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                        U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
                          DAILY PRESS BRIEFING
                                I N D E X
                        Friday, August 18, l995

                                            Briefer:  David Johnson

State Department Briefing/Walk-Thru Schedule ..............1

Fourth World Conference on Women--Status of Visa
Applications for U.S. Citizens ............................1-3,5-6
--Restrictions on Bringing Large Quantities of Books ......3-4
--Reports of Arrests/Executions of Chinese Dissidents .....5
NGO Conference Site .......................................5

Undersecretary Tarnoff's Discussions in Region ............4
U.S. Diplomatic Contact w/China re: Nuclear Testing .......4-5

Pelletreau/Parris Consultations:
--Egypt ...................................................6,8
--Jordan ..................................................6-7,11-12
Iraq--Compliance w/UN Security Council Resolutions ........7
--Iraqi Intentions/Military Threats .......................8-10
--Iraqi Defectors .........................................8-10,12-13
--Situation inside Iraq ...................................9
--U.S. Assurances Against Aggression in Region ............9
Saudi Arabia--Beheading of Four Turks, Sentencing of 40 ...10-11
Middle East Peace Process--Palestinian-Israeli Talks ......11-12
Israel--Reports of Massive Killings of POWs ...............12

U.S. Diplomatic Initiative--Holbrooke Mission .............13
--Mtgs. w/President Milosevic .............................13
--Travel to Zagreb, Sarajevo ..............................13
--Contact Group Mtg. ......................................13-14
--Effects of Croatian Offensive on Discussions ............14
Dubrovnik--Mobilization of Infantry Units .................14

Paris--Subway Explosion ...................................14

Acting A/S Hubbard Mtg. w/Communist Party Official ........15-16
Secretary Christopher's Visit to Vietnam ..................15

DPB #124
FRIDAY, AUGUST 18, 1995, 1:22 P. M.

MR. JOHNSON: Forgive my tardiness. The difficulty in preparation is inversely proportional to the number of people in the building. Just a little housekeeping announcement to start off with. This will be the last regular briefing until the 28th of August. Q: Of September? MR. JOHNSON: A bit of wishful thinking on your part there, Mr. Schweid. Q No, I just wonder how we're going to -- Q You'll have walk-throughs? MR. JOHNSON: We'll have walk-throughs next week. Mr. Dinger will be at your service, looking forward to working with all of you. Q But there's still the Wirth-Albright -- MR. JOHNSON: Yes. Indeed, we could have additional special briefings. There's no plan at this point for any of our regular extravaganzas which you all enjoy so much. Q Is Thursday the Albright-Tim Wirth? MR. JOHNSON: I believe that's the case. Q But that will be it; there will be no regular briefing to follow? MR. JOHNSON: Right. Q Are you ready for questions? MR. JOHNSON: I'm as ready as I can be. Q David, what do you know -- what can you tell us, and, of course, what is the State Department view, if they have any, of women having problems getting accredited, getting visas to go to the conference in China -- not "on China," but "in China -- on women's issues? MR. JOHNSON: The overwhelming majority of U.S. citizens planning to attend the meetings in China do not yet have visas. Very few applications have actually been denied, though many who have applied with all necessary documentation have been instructed to leave those documents and their passports behind and return a day or two before their departure to pick them up. We've continued to raise our concerns about visas and logistical issues with Chinese officials in Washington, New York and Beijing. We've also raised these issues with senior United Nations officials. We've made clear to the Chinese Government that the NGO conference is a fundamental and integral part of the Fourth World Conference on Women, and that we expect them to facilitate the participation of non- governmental organizations at this conference. Q Are you getting assistance from the United Nations, because, China's simply the locale; it's a U.N. conference. You're dependent, I suppose, on China for visas; but is it just up to the Chinese Government to act as slowly or as laggardly as it wishes? MR. JOHNSON: It's our position that the Chinese Government undertook certain obligations when it offered to host this conference, and one of them was to facilitate the participation of non-governmental organizations. We've made that point consistently, and we expect the Chinese to live up to that obligation. Q Do you sense any political motivation for this? MR. JOHNSON: I'm not going to draw any conclusions for you. I'm just going to reiterate that we expect them to come through with the visas as part of their obligation as host. Q When you've raised the concerns, what have they said? MR. JOHNSON: They've cited some logistical difficulties, and they've told us that they are going to be able to handle it. But we're continuing to meet with them, and we continue to press them in order to ensure that those obligations are carried out. Q Is this abnormal? Q Do you think it's (inaudible) to have this conference there now? Perhaps China doesn't have the capability to do something like this. MR. JOHNSON: I think that the Chinese have made extraordinary efforts to put the conference together. I'm not going to play Monday morning quarterback on what decisions may or may not, should have been made earlier. We are planning to go to the conference. We're planning to do everything that we can to make the conference a successful one in addressing the issues related to women. Q Is there anything selective about the various visas which have not come back, for example, to pro-Tibetan groups or pro-Taiwan groups? MR. JOHNSON: There have been so few visas that have come back that it would be impossible to draw any kind of conclusion like that. Q Does the Department consider this to be unusual procedure by the Chinese, as far as the handling of the visas in this instance? MR. JOHNSON: I think it would be difficult to draw that kind of conclusion. This is an unusual situation. One doesn't have a huge international conference like this every day or every year, and so it's difficult to describe it as usual or unusual.. Q David, if you cannot draw the conclusion, could you explain to us why is this procedure -- why is the slowness in issuing the visas? What are the difficulties in issuing the visas there? MR. JOHNSON: I can only tell you that the Chinese Government has not issued them as promptly as we think they should be issued, and we are continuing to press them to do so. Q At the end of last month I remember there were some statements which -- or some people were concerned that nobody can carry a Bible or a Koran or anything like that to China during -- some attendees -- some members will be attending the conference, and there were orders from the Chinese or restrictions about carrying any glorious books or holy books with them to China. Is this still in effect or did they remove that restriction? MR. JOHNSON: I think the point we were making is, as we say in our Consular Information Sheet, bringing large quantities, more than one would use for one's personal use, into China of books such as the ones you've described is prohibited by the Chinese. We've certainly made clear to them that we expect them to permit people to bring items that are necessary for the conference and that people want to bring for their own personal use, including bibles and including books like the Koran. Q Why do you stop at that? Why do you accept their limitation, which reminds me of what the Soviets used to do. If somebody wants to bring prayer books, for instance, for the use of people who don't have them -- Chinese who don't have them, why wouldn't the United States, in its affirmation of free speech and freedom of religion -- why wouldn't the United States want China to impose no restrictions on books? MR. JOHNSON: There are two issues here. One is what we desire for the Chinese to do and what we think they ought to do, and we think they ought to permit that. The other thing is whether or not they are going to accept that and permit American citizens to come in and not harass them. We feel it's our obligation to ensure that American citizens who may attend this conference or go to China for other purposes understand what rules and regulations the Chinese have. Q I understand. Is this on Tim Wirth's list? Do you know if other countries are having -- if people in other countries are having the same problem, and have you noticed -- as you say, so few have been issued -- but is there any pattern here? Was there a greater slow-down at any particular point so we can try to infer what this is all about? MR. JOHNSON: Barry, I don't think there is. I think there have been so few of these issued at any point that to attempt to draw an inference in terms of some political change or move would be impossible. Q Is this something -- I hope I said Peter Tarnoff -- is this on Tarnoff's list? MR. JOHNSON: I'm sure he will be discussing issues related to the entry of people to the conference and issues surrounding that; but his primary focus is on a range of issues beyond this. Q Also on China, has this government taken up the nuclear test with the Government of China? MR. JOHNSON: We've made our views known to the Government of China through diplomatic channels. Q Do you know any more about it -- the size or -- MR. JOHNSON: I'm not going to get into a discussion of the size, because, reasons you'll understand, the only way we could know that was through ways that we don't talk about here. Q New subject? MR. JOHNSON: If you wish. Are we ready to move on? Q No, just one more on the Women's Conference in China. Included in their extraordinary efforts to prepare for the conference, apparently the Chinese have been rounding up dissidents and in some cases executing them in view of the fact that they don't want any disruptions or anything of that sort when the conference occurs; and there have been various wire reports the past couple of weeks on this. Has the State Department got any of its own information on this kind of activity, and, if so, does it care to make a comment? MR. JOHNSON: I don't have anything independent of the press reports that you mention. Our views on treatment of people who are expressing political views and arrests and imprisonment of them solely for that reason are clear. They apply to China, as to every other country. Q David, one point on this. Early in -- I think in the fact sheet which was put out by the State Department last month or the month before in preparation for this conference, it mentioned something about that some of the NGOs will not be allowed to stay around the conference except the official delegations from around the world; and that the Chinese offered a place which is about 20 or 30 miles from the conference area that they would allow the NGOs who are not official members of delegations to stay there. There's going to be some difficulty in attending the conference and the proceedings. Has this problem been solved, or is it still existing? MR. JOHNSON: In the sense that, is the NGO conference moved to Beijing, no, it hasn't been moved to Beijing. But the Chinese are, we understand, making preparations to hold this NGO conference at the site that you mention that was somewhat outside of Beijing. We would prefer for it to be there, but we're moving ahead with planning for the conference and with the American NGOs planning to participate at the site which the Chinese have identified. Q One more on China. Has the State Department contacted the relevant officials in the Embassy here in Washington to ask about the visa situation? MR. JOHNSON: We've been in touch with the Chinese at a number of levels and at a number of places. Q Are they saying that they're going to expedite to see that the American representatives get to Beijing? MR. JOHNSON: They have assured us that they will make sure that these visas are issued. We're meeting with them constantly. Q Do you have anything on Mr. Pelletreau's trip, please, on his talks and where he might be today? Q Mr. Pelletreau and Mr. Parris are today in Egypt for consultations with the Egyptian Government. They're discussing a wide range of issues, including, of course, the peace process and Iraq. Their onward itinerary at this point is not yet determined. Q Can you tell us anything about the talks that they had in Jordan? MR. JOHNSON: I think, as I said yesterday, they were working as part of our diplomatic initiative, consistent with the President's statement to the King when he made his courageous step to accept the Iraqi defectors for political asylum to work with them on a number of issues related to backing them up. Among those issues were, of course, strategic goals such as ensuring good political and economic relations among all of our friends in the Middle East. I'd note that one element of those good relations would have to do with oil and a range of economic issues. Q David, are you reviving the idea of re- establishing a coalition in the manner that was established four years ago/five years ago to face Iraq? MR. JOHNSON: I think what we're doing now is taking our own steps, working with our friends and partners in the area, acting prudently and out of a abundance of caution. But in terms of any specifics as to where we're going and how we're going to do that, I'm going to not be able to address. Q Have you dealt with the Jordanian oil situation? MR. JOHNSON: I just mentioned that one of our goals in the Pelletreau and Parris trip was to work on a number of strategic issues related to our friends and partners in the region. One of those issues is oil. Q Is the United States trying to help find a way for Jordan not to depend on oil from Iraq and perhaps get it from Saudi Arabia or some such? MR. JOHNSON: I can't -- Q Are looking for alternative ways? MR. JOHNSON: We're looking for ways that we can help support the Jordanians in light of the very courageous decision the King made. Among the issues we, of course, are addressing are a range of economic issues, including oil. Q Just to turn it around slightly. If you were able to cut off Iraq, you would be hurting Iraq directly, apart from helping Jordan. So is one of the objectives here to increase the pressure on Iraq? MR. JOHNSON: The objective is to ensure that Iraq complies with all of the Security Council resolutions. We're pushing in every way we can to put pressure on Iraq to do so. Q Are you trying to cut off one of Iraq's oil customers? MR. JOHNSON: I think that would be consistent with the U.N. Security Council resolutions. Q David, did Pelletreau and Parris have any success in encouraging Jordan to sever its economic relations with Iraq? MR. JOHNSON: I'm not going to be able to be specific like that. Their mission is on-going. Today they're in Egypt. They may be making some return trips to other states. While they're attempting their diplomacy, I think I'm going to not give extensive comment on their success. Q Presumably, if you had some success, you'd be more than happy to alert the public to that, I would think? MR. JOHNSON: You can draw that inference if you want to. I wouldn't think it was consistent entirely with past practice. Q But in the field of public relations -- which you're engaged in, of course -- if you wanted to give assurances to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait -- which according to some reports may be the target of Iraqi designs right now -- you might say that they're going to go to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, or you might say something about that. Are you in a position to do that? MR. JOHNSON: No, I'm not in a position to describe their itinerary once they depart Cairo. Q Do you still see signs of potentially ominous Iraqi troop movements? MR. JOHNSON: I'd say it's pretty difficult to interpret exactly what Iraq may or may not be up to, that their actions in the past lead us to believe that they're capable of a number of things that are inimical to our interests. It's only prudent for us to take precautionary measures to ensure that we can meet our obligations to our friends and partners in the region. Q But you see no imminent threat? MR. JOHNSON: Excuse me? Q You see no imminent threat? MR. JOHNSON: I'm just not going to get into what kind of threats we may or may not see. I'm saying we're making sure and we're being prudent, and we want to ensure that we're in a position to stand by our friends and our partners in the region. Q David, was part of that prudent activity announced by the Pentagon yesterday based at all on what the defectors to Jordan told people who talked to them subsequently? There are reports of that. MR. JOHNSON: I've seen some of those reports myself. As I have in the past, I'm not going to get into a discussion of what we may or may not have learned from those individuals. Q When the defections -- the day of the defections or the next day, right after the defections, the statement here was specific about making sure Jordan would be secure, but it was a plural assurance -- "and our friends in the region," is what was said. You're saying the same today. But, of course, the U.S. has had more opportunity to find out what Iraq might be up to. Can you say anything specific, as you did before Jordan that day, about assurances to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Israel? MR. JOHNSON: I think our assurances to them and our partnership and our friendship with them has been stated a number of times. We're not changing that at all. We made very clear only last fall what we were willing to do in order to deter aggression in the area. We're clearly prepared to do that again. Q Do you have anymore idea of what's going on inside Iraq? There's a report that Saddam has ordered the arrests of ten members of his own clan who hold senior positions. MR. JOHNSON: I've seen the same reports you have. No, I don't have any particular insights into what happens inside his mind. Q David, do you have any comment on the reports, or rather the statements from the United Nations observers at the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border who said that there is no deployment or there is no buildup of Iraqi forces in that area? This was in the last 24 hours -- the United Nations observers. Even the Jordanians said that we have not seen any threat. Do you have any comment on these things? MR. JOHNSON: Only to note that one wouldn't wait to take precautionary measures until one saw headlights coming over the horizon. While that is an issue, I don't see it as something which is terribly reassuring. Q If there's no empirical evidence that troops are on the move, one would suggest that either the United States is doing this for some psychological reason -- which is to say psychological pressure on Saddam or something like that -- or else you've gotten some intelligence perhaps from these two defectors that something was in the works? MR. JOHNSON: Or one could draw the conclusion which I've been trying to draw for you that actions in the past have led us to believe that this is a very unpredictable regime, which is capable of some things which are inimical to our interests, and we have tried to be very cautious and prudent and make sure that we are not caught unawares. That's exactly what we're doing now. Q But if you follow that thought to the logical conclusion, then you would have troops on the move all the time because you would always wanting to be prepared for any eventuality? MR. JOHNSON: I think the changed situation in terms of the ruling group there, with the defection of the families and two of the leaders of that group, change the situation and require us to reassess what we need to do right now. That's the reason we're taking these precautions. Q Are you ruling out the possibility, though, that you've gotten some special intelligence from the defectors? MR. JOHNSON: I'm neither ruling in nor ruling out special intelligence from any quarter. Q You don't want to be specific about whether there's information that Iraq has designs on Saudi Arabia and/or Kuwait? MR. JOHNSON: No, I don't want to be specific about that. Q While we talk about Saudi Arabia, would you like, in the interest of human rights, to say anything about the beheading of four Turks for trying to smuggle some would-be aphrodisiac? They lost their heads and their lives as a result, and apparently some people in Turkey don't think that this is necessary the only interpretation of the Koran or the Sharia. Does the State Department, in its loyalty and its interest in human rights, have anything to say about these practices? MR. JOHNSON: The State Department in its interest in human rights publishes a report annually. The question that you raise with respect to punishments and laws in Saudi Arabia is well outlined in that report. Q Should I wait for the next report to see it? MR. JOHNSON: The report that's available in your office right now covers that. Q It covers yesterday's execution? MR. JOHNSON: It covers the execution of persons for a number of offenses. Q Are you able to say anything in front of the camera about beheadings? Is there some reason to be shy -- for the State to be shy about its view of these types of executions in 1995? MR. JOHNSON: I said a couple of things yesterday. We have capital punishment in this country, so I'm certainly not going to suggest that a state doesn't have the right under its own laws to have capital punishment. The nature of the dispute is something that I think we're going to leave between the Saudis and the Turks. Q There are 40 Turks who are awaiting such sentences. I think Turkey is an ally of the United States, a member of NATO. It looks like tension is brewing on the front pages of the newspapers today about the tension which is brewing between Saudi Arabia and Turkey. Could you address this question? MR. JOHNSON: I think I'm going to leave this where I have it right now. Q David, I'd like to have one more stab at Mr. Pelletreau and Mr. Parris. You talked in your statement about how the U.S. is trying to pursue economic goals in the region, and they talked about the element of oil. Can you say if there is anything that the United States is willing to do for Jordan if they were to change their dependence on either the oil coming from Iraq or other goods which Iraq may be supplying to them? MR. JOHNSON: I can't respond specifically to that. I'd note that since the signing of the Jordanian-Israeli peace treaty on October 26, 1994, the United States has been in the forefront of efforts to shore up Jordan's economy. The President proposed and the Congress funded forgiveness of Jordanian debt to the United States, a figure of about $750 million. The United States is encouraging other countries to follow suit and forgive Jordanians debts to them. We're also working actively with Jordan and other countries on the Amman economic summit scheduled for October, which is going to explore ways to develop the economy not only of Jordan but of the entire region. Q David, do you have a situation report on the Palestinian- Israeli talks? The reports are that no progress was achieved this week. Do you have any readout in a different way? MR. JOHNSON: Only to let you know principally what I've said to you before, that they've agreed on a set of principles to be elaborated in an interim agreement on the expansion of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank. They're continuing their work on the details of that agreement. The Israeli Cabinet approved the set of principles last Sunday, and the PLO Executive Committee met in Tunis early this week and indicated its support for the set of principles. But in terms of a blow-by-by, in terms of the -- Q Do you have any comment on the (inaudible) of former Israeli commanders, or massive killing of Palestinian and Egyptian prisoners of war? MR. JOHNSON: I do not. I note the reports and note the investigations that are underway in Israel. Q Further on Israel. You talk about how the United States is encouraging other countries to forgive debts and do other things. How successful have you been in that effort? Can you point to any specific - - MR. JOHNSON: Let me look into that. I think we do have some things I can report to you on that, but I don't have them with me. I'll try to get it to you later in the afternoon. Q Aside from encouraging others to help participate economically, is there anything that you can say about military items that we are willing to give them either from existing U.S. stockpiles in the region or from other means? And are we offering anything else to Kuwait given that we feel that there is a threat now to Kuwait? MR. JOHNSON: Those are the kind of issues I'm simply not going to be able to get into from here. I'm sorry. Q You're not denying that those are under discussion, you're just not going to talk about it? MR. JOHNSON: Neither confirm nor deny. Q David, can you talk about the issue of the report this morning that has been brought up -- an AP wire report -- citing U.S. officials saying certain Iraqi defectors have contributed to the decision that Saddam might be heading south or in Saudi Arabia. In view of the fact that this has been quiet -- the intelligence aspect has been very tightly kept by this government since the defection, is there a possibility that this report is erroneous -- that there are no U.S. officials making these statements or reports about the defectors talking about Saddam's plans? MR. JOHNSON: I think you asked me in three different ways to comment on an intelligence report, and I think you know my answer to that. Q David, could you bring us up to date on Mr. Holbrooke's travels? MR. JOHNSON: Sure. Q You won't be held accountable. MR. JOHNSON: Excuse me? Q (Inaudible) MR. JOHNSON: He's continuing his work in the region. He met with President Milosevic for five hours on Thursday and for three hours this morning. He, himself -- meaning Mr. Holbrooke -- described these talks as frank and useful but inconclusive. Those conversations, as you know, are part of our ongoing effort to take advantage of the new situation on the ground, and try to bring the warring parties in the Balkans to the negotiating table. He's traveled to Zagreb today for further discussions with Croatian and Bosnian officials, and he plans to go to Sarajevo after he departs Zagreb. He will participate in a Contact Group meeting to be held at a place to be determined in Europe before -- excuse me -- at the conclusion of his current round of discussions in the region. Q You mean at his level? MR. JOHNSON: Yes. Q Is this the Russian proposal that the United States is responding to? MR. JOHNSON: I'm not sure what you're referring to. Mr. Holbrooke is working on the ideas and concepts that were brought to Europe by Mr. Lake and Mr. Tarnoff. Q And Yeltsin proposed an early meeting of the Contact Group. MR. JOHNSON: I think it's clear that we want to consult with our Contact Group partners and allies following this round of consultations. I wouldn't draw a direct conclusion that it resulted from that, but I wouldn't steer you away from that either. Q Are you thinking or is he inviting you to some higher-level thing -- a ministerial meeting? MR. JOHNSON: I think that at this point we're planning to have a Contact Group meeting at the political directors' level, and that's what we're planning to have at the conclusion of Mr. Holbrooke's consultations in the region. Q Which will be sometime next week, do you think? MR. JOHNSON: Presumably so. Q David, is this Croatian offensive having an adverse effect on Holbrooke's efforts? MR. JOHNSON: It certainly isn't helping them. We've made clear, and he has made clear, to all of the parties that we do not believe that it is time now to push forward on the battlefield but to try to work together, and try to find a diplomatic solution to this conflict -- one that's durable and one that's acceptable to all of the parties. Q (Inaudible) the Croatians telling you, "Forget it. We're in too good of a position. We've got to go forward." MR. JOHNSON: I think we're continuing to have what we believe are productive discussions with the parties, but, as before, I'm not going to get into the details. Q It doesn't look like you're having any effect, though. They seem to be amassing more and more troops. MR. JOHNSON: I'll let you draw your own conclusions. I believe that we're continuing to press that, and we're continuing to urge all the parties to be restrained. Q What's the situation currently around Dubrovnik. I understand there's up to 10,000 "troops" massed there. Have they begun to fight, and how about the Serbs? Are they coming in strength? MR. JOHNSON: I don't have a readout on what exactly is happening on the ground. Obviously, tensions remain high. There has been continued shelling. Croatia has said it would attack the Serb forces if the shelling does not stop, and there's been the mobilization of infantry units in the area near Dubrovnik. As I said before, we're urging all sides to continue to exercise restraint. Q Do you have any comments on the explosion in the subway in Paris yesterday? MR. JOHNSON: I have some facts for you. The bombing occurred near the Arc de Triomphe a few minutes after five o'clock on the 17th. Our Embassy in Paris has reported that no Americans were among the 17 injured. The French Government has told us that no group has claimed responsibility for the blast, and there have been no statements linking this blast with that of the one that took place on the 25th of July. We deplore this senseless violence against innocent citizens and express our sincere condolences and sympathies to the families of the victims and to the government and people of France. Q What do you have for us, if anything, on the meeting yesterday with the Vietnamese Communist Party official? MR. JOHNSON: I think we posted something on that yesterday afternoon. Q I see that the Vietnamese are moving ahead with a -- MR. JOHNSON: We didn't? Q No. MR. JOHNSON: Sorry. I can tell you what I know about it. We had a discussion at Tom Hubbard's level -- he's the Acting Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs -- with the visiting Vietnamese official. Among the subjects discussed were, of course, our continuing press for the fullest possible accounting for MIAs and POWs, and we also talked about the human rights situation in Vietnam, Mr. Hubbard underlining the points that the Secretary had made about our feelings on that issue, and our pressing for the Vietnamese to respect the human rights of their own people. Q Do you think the Vietnamese got the message that the Secretary was trying to convey on his trip? MR. JOHNSON: I think the Secretary laid out that message quite well. The activities and actions of the Vietnamese in the last few weeks certainly are not ones that we were encouraging them to take, and we have asked them to reconsider those. Q What kind of a response did you get? MR. JOHNSON: I don't have anything for you on a response. Q Did they raise the question, specifically any cases like the Buddhist monk and -- MR. JOHNSON: They raised both of the cases of the last week -- both the Buddhist monk and -- Q And the American. MR. JOHNSON: And the American citizen. Q Thank you. (The briefing concluded at 1:54 p.m.) (###)


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