanders and other senior personnel of the participating formations as well as of the visited units will inform the observers of the mission and disposition of their respective units; (61.7) --guide the observers in the area of the military activity; the observers will follow the instructions issued by the host State in accordance with the provisions set out in this document; (61.8) --provide the observers with appropriate means of transportation in the area of the military activity; (61.9) --provide the observers with opportunities for timely communication with their embassies or other official missions and consular posts; the host State is not obligated to cover the communication expense of the observers; (61.10) --provide the observers with appropriate board and lodging in a location suitable for carrying out the observation programme and, when necessary, medical care; (61.11) --at the close of each observation, provide an opportunity for the observers to meet together and with host State officials to discuss the course of the observed activity. Where States other than the host State have been engaged in the activity, military representatives of those States will also be invited to take part in this discussion. (62) The participating States need not invite observers to notifiable military activities which are carried out without advance notice to the troops involved unless these notifiable activities have a duration of more than 72 hours. The continuation of these activities beyond this time will be subject to observation while the agreed thresholds for observation are met or exceeded. The observation programme will follow as closely as practically possible all the provisions for observation set out in this document. (63) The participating States are encouraged to permit media representatives from all participating States to attend observed military activities in accordance with accreditation procedures set down by the host State. In such instances, media representatives from all participating States will be treated without discrimination and given equal access to those facets of the activity open to media representatives. (64) The presence of media representatives will not interfere with the observers carrying out their functions nor with the flow of the military activity.

VI. ANNUAL CALENDARS

(65) Each participating State will exchange, with all other participating States, an annual calendar of its military activities subject to prior notification*, within the zone of application for CSBMs, forecast for the subsequent calendar year. A participating State which is to host military activities subject to prior notification conducted by any other participating State(s) will include these activities in its annual calendar. It will be transmitted every year, in writing, through diplomatic channels, not later than 15 November for the following year. * as defined in the provisions on Prior Notification of Certain Military Activities. (66) If a participating State does not forecast any military activity subject to prior notification it will so inform all other participating States in the same manner as prescribed for the exchange of annual calendars. (67) Each participating State will list the above-mentioned activities chronologically and will provide information on each activity in accordance with the following model: (67.1) --type of military activity and its designation; (67.2) --general characteristics and purpose of the military activity; (67.3) --States involved in the military activity; (67.4) --area of the military activity, indicated by geographic features where appropriate and defined by geographic co-ordinates; (67.5) --planned duration of the military activity, indicated by envisaged start and end dates; (67.6) --the envisaged total number of troops* engaged in the military activity. For activities involving more than one State, the host State will provide such information for each State involved; (67.7) --the types of armed forces involved in the military activity; (67.8) --the envisaged level of the military activity and designation of direct operational command, under which this military activity will take place; (67.9) --the number and type of divisions whose participation in the military activity is envisaged; (67.10) --any additional information concerning, inter alia, components of armed forces, which the participating State planning the military activity considers relevant. (68) Should changes regarding the military activities in the annual calendar prove necessary, they will be communicated to all other participating States no later than in the appropriate notification. (69) Should a participating State cancel a military activity included in its annual calendar or reduce it to a level below notification thresholds, that State will inform the other participating States immediately. (70) Information on military activities subject to prior notification not included in an annual calendar will be communicated to all participating States as soon as possible, in accordance with the model provided in the annual calendar.

VII. CONSTRAINING PR0VISIONS

(71) Each participating State will communicate, in writing, to all other participating States, by 15 November each year, information concerning military activities subject to prior notification* involving more than 40,000 troops*, which it plans to carry out or host in the second subsequent calendar year. Such communication will include preliminary information on each activity, as to its general purpose, timeframe and duration, area, size and States involved. * as defined in the provisions on Prior Notification of Certain Military Activities. (72) Participating States will not carry out military activities subject to prior notification involving more than 40,000 troops, unless they have been the object of communication as defined above. (73) Participating States will not carry out military activities subject to prior notification involving more than 40,000 troops unless they have been included in the annual calendar, not later than 15 November each year. (74) If military activities subject to prior notification are carried out in addition to those contained in the annual calendar, they should be as few as possible.

VIII. COMPLIANCE AND VERIFICATION

(75) According to the Madrid Mandate, the confidence- and security- building measures to be agreed upon "will be provided with adequate forms of verification which correspond to their content". (76) The participating States recognize that national technical means can play a role in monitoring compliance with agreed confidence- and security-building measures.
Inspection
(77) In accordance with the provisions contained in this document each participating State has the right to conduct inspections on the territory of any other participating State within the zone of application for CSBMs. (78) Any participating State will be allowed to address a request for inspection to another participating State on whose territory, within the zone of application for CSBMs, compliance with the agreed confidence- and security-building measures is in doubt. (79) No participating State will be obliged to accept on its territory within the zone of application for CSBMs, more than three inspections per calendar year. (80) No participating State will be obliged to accept more than one inspection per calendar year from the same participating State. (81) An inspection will not be counted if, due to force majeure, it cannot be carried out. (82) The participating State which requests an inspection will state the reasons for such a request. (83) The participating State which has received such a request will reply in the affirmative to the request within the agreed period of time, subject to the provisions contained in paragraphs (79) and (80). (84) Any possible dispute as to the validity of the reasons for a request will not prevent or delay the conduct of an inspection. (85) The participating State which requests an inspection will be permitted to designate for inspection on the territory of another State within the zone of application for CSBMs, a specific area. Such an area will be referred to as the "specified area". The specified area will comprise terrain where notifiable military activities are conducted or where another participating State believes a notifiable military activity is taking place. The specified area will be defined and limited by the scope and scale of notifiable military activities but will not exceed that required for an army level military activity. (86) In the specified area the representatives of the inspecting State accompanied by the representatives of the receiving State will be permitted access, entry and unobstructed survey, except for areas or sensitive points to which access is normally denied or restricted, military and other defence installations, as well as naval vessels, military vehicles and aircraft. The number and extent of the restricted areas should be as limited as possible. Areas where notifiable military activities can take place will not be declared restricted areas, except for certain permanent or temporary military installations which, in territorial terms, should be as small as possible, and consequently those areas will not be used to prevent inspection of notifiable military activities. Restricted areas will not be employed in a way inconsistent with the agreed provisions on inspection. (87) Within the specified area, the forces of participating States other than the receiving State will also be subject to the inspection conducted by the inspecting State. (88) Inspection will be permitted on the ground, from the air, or both. (89) The representatives of the receiving State will accompany the inspection team, including when it is in land vehicles and an aircraft from the time of their first employment until the time they are no longer in use for the purposes of inspection. (90) In its request, the inspecting State will notify the receiving State of: (90.1) --the reasons for the request; (90.2) --the location of the specified area defined by geographical coordinates; (90.3) --the preferred point(s) of entry for the inspection team; (90.4) --mode of transport to and from the point(s) of entry and, if applicable, to and from the specified area; (90.5) --where in the specified area the inspection will begin; (90.6) --whether the inspection will be conducted from the ground, from the air, or both simultaneously; (90.7) --whether aerial inspection will be conducted using an airplane, a helicopter, or both; (90.8) --whether the inspection team will use land vehicles provided by the receiving State or, if mutually agreed, its own vehicles; (90.9) --information for the issuance of diplomatic visas to inspectors entering the receiving State. (91) The reply to the request will be given in the shortest possible period of time, but within not more than twenty-four hours. Within thirty-six hours after the issuance of the request, the inspection team will be permitted to enter the territory of the receiving State. (92) Any request for inspection as well as the reply thereto will be communicated to all participating States without delay. (93) The receiving State should designate the point(s) of entry as close as possible to the specified area. The receiving State will ensure that the inspection team will be able to reach the specified area without delay from the point(s) of entry. (94) All participating States will facilitate the passage of the inspection teams through their territory. (95) Within 48 hours after the arrival of the inspection team at the specified area, the inspection will be terminated. (96) There will be no more than four inspectors in an inspection team. While conducting the inspection the inspection team may divide into two parts. (97) The inspectors and, if applicable, auxiliary personnel, will be granted during their mission the privileges and immunities in accordance with the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. (98) The participating States will ensure that troops, other armed personnel and officials in the specified area are adequately informed regarding the presence, status and functions of inspectors and, if applicable, auxiliary personnel. The receiving State will ensure that no action is taken by its representatives which could endanger inspectors and, if applicable, auxiliary personnel. In carrying out their duties, inspectors and, if applicable, auxiliary personnel will take into account safety concerns expressed by representatives of the receiving State. (99) The receiving State will provide the inspection team with appropriate board and lodging in a location suitable for carrying out the inspection, and, when necessary, medical care; however this does not exclude the use by the inspection team of its own tents and rations. (100) The inspection team will have use of its own maps and charts, photo and video cameras, binoculars, hand-held passive night-vision devices and dictaphones. Upon arrival in the specified area the inspection team will show the equipment to the representatives of the receiving State. (101) The inspection team will have access to appropriate telecommunications equipment of the receiving State for the purpose of communicating with its embassy or other official missions and consular posts accredited to the receiving State. (102) The receiving State will provide the inspection team with access to appropriate telecommunications equipment for the purpose of continuous communication between the sub-teams. (103) Inspectors will be entitled to request and to receive briefings at agreed times by military representatives of the receiving State. At the inspectors' request, such briefings will be given by commanders of formations or units in the specified area. Suggestions of the receiving State as to the briefings will be taken into consideration. (104) The inspecting State will specify whether aerial inspection will be conducted using an airplane, a helicopter or both. Aircraft for inspection will be chosen by mutual agreement between the inspecting and receiving States. Aircraft will be chosen which provide the inspection team a continuous view of the ground during the inspection. (105) After the flight plan, specifying, inter alia, the inspection team's choice of flight path, speed and altitude in the specified area, has been filed with the competent air traffic control authority the inspection aircraft will be permitted to enter the specified area without delay. Within the specified area, the inspection team will, at its request, be permitted to deviate from the approved flight plan to make specific observations provided such deviation is consistent with paragraph (86) as well as flight safety and air traffic requirements. Directions to the crew will be given through a representative of the receiving State on board the aircraft involved in the inspection. (106) One member of the inspection team will be permitted, if such a request is made, at any time to observe data on navigational equipment of the aircraft and to have access to maps and charts used by the flight crew for the purpose of determining the exact location of the aircraft during the inspection flight. (107) Aerial and ground inspectors may return to the specified area as often as desired within the 48-hour inspection period. (108) The receiving State will provide for inspection purposes land vehicles with cross country capability. Whenever mutually agreed taking into account the specific geography relating to the area to be inspected, the inspecting State will be permitted to use its own vehicles. (109) If land vehicles or aircraft are provided by the inspecting State, there will be one accompanying driver for each land vehicle, or accompanying aircraft crew. (110) The inspecting State will prepare a report of its inspection and will provide a copy of that report to all participating States without delay. (111) The inspection expenses will be incurred by the receiving State except when the inspecting State uses its own aircraft and/or land vehicles. The travel expenses to and from the point(s) of entry will be borne by the inspecting State.
Evaluation
(112) Information provided under the provisions on Information on Military Forces and on Information on Plans for the Deployment of Major Weapon and Equipment Systems will be subject to evaluation. (113) Subject to the provisions below each participating State will provide the opportunity to visit active formations and units in their normal peacetime locations as specified in point 2 and 3 of the provisions on Information on Military Forces to allow the other participating States to evaluate the information provided. (114) Each participating State will be obliged to accept a quota of one evaluation visit per calendar year for every sixty units, or portion thereof, reported under paragraph (11). However, no participating State will be obliged to accept more than fifteen visits per calendar year. No participating State will be obliged to accept more than one fifth of its quota of visits from the same participating State; a participating State with a quota of less than five visits will not be obliged to accept more than one visit from the same participating State during a calendar year. No formation or unit may be visited more than twice during a calendar year and more than once by the same participating State during a calendar year. (115) No participating State will be obliged to accept more than one visit at any given time on its territory. (116) If a participating State has formations or units stationed on the territory of other participating States (host States) in the zone of application for CSBMs, the maximum number of evaluation visits permitted to its forces in each of the States concerned will be proportional to the number of its units in each State. The application of this provision will not alter the number of visits this participating State (stationing State) will have to accept under paragraph (114). (117) Requests for such visits will be submitted giving 5 days notice. (118) The request will specify: (118.1) --the formation or unit to be visited; (118.2) --the proposed date of the visit; (118.3) --the preferred point(s) of entry as well as the date and estimated time of arrival for the evaluation team; (118.4) --the mode of transport to and from the point(s) of entry and, if applicable, to and from the formation or unit to be visited; (118.5) --the names and ranks of the members of the team and, if applicable, information for the issue of diplomatic visas. (119) If a formation or unit of a participating State is stationed on the territory of another participating State, the request will be addressed to the host State and sent simultaneously to the stationing State. (120) The reply to the request will be given within 48 hours after the receipt of the request. (121) In the case of formations or units of a participating State stationed on the territory of another participating State, the reply will be given by the host State in consultation with the stationing State. After consultation between the host State and the stationing State, the host State will specify in its reply any of its responsibilities which it agrees to delegate to the stationing State. (122) The reply will indicate whether the formation or unit will be available for evaluation at the proposed date at its normal peacetime location. (123) Formations or units may be in their normal peacetime location but be unavailable for evaluation. Each participating State will be entitled in such cases not to accept a visit; the reasons for the non-acceptance and the number of days that the formation or unit will be unavailable for evaluation will be stated in the reply. Each participating State will be entitled to invoke this provision up to a total of five times for an aggregate of no more than 30 days per calendar year. (124) If the formation or unit is absent from its normal peacetime location, the reply will indicate the reasons for and the duration of its absence. The requested State may offer the possibility of a visit to the formation or unit outside its normal peacetime location. If the requested State does not offer this possibility, the requesting State will be able to visit the normal peacetime location of the formation or unit. The requesting State may however refrain in either case from the visit. (125) Visits will not be counted against the quotas of receiving States, if they are not carried out. Likewise, if visits are not carried out, due to force majeure, they will not be counted. (126) The reply will designate the point(s) of entry and indicate, if applicable, the time and place of assembly of the team. The point(s) of entry and, if applicable, the place of assembly will be designated as close as possible to the formation or unit to be visited. The receiving State will ensure that the team will be able to reach the formation or unit without delay. (127) The request and the reply will be communicated to all participating States without delay. (128) Participating States will facilitate the passage of teams through their territory. (129) The team will have no more than two members. It may be accompanied by an interpreter as auxiliary personnel. (130) The members of the team and, if applicable, auxiliary personnel, will be granted during their mission the privileges and immunities in accordance with the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. (131) The visit will take place in the course of a single working day and last up to 12 hours. (132) The visit will begin with a briefing by the officer commanding the formation or unit, or his deputy, in the headquarters of the formation or unit, concerning the personnel as well as the major weapon and equipment systems reported under paragraph (11). (132.1) In the case of a visit to a formation, the receiving State may provide the possibility to see personnel and major weapon and equipment systems reported under paragraph (11) for that formation, but not for any of its formations or units, in their normal locations. (132.2) In the case of a visit to a unit, the receiving State will provide the possibility to see the personnel and the major weapon and equipment systems of the unit reported under paragraph (11) in their normal locations. (133) Access will not have to be granted to sensitive points, facilities and equipment. (134) The team will be accompanied at all times by representatives of the receiving State. (135) The receiving State will provide the team with appropriate transportation during the visit to the formation or unit. (136) Personal binoculars and dictaphones may be used by the team. (137) The visit will not interfere with activities of the formation or unit. (138) The participating States will ensure that troops, other armed personnel and officials in the formation or unit are adequately informed regarding the presence, status and functions of members of teams and, if applicable, auxiliary personnel. Participating States will also ensure that no action is taken by their representatives which could endanger the members of teams and, if applicable, auxiliary personnel. In carrying out their duties, members of teams and, if applicable, auxiliary personnel will take into account safety concerns expressed by representatives of the receiving State. (139) The travel expenses to and from the point(s) of entry will be borne by the visiting State. (140) The visiting State will prepare a report of its visit which will be communicated to all participating States expeditiously. (141) Each participating State will be entitled to obtain timely clarification from any other participating State concerning the application of agreed confidence- and security-building measures. Communications in this context will, if appropriate, be transmitted to all other participating States. (142) The communications concerning compliance and verification will be transmitted preferably through the CSBM communications network.

IX. COMMUNICATIONS

(143) The participating States will establish a network of direct communications between their capitals for the transmission of messages relating to agreed measures. The network will complement the existing use of diplomatic channels. Participating States undertake to use the network flexibly, efficiently and in a cost-effective way. (144) Each participating State will designate a point of contact capable of transmitting and receiving such messages from other participating States on a 24-hour-a-day basis. Each participating State will notify this designation in writing to other participating States not later than 15 April 1991 and will notify in advance any change in this designation. (145) The technical characteristics of the network are set out in Annex II. (146) Communications may be in any one of the six working languages of the CSCE. (147) Details on the use of these six languages are set out in Annex III. The provisions of this annex have been elaborated for the practical purposes of the communication system only. They are not intended to change the existing use of all six working languages of the CSCE according to established rules and practice as set out in the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations. (148) Messages will be considered official communications of the sending State. If the content of a message is not related to an agreed measure, the receiving State has the right to reject it by so informing the other participating States. (149) Participating States may agree among themselves to use the network for other purposes. (150) All aspects of the implementation of the network may be discussed at the annual implementation assessment meeting.
X. ANNUAL IMPLEMENTATION ASSESSMENT MEETING
(151) The participating States will hold each year a meeting to discuss the present and future implementation of agreed CSBMs. Discussion may extend to: (151.1) --clarification of questions arising from such implementation; (151.2) --operation of agreed measures; (151.3) --implications of all information originating from the implementation of any agreed measures for the process of confidence and security building in the framework of the CSCE. (152) Before the conclusion of each year's meeting the participating States will normally agree upon the agenda and dates for the subsequent year's meeting. Lack of agreement will not constitute sufficient reason to extend a meeting, unless otherwise agreed. Agenda and dates may, if necessary, be agreed between meetings. (153) The Conflict Prevention Centre will serve as the forum for such meetings. (154) The first annual implementation assessment meeting will be held in 1991. (155) The participating States stress that this new set of mutually complementary confidence- and security-building measures builds upon and expands the results already achieved at the Stockholm Conference and is designed to reduce the risk of military confrontation in Europe and emphasize that its implementation will contribute to these objectives. (156) Reaffirming the relevant objectives of the Final Act, the participating States are determined to continue building confidence, to lessen military confrontation and to enhance security for all. (157) The measures adopted in this document are politically binding and will come into force on 1 January 1991. (158) The Government of Austria is requested to transmit the present document to the Meeting of the Heads of State or Government of the CSCE participating States in Paris and to the Helsinki Follow-up Meeting of the CSCE. The Government of Austria is also requested to transmit the present document to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and to the Governments of the non-participating Mediterranean States. (159) The text of this document will be published in each participating State, which will disseminate it and make it known as widely as possible. (160) The representatives of the participating States express their profound gratitude to the Government and people of Austria for the excellent arrangements they are making for the Vienna CSBM Negotiations and the warm hospitality they are extending to the delegations which are participating in the Negotiations. Vienna, 17 November 1990

ANNEX I

Under the terms of the Madrid mandate, the zone of application for CSBMs is defined as follows: "On the basis of equality of rights, balance and reciprocity, equal respect for the security interests of all CSCE participating States, and of their respective obligations concerning confidence- and security-building measures and disarmament in Europe, these confidence- and security-building measures will cover the whole of Europe as well as the adjoining sea area* and air space. They will be of military significance and politically binding and will be provided with adequate forms of verification which correspond to their content. As far as the adjoining sea area* and air space is concerned, the measures will be applicable to the military activities of all the participating States taking place there whenever these activities affect security in Europe as well as constitute a part of activities taking place within the whole of Europe as referred to above, which they will agree to notify. Necessary specifications will be made through the negotiations on the confidence- and security-building measures at the Conference. Nothing in the definition of the zone given above will diminish obligations already undertaken under the Final Act. The confidence- and security-building measures to be agreed upon at the Conference will also be applicable in all areas covered by any of the provisions in the Final Act relating to confidence-building measures and certain aspects of security and disarmament." Wherever the term "the zone of application for CSBMs" is used in this document, the above definition will apply. * In this context, the notion of adjoining sea area is understood to refer also to ocean areas adjoining Europe.

ANNEX II

Technical characteristics of the communications network 1. The communications network will be based on a Packet Switched Data Network (PSDN) set up according to the X.2S protocol. 2. It will use public PSDN services wherever possible. 3. The message handling switch will be centralized in one location. 4. The message transfer system will need only a capacity to store and forward in order to perform its traffic management role. 5. The communications software could be based on the X.400 recommendations. 6. The minimum hardware requirement for the end point systems in the capitals will be PC-compatible. 7. Address codes will be used in order to ensure the privacy of the communications. 8. No encryption is required. 9. The integrity of messages should be protected.

ANNEX III

Use of the six CSCE working languages Messages will, wherever possible, be transmitted in formats with headings in all six CSCE working languages. Such formats will be elaborated and agreed among the participating States with a view to making transmitted messages immediately understandable by reducing the language element to a minimum. The participating States agree to co-operate in this respect. This would include repeating entries in the agreed formats in Latin letters. Any narrative text, to the extent it is required in such formats, and messages that do not lend themselves to formatting will be transmitted in the CSCE working language chosen by the transmitting State. Each participating State has the right to ask for clarification of messages in cases of doubt.

ANNEX IV

Chairman's Statement The participating States, in order to facilitate an efficient use of the communications network, will give due consideration to practical needs of rapid transmission of their messages and of immediate understandability. A translation into another CSCE working language will be added where needed to meet that principle. The participating States have indicated at least two CSCE working languages in which they would prefer to receive the translation. These provisions do not prejudice in any way the future continued use of all six working languages of the CSCE according to established rules and practice as set out in the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations. This statement will be an annex to the Vienna Document 1990 and will be published with it. Vienna, 17 November 1990

ANNEX V

Chairman's Statement Bearing in mind that the Madrid mandate states that the CSBMs will be provided with adequate forms of verification it is understood that in the continuing negotiations an adequate solution will be found to evaluate non-active formations and units which are activated for routine training purposes. This statement will be an annex to the Vienna Document 1990 and will be published with it. Vienna, 17 November 1990 ANNEX VI Chairman's Statement It is understood that the question of costs during evaluation visits will be addressed in the course of further negotiations. This statement will be an annex to the Vienna Document 1990 and will be published with it. Vienna, 17 November 1990

ANNEX VII

Chairman's Statement It is understood that, taking into account the agreed date of entry into force of the agreed confidence- and security-building measures and the provisions contained in them concerning constraining provisions, the annual exchange of military information and its evaluation, and expressing their interest in an early transition to the full implementation of the provisions of this document, the participating States agree to the following: Communications, in accordance with agreed provisions, concerning military activities involving more than 40,000 troops planned for the calendar year 1992 will be exchanged by 15 December 1990. The information on military forces will be exchanged not later than 15 April 1991 and valid as of 1 May 1991. The information on plans for the deployment of major weapon and equipment systems will be exchanged not later than 15 April 1991. The provisions on evaluation will be effective as of 1 July 1991. Therefore, for 1991 no participating State will be obliged to receive more than half the number of the evaluation visits it would otherwise according to this document be obliged to receive. This statement will be an annex to the Vienna Document 1990 and will be published with it. Vienna, 17 November 1990 (###)