US Department of State Daily Briefing #183: Monday, 12/21/92

Boucher Source: State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher Description: Washington, DC Date: Dec, 21 199212/21/92 Category: Briefings Region: Subsaharan Africa, E/C Europe, Caribbean, MidEast/North Africa, East Asia Country: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia-Montenegro, Somalia, Israel, Russia, Iraq, Taiwan, Cuba, South Africa, Angola Subject: Regional/Civil Unrest, Military Affairs, Development/Relief Aid, United Nations l2:27 P.M. (ON THE RECORD UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) MR. BOUCHER: Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. If I can, I'll start off with an administrative note. For the next two weeks -- this week being Christmas week; next week being New Year's week -- we're going to cut back our briefing schedule here a little bit. We'll plan on briefing Monday and Wednesday this week, and then again Monday and Wednesday next week. And, of course, the Press Office is always available for any other questions you might have. Q Always? MR. BOUCHER: Mostly -- a lot -- available. Q O.K. MR. BOUCHER: I can't promise always, no. All right. That's the only announcement I had, and I guess we'll just move on whatever questions you have.

[Former Yugoslavia: Election Update]

Q Do you want to venture an opinion about what's going on with the Yugoslav election, or is it too unclear right now? MR. BOUCHER: Well, I can't give you a definitive judgment at this point. I'll tell you what we know. Yesterday the voters went to the polls in Serbia and Montenegro to vote in elections for federal republic and local offices. According to reports from our Embassy and Western observers, the elections took place without violence. Official results are not yet available. Election authorities have until Thursday, December 24, to report the results of the election. Preliminary results may be issued earlier. In the race for the President of Serbia, in which Milan Panic and Slobodan Milosevic are the main contenders, a majority is required to win. If no candidate receives a majority, a run-off will be held between the top two candidates; and the run-off must be held by January 3. Our Embassy in Belgrade had observers throughout Serbia, including in Vojvodina, Kosovo, southern and central Serbia, and Belgrade. In addition, there were U.S. observers from the International Republican Institute and the Congressional CSCE Commission, as well as election observers from other CSCE states. Observers from CSCE states were present in both Serbia and Montenegro. The representative for the CSCE's Office of Democratic Institutions and Human Rights is expected to issue a statement on the elections today. Western observers have reported relatively few voting-day problems in Montenegro. U.S. and other Western observers have found significant irregularities in Serbia, especially regarding electoral lists. Many voters were excluded from voting because their names did not appear on the electoral lists. However, neither we nor the CSCE election observers have been able to make a judgment yet as to whether these problems with the electoral lists were the result of deliberate patterns of exclusion or the result of administrative errors. The exclusions varied considerably from district to district. Clearly the exclusion of voters affects the outcome of the election. If there's a run-off in the Serbian presidential race, we would expect that every effort would be made to allow those excluded from voting on December 20 to participate in a run-off. We haven't yet made a final determination on all aspects of the elections. We're waiting for the process to be completed, and we're comparing notes with other election observers. That said, I would reiterate what we've said before -- that we believe that the campaign period was decidedly unfair. In Serbia, the state-run media did not provide fair coverage and access to the opposition parties. Rather the media operated as a blatant propaganda instrument for the ruling party. These measures alone make it almost impossible for the elections to be fair. The Serbian authorities also manipulated campaign rules and procedures to hamper opposition candidates and parties. An example is the manner in which the confirmation of Milan Panic's candidacy was delayed, reducing the time he had to campaign. That's the view at this moment. Q When we talk about irregularities in lists -- I mean, does the Embassy have more information on the sort of people who are excluded? I mean were they known Panic supporters or something? MR. BOUCHER: I think at this point that's one of the reasons why the judgment is not clear as to whether it was a deliberate pattern of exclusion or whether it was administrative error. In some of the cases they've heard about, it looks like it was known Panic supporters; in others it may have been the other -- government supporters. So until they get a chance to analyze it more thoroughly, they can't tell you if it was a deliberate pattern or whether it was the result of various errors that were made locally. Q Is that the only irregularity that you're seeing or the most blatant irregularity, or are there other developments, too? MR. BOUCHER: Well, you have to divide it between sort of three phases, or probably more `if you are: an experienced election observer. We've talked about the difficulties and the problems that we saw, particularly with regard to access to the media during the campaign period. And if that's the way the campaign goes, that severely distorts the fairness and the likelihood that the results in fact could be fair in the end. Then you have the voting process, and these irregularities were reported in the voting process. That's the only one I'm aware of now, but some of the election observers on the ground may have more detail on that. And then there's the actual process of tabulation, which of course is also something that needs to be monitored during an election; and we'll see what the observers on the ground say about that. Q You have seen nothing on the tabulation situation? MR. BOUCHER: Nothing on the tabulation situation at this point. Q Is it significant that American Embassy people were able to get close enough to make these observations? Does it suggest that the government wanted to cooperate? In fact, does it suggest that they were holding a fair election and were not embarrassed about having the U.S. look over their shoulder? MR. BOUCHER: I wouldn't draw any conclusions at this point, Barry. Q Well, Richard, these irregularities, as far as the United States is concerned -- what impact would it have? Supposing the election were discovered to have been rigged, what difference would it make in our relations with Serbia? MR. BOUCHER: Jim, you know, I would say that's sort of hypothetical now, the point being that obviously the world wants to know whether these elections were free and fair. I'm sure the Serbian people, who go to the trouble of voting, would like to know if their elections were free and fair. And that's one thing that people monitor. Q How about the United Nations and its efforts at the next phase of the "no-fly" zone and any other activity? Apparently the Perm Five met this morning. MR. BOUCHER: We are consulting among close allies on a draft resolution to authorize enforcement of the "no-fly" zone. We hope to be able to move forward quickly and to pass such a resolution shortly. I can't give you a specific date for that, but we're talking about it in New York. Q By next week? MR. BOUCHER: We'll have to see. Q And, you know, I can guess that you do not want to talk about a potential waiting period or the conflict we're in with the French over the specificity of the enforcement language or any of those things. MR. BOUCHER: The negotiations on the actual content of the resolution are still proceeding. We're still discussing specific issues with regard to the resolution with the other countries up there. So, no, I don't particularly -- I'm just not able to tell you how those details will be addressed in the resolution.

[Israel: Status of Palestinian Deportees in Lebanon]

Q A couple of Palestinians were wounded today in this standoff over there in Lebanon. I wonder what comment you may have. MR. BOUCHER: I probably don't have as up-to-date information as you do on the situation, but let me tell you what we do know. We understand that the deportees complied with the request from the Government of Lebanon to move to a new position with the "No Man's Zone." They're now located about 400 meters away from a checkpoint to the so-called Israeli security zone. We've seen the reports that shots were fired in the direction of the deportees from within the so-called security zone and that at least one Palestinian was wounded. We don't have any further details on that at this moment. The Red Cross has distributed tents, food, and blankets to the stranded men over the weekend. As of today, however, the Lebanese Government has implemented a policy of denying access to the deportees by humanitarian organizations via Lebanon. The Lebanese Government insists that such access be through Israeli-controlled territory. That's where they stand. Q Any contact with the Lebanese Government over this refusal by the Lebanese to accept the deportees? MR. BOUCHER: I don't know, Jacques. Q Do you have any observations about the situation? Is this a healthy process? MR. BOUCHER: Well, I mean, we're watching the situation as it develops, and we really would urge all the parties to consider the welfare of the stranded men. These guys are just stuck there. Our views on the overall situation, I think, were expressed best last week in the explanation of vote that Ambassador Perkins gave. Q And are you in touch with the Governments of Israel and Lebanon on this? MR. BOUCHER: We've been following the situation closely. I'm sure we've discussed it with other governments. I don't have anything particular and specific on it. I'm sure those governments are well aware of our views. We've expressed them publicly; we discussed the issue up at the United Nations last week. Q It's cold over there; and we've already, as you say, had a couple of people wounded. How critical a situation is this in terms of resolving this soon? MR. BOUCHER: I don't know if I can describe that to you, Pat. I think, you know, I'd just state our views that we'd urge those involved in this situation to consider the welfare of the stranded men. Q Richard, you said the Governments of Lebanon and Israel are well aware of what you think about the situation; but you expressed your view much more on the Israeli of this story -- I mean, asking the Israelis to rescind their order or saying that it was not exactly the right thing to do. But you never really talked about the reaction to the refusal of the Lebanese to let those people move into Lebanon, and it's the first time. The Lebanese have accepted Palestinians before, and you said nothing about the fact that they did not accept these 400. MR. BOUCHER: Jacques, I'll check and see if we've had any contacts with the Lebanese Government on this. I would say that our views on the overall situation have been expressed, and we do think that the welfare of these men needs to be taken into account. But beyond that I'll just have to check and see if we've had any contact with the Lebanese Government. Jan? Q Richard, do you have any further clarification on the START treaty, START II -- whether or not, as President Yeltsin said, you do have something to sign? MR. BOUCHER: Both the President and Secretary Eagleburger addressed it yesterday, I think, on television. Q But there's been a whole day of work in Moscow since then. MR. BOUCHER: Well, we are engaged in a very high-level dialogue with the Russians. We are aiming at reaching agreement on the final technical issues standing in the way of the signing of the follow-on treaty to START. We think both sides are very interested in achieving this as soon as possible. We hope we are near to a final text of an agreement, but we and the Russians have not totally agreed on all the issues yet. Q How many issues are outstanding? MR. BOUCHER: I wouldn't be able to specify in great detail. I think the Secretary cited the main issues yesterday in his appearance. Q Well, as Jan says, there has been a whole day since yesterday. MR. BOUCHER: We're not going to do a countdown to three, one, or anything like that. Q I didn't watch him on television yesterday, but there were three mostly troubling issues. MR. BOUCHER: He mentioned SS-18s, SS-19s, and bombers being the principle issues outstanding. Q Well, I don't know how the President can say there's been good progress and how Yeltsin can say there's going to be an agreement if those three issues are still outstanding. Are they? MR. BOUCHER: Well, Barry, since I'm not able to go into the details of the discussions and where we are on each of those issues, I'm afraid I'm not in a position to clarify that further for you. Q I don't expect you to go into details. Have any of those three issues been settled? You don't have to say how. If you went into these eight days ago -- with four weeks left on the clock, as far as this Administration -- if you went into it with these three problems, and you still have these three problems, then somebody is exaggerating how much progress you're making and it might the President. MR. BOUCHER: Barry, I wouldn't say that the President is exaggerating how much progress we're making. We have a very high-level dialogue on this. The President knows better than you or I how much progress we're making, and I think we should take him at his word. I would just point out to you that the way to make progress on these kinds of issues is not necessarily to be able to say we're down to three, we're down to two, we're down to one, and then, boom, the launch goes off just like at Cape Canaveral. You can make progress on each of the individual issues without necessarily closing them out one by one. Howard?

[Iraq: Disruption of Humanitarian Relief]

Q A new area. What do you have new since Friday on northern Iraq -- the situation there? MR. BOUCHER: Northern Iraq. Well, on Friday the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Russia delivered a strong message to the Iraqi Permanent Representative to the United Nations. The Iraqi Perm Rep was informed that Iraq would be held responsible for its failure to provide safe passage for the delivery of humanitarian relief. The U.S. Permanent Representative to the U.N. -- that's Ambassador Perkins -- met over the course of the weekend with the U.N. Secretary General to express, on the part of the United States and others, the seriousness with which countries most involved in the relief efforts in northern Iraq view the Iraqi sabotage against relief convoys. Ambassador Perkins also emphasized the importance of adequate protection for the trucks carrying relief supplies. Q What's happened to the delivery of the supplies since then? MR. BOUCHER: As far as I know, they haven't been able to deliver supplies given the security situation. Q Have they gotten any response to this? MR. BOUCHER: Not that I'm aware of at this point. Q What was the Secretary General's response to Perkins? MR. BOUCHER: I think you'll have to ask the Secretary General about his views, but we've made clear the importance of proceeding -- Q Is the U.S. satisfied that the U.N. is acting as it should? MR. BOUCHER: I'm not sure we have a complete response at this point from the United Nations. And, of course, we've always supported the U.N. efforts to get relief supplies into that area. Q Richard, if I can follow that up. There were U.S. concerns when the October agreement was worked out, and later I got a reading that the U.S. figured it could live with it. Are there any regrets that the agreement was too weak and -- MR. BOUCHER: Well, I guess what I would say, Howard, is that the burden rests on the Iraqis. Despite their agreement in October to a Memorandum of Understanding which established the framework for relief efforts, Iraq has failed to keep its commitments; and those commitments involve facilitating the safe and rapid delivery of relief throughout the country. Iraqi interference, as you know, has taken on this disturbing dimension. Last week we had at least 15 trucks that were damaged by bombs. It puts the truck drivers, the Turkish truck drivers, at mortal risk; and we think it's becoming a pattern of sabotage against relief vehicles. So even the agreement that the Iraqis gave in October to this Memorandum of Understanding that would have them facilitate the rapid delivery of relief, the Iraqis haven't even lived up to that. Q When you're say you're holding the Iraqis responsible for the safe delivery, what does that mean? What are you saying? What are you threatening? MR. BOUCHER: John, I think at this point I'll just have to say that Iraq is responsible for the sabotage and Iraq is also responsible for the failure to provide safe passage, and we'll have to look at what's necessary to ensure the safe passage. Q The Iraqis have proposed to join with the U.N., to have joint inspection with the U.N. of the trucks. Would you say that this is a solution acceptable by you? MR. BOUCHER: I'll have to check on that. I heard about that this morning. I'm afraid I wasn't able to get any information on it. Q Does the U.S. think there is sufficient authority to enforce this delivery? Do you need anything new should you decide to use force, which I suppose is what you're threatening. I don't know. MR. BOUCHER: Barry, I don't want to -- as John asked me, did I want to clarify any further what the consequences might be? I said I didn't at this point. The U.N. resolutions provide that Iraq should facilitate the work of U.N. agencies. They provide that Iraq should not keep relief from getting to its needy populations. The coalition and the United Nations have made very clear all along that we intend to see that needy people are taken care of in northern Iraq, and that's the direction in which we intend to proceed. Q Is there a provision, "all appropriate means" or something like that? MR. BOUCHER: I'd have to go back through the exact U.N. resolutions, but I think it has been made very clear that the U.N. has the authority to get relief through. Q The October agreement makes no reference to diesel fuel. The Iraqi position is that since it's not mentioned, diesel fuel should not be delivered, as I understand it. Does the United States believe that diesel fuel should be made available to the people of northern Iraq? MR. BOUCHER: I'm not sure that diesel fuel is or is not mentioned in that agreement. I would go back to the fact that there are a series of United Nations resolutions which provide that the Iraqis can, should, and must facilitate the delivery of supplies to needy populations, and that we have made very clear our intention to see that that goes through. Q Are those half-dozen divisions still milling around up there? MR. BOUCHER: The situation on troops, as far as we see it, is that Iraq has long had forces in northern Iraq that are capable of moving against Kurdish areas on short notice; and they also understand, we think, the serious consequences that would result if they moved against the Kurds. As we've said, Iraq continues to use its military to intimidate and frustrate U.N.-led efforts to provide humanitarian assistance to the citizens of Iraq. It's a direct violation of their obligations under U.N. Security Council Resolution 688. Q Richard, can you clarify whether there's actually been any beefing up of the Iraqi forces there or are they just shifting material around? MR. BOUCHER: I'm afraid, given how we know what we know about the situation, I don't think that's something I'm able to do for you. But I would point out that they've long had the forces in the area that would be capable of moving on short notice. Q Richard, do the Kurds have any rights beyond the right to eat? Do they have any rights of autonomy, in the State Department view? MR. BOUCHER: Barry, we've expressed our views on that many times before. We don't -- Q They get hammered all the time, and I wondered if your views have evolved to the point where they're on a footing with the Palestinians, with the Bosnians, or Slovakians? MR. BOUCHER: As you know, Barry, we don't do comparisons. We have said that we support the territorial integrity of Iraq. We look forward to an Iraq where all its people have the chance to choose their own government. Q Have the Turks pulled out from northern Iraq -- the Turkish army? MR. BOUCHER: I don't know exactly where that stands, frankly. I guess you better check with the Turkish Government on that. Q Back on the Palestinians again. The National Association of Arab-Americans are calling on the Administration today to take a firmer tone with Israel. Their argument is that we have a lot of leverage and we're not really using it the way we might. Any response to that? MR. BOUCHER: I didn't see those comments. I think our actions, our statements, speak for themselves. Q Someone might observe that today, for example, with a couple people being wounded, there was no sort of strong statement of condemnation here today. MR. BOUCHER: Pat, we made a very strong statement Friday night. I don't know if you guys noticed it, but Ambassador Perkins expressed our views. We've expressed our views repeatedly. Senior Administration officials have been asked about it and expressed our views. I think we've been clearly on the record with what our views are. Q On the topic of another election, what is the State Department's view of the outcome of the first democratic election of legislators in Taiwan? MR. BOUCHER: As you say, Saturday's election was the first time that all the seats within Taiwan's legislative Yuan have been contested. It represents another important step forward in Taiwan's ongoing democratization process. By all accounts, turnout was approximately 70 percent, and the election process itself appears to have been free, fair and largely without incident. Q Richard, do you have any comment on the Cuban pilot who went to Cuba, piloting a small plane, and picked up his family and returned to the United States? MR. BOUCHER: No, I don't. Q No congratulations? Q Any legal problem in this action? Did they apply for asylum? MR. BOUCHER: That would be in the hands of INS. I don't have anything on that. Q Richard, could I go back to the "no-fly" enforcement, please? MR. BOUCHER: Sure. Q A lot of things are unsettled, obviously. But I wonder, is there a decision on whether the enforcement should be entirely by NATO countries, or would Japan have a role? And even though Germany's in NATO, you know the German problem. Would Germany have a role? Or is that too early to -- MR. BOUCHER: I think it's too early to speculate on that. Obviously, as the Secretary said over the weekend in the TV show that you didn't watch, the military would have to decide on how best to enforce the resolution. You're well aware that NATO last week, as a whole NATO Foreign Ministers in their communique said that NATO was prepared to help to enforce the resolution should one be passed and should violations continue. That's about where we are now. I don't think we can move beyond that until -- Q Well, the military deciding what the military role should be -- MR. BOUCHER: -- we have a resolution. Q -- I understand that. But before you have the military, you have a certain number of nations participating, and I wondered if it will be an exclusively NATO operation? MR. BOUCHER: I can't define that for you at this point. We'll have to see. Q Richard, anything new on Haiti? I know the U.N. has sent somebody down there, but I hear there are some other negotiations going on. MR. BOUCHER: I don't have anything new on Haiti. I didn't check today. I don't have anything. Q The "no-fly" zone again. A week ago the French said they were pushing for a resolution in the U.N. Are you pushing -- on that one are you pushing in the same direction, or are you pushing in different directions? MR. BOUCHER: We are working with the other governments. I think you saw that the President and John Major discussed it over the weekend. We're talking to the French and talking to others up in New York about the exact content of the resolution, but we're all pushing in the same direction. Obviously, we stated very clearly our view last week that it was time to move to "no-fly" enforcement. Q Do you have anything on South African President de Klerk's decision over the weekend and how that will affect U.S.-South African relations? MR. BOUCHER: I'm not sure I can tell you how the specific decision would affect U.S.-South African relations, but we would welcome the steps taken by President de Klerk to discipline members of the military implicated in illegal activities. We hope that his positive actions will send a clear signal to all South Africans that illegal activities by security forces will not be tolerated.

[Angola: Update on DAS Davidow's Meetings with UN/ UNITA to Withdraw Troops.

Q On Angola, Richard, do you have any update on Mr. Davidow's talks in Luanda? MR. BOUCHER: The Deputy Assistant Secretary for African Affairs, Jeffrey Davidow, has been visiting Angola. The trip was 17-21 December. He was in Angola to offer U.S. support in resolving the current crisis. He has met with Jonas Savimbi in Huambo on December 19. He met with President Dos Santos this morning. During the visit, he also held discussions with other government and UNITA officials, as well as with the U.N. Special Representative, other observers to the peace accords and representative of other diplomatic missions in Luanda. What's happening out there is that we understand that both UNITA and the government have agreed on a calendar of steps that will lead to a resumption of the dialogue. As a first step, the plan calls for UNITA to ensure the complete withdrawal of its forces from the cities of Uige and Negage which were occupied on November 29. Once that withdrawal is verified, the government would then return civilian administrators to both cities. This would clear the way for the resumption of face-to-face talks, first in Namibia and then in Luanda. We consider this a positive development. We hope that the parties will take these steps as quickly as possible. UNITA has reportedly already dispatched a senior military official to Uige to work with the United Nations on verifying the withdrawal of troops. Q Richard, one more on my South African questions. Was the U.S. surprised by de Klerk's actions? Did it vindicate or justify U.S. investigations at all or thinking on this subject? MR. BOUCHER: I don't really know. I didn't check that deeply into what we might have expected in advance. Q Do you have anything else that you can offer on it? MR. BOUCHER: No. Q Richard, there were reports that the United States is opposing the re-election, I believe, of the Japanese Director of the World Health Organization. Do you have any comment on that subject? MR. BOUCHER: I would say, I think, what we've been saying for quite a while, that we've decided to support the candidacy of another. We've decided to support the election of Dr. Mohamed Abdelmoumene of Algeria for this post. We think the World Health Organization is one of the most important agencies of the U.N. system, but it does require new leadership in these challenging times for international health issues. We have been very impressed by Dr. Abdelmoumene of Algeria, who until recently has been the Deputy Director of the World Health Organization. We believe he would make an excellent Director General, and we've informed the Government of Algeria that we will support him in the January 1993 election. Q Was he the one who was in Somalia? Q No. MR. BOUCHER: I don't think so, but you can check with him. Q Do you have any assessment of that job currently done by Dr. Nakajima? MR. BOUCHER: No, I don't. I don't have any specific assessment of the job he has done. I'd just say that we've decided to support another candidate. Q Well, there were serious allegations against him contained in the article. Do you know if any of those allegations are true? MR. BOUCHER: I don't have anything on those allegations one way or the other. I would just say that we've decided that we support a different candidate. We think this candidate, Dr. Abdelmoumene, is a good candidate. He's a man who can run the agency in a very difficult time. Q Do you have -- could you confirm the internal State Department briefing report which said about the Japanese Government's intimidation tactics? MR. BOUCHER: No. I think you'd best ask the Japanese Government about what its tactics are and how it's going on about supporting Dr. Nakajima. Q Richard, Russian President Yeltsin said in Beijing last week that Russia is going to develop military cooperation with China and will sell defense weapons to China. Do you have any comment on that? MR. BOUCHER: I haven't seen anything specific about those statements. I think we've expressed our view before that arms sales need to be carefully looked at; that arms sales need to be regulated and governed by a policy of ensuring stability and not destabilizing areas. And we would think that countries would be particularly careful about sales to countries on their own periphery. This is a subject that we've discussed before with the Russians. We've discussed it bilaterally in a variety of fora, and it's a dialogue that we have with them that continues. Q Thank you. MR. BOUCHER: We've got one more over there. Q On Somalia, is there any progress on the reconciliation or cooperation between the two factions leaders, cooperation after the first meeting with Ambassador Oakley? MR. BOUCHER: We have continued to talk to them. Ambassador Oakley has been meeting. In fact -- well, first of all, he's been holding discussions with the U.N. Special Representative, Ambassador Kittani, on plans for the conference of political reconciliation which the U.N. is hosting in Addis Ababa on January 4. In addition, they've been monitoring security and relief developments in Baidoa and Kismayu, coordinating these activities with the United Task Force and the relief community. He has continued his consultations with factions leaders in Mogadishu on the implementation of the agreement that includes the removal of heavy weapons and militias from the city. Those discussions have continued, I'm sure, with others as well, but we'll just have to see how quickly it can happen. Q What is the U.S. thinking on how you're going to resolve the problem of the warlords coming right back into an area or the gangs coming back into an area as soon as the U.S. leaves? MR. BOUCHER: That's a question we've addressed a number of times in a number of ways. As you know, the U.S. coalition, the U.S.-led coalition, operates under the U.N.; it will be out there to establish a secure environment; and then the environment will be turned over to a follow-on United Nations peacekeeping force that will be developed -- that is being developed even as we speak -- one that will be sufficient to maintain the security after the initial force starts to pull out. Q In the meeting of your plans, January, the other faction leaders like Colonel Jesse whom a U.S. Marine captain met yesterday could join to the meeting and other factions leaders? MR. BOUCHER: There has been a lot of -- there were a lot of Somali leaders of various kinds that were represented at the last meeting in Addis, and I'm sure the United Nations will be doing whatever it can to ensure that the leaders attend -- that as many leaders as possible, people representing different factions, different parts of the body politic, show up at the meeting in Addis on January 4. Q Thank you. (The briefing concluded at 12:57 p.m.)