U.S. Department of State 
Background Notes: Trinidad and Tobago, April 1997
Released by the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs.

Official Name: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago



Area: 5,128 sq. km. (1,980 sq. mi.); about 1.5 times the size of Rhode 
Cities: Capital - Port of Spain (metropolitan pop. 300,000). Other 
cities - San Fernando, Arima, Chaguanas.
Terrain: Plains and low mountains.
Climate: Tropical; rainy season (June through December).


Nationality: Noun and adjective Trinidadian(s) and Tobagonian(s).
Population: 1.28 million.
Annual growth rate: 1.2%.
Ethnic groups: African 40%, East Indian 40%, mixed 18%, European 1%, 
Chinese and other 1%.
Religions: Roman Catholic 30%, Anglican 11%, Muslim 6%, other 29%.
Language: English.
Education: Years compulsory - 8. Literacy: 97%.
Health: Infant mortality rate - 12/1,000. Life expectancy - males 68 
yrs., females - 73 yrs.
Work force: (4/96) (518,300): Trade and services - 61%, construction - 
13%, manufacturing - 11%, agriculture - 9%, oil/gas - 4%.


Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 31,1962.
Present constitution: August 31, 1976.
Branches: Executive - president (chief of state), prime minister (head 
of government), cabinet.
Legislative - bicameral parliament.
Judicial - independent court system; highest court of appeal is Privy 
Council in London.
Subdivisions: 7 counties, 4 municipalities (Trinidad); Tobago
House of Assembly (Tobago).
Political parties: People's National Movement (PNM), United National 
Congress (UNC), National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR) and others.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.

ECONOMY (1996)

GDP: $5.4 billion.
Annual growth rate: 3.1%.
Per capita income: $4,287
Natural resources: Oil and natural gas, lumber, fish.
Economic Sectors: Hydrocarbons (25% of GDP): crude oil, natural gas, 
petrochemicals. Agriculture (3.5% of GDP): sugar, cocoa, citrus, 
poultry. Industry (8% of GDP): processed food and beverages, 
manufacturing, printing.
Trade: Exports - $2.4 billion: crude oil and petroleum products (49%), 
petrochemicals (26%), iron and steel, sugar and agricultural products. 
Major markets - U.S. (almost 50%), CARICOM, Puerto Rico, France, 
Colombia, Dominican Republic. Imports - $l.7 billion: machinery and 
transport equipment (37%), manufactured goods (28%), food and 
agricultural products (13%), chemicals (13%). Major suppliers - U.S. 
(more than 50%), U.K., Germany, Canada, Brazil, CARICOM.
Exchange rate (1997): TT $6.5=U.S. $1. 00


Trinidad and Tobago and the U.S. enjoy cordial relations. U.S. interests 
focus on investment and trade, and on enhancing Trinidad's political and 
social stability and positive regional role through assistance in drug 
interdiction and legal affairs. A U.S. embassy was established in Port 
of Spain in 1962, replacing the former consulate general.

In 1995, bilateral assistance from all sources to Trinidad and Tobago 
amounted to over US $1 million mostly USIA grants, International 
Military Education and Training (IMET) , Department of Agriculture 
scholarships, and counter-narcotics assistance. Assistance to Trinidad 
from U.S. military and law enforcement authorities remains important to 
the bilateral relationship and to accomplishing U. S. policy objectives. 

U.S. commercial ties with Trinidad and Tobago have always been strong 
and have grown substantially in the last several years due to economic 
liberalization. U.S. firms plan to invest over $3 billion from 1996 to 
1998 - mostly in the petrochemical, oil/gas, and iron/steel sectors. 
More than 50 of America's largest corporations have commercial relations 
with Trinidad and Tobago, and more than 20 U.S. firms have offices and 
operations in the country. The U.S. Embassy actively fosters bilateral 
business ties and provides a number of commercial services to potential 
investors and traders. Two bilateral treaties - Extradition and Mutual 
Legal Assistance - and a Maritime Counter-drug agreement were signed in 
March 1996 on the occasion of the visit to Trinidad of Secretary of 
State Warren Christopher. A tax information exchange agreement was 
signed in 1989, and a Bilateral Investment Treaty and an Intellectual 
Property Rights Agreement were signed in 1994. The Bilateral Investment 
Treaty entered into force in December 1996. Trinidad and Tobago is a 
beneficiary of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI).

There are large numbers of U.S. citizens and permanent residents of 
Trinidadian origin living in the United States (mostly in New York), 
which keeps cultural ties strong. Approximately 20,000 U.S. citizens 
visit Trinidad and Tobago on vacation or for business every year, and 
over 2,700 American citizens are residents.

Principal U.S. Embassy 
Officials Ambassador -- Brian J. Donnelly 
Deputy Chief of Mission -- Edward Smith 
Economic/Commercial Officer -- Oliver Griffith 
Political Officer -- Randy Depoo
Consul General -- James Flynn 
Administrative Officer -- Sura Johnson (8/97) 
Public Affairs Officer -- David Bustamante (7/97)

The U.S. embassy in Trinidad and Tobago is located at 15 Queen's Park 
West, Port of Spain, (tel. 809 622-6371, fax 809 628-5462).

Other Contact Information: 
U.S. Department of Commerce 
International Trade Administration 
Office of Latin America and the Caribbean 
14th and Constitution, NW 
Washington, DC 20230 Tel: (202) 482-1658; 800-USA-TRADE 
Fax: (202) 482-0464

Caribbean/Latin American Action 
1818 N St., NW, Suite 310
Washington, DC 20036 
Tel: (202) 466-7464 
Fax: (202) 822-0075

American Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad and Tobago 
Hilton International - Upper Arcade 
Lady Young Road 
Port of Spain, Trinidad, W.I. 
Tel: (809) 627-8570/7404, 624-3211 
Fax: (809) 627-7405 
E-mail: amchamtrinidad.net 
Home Page: http://www.trinidad.net/chambers/acchome.htm


Columbus landed in Trinidad in 1498, and the island was settled by the 
Spanish a century later. The original inhabitants - Arawak and Carib 
Indians - were largely wiped out by the Spanish colonizers, and the 
survivors were gradually assimilated. Although it attracted French, free 
Black, and other non-Spanish settlers, Trinidad remained under Spanish 
rule until the British captured it in 1797. During the colonial period, 
Trinidad's economy relied on large sugar and cocoa plantations.

Tobago's development was similar to other plantation islands in the 
Lesser Antilles and quite different from Trinidad's. During the colonial 
period, French, Dutch, and British forces fought over possession of 
Tobago, and the island changed hands 22 times, more often than any other 
West Indian island. Tobago was finally ceded to Great Britain in 1814. 
Trinidad and Tobago were incorporated into a single colony in 1888.

In 1958, the United Kingdom tried to establish an independent Federation 
of the West Indies comprising most of the former British West Indies. 
However, disagreement over the structure of the federation and Jamaica 
and Trinidad and Tobago's withdrawal soon led to its collapse. Trinidad 
and Tobago achieved full independence in 1962 and joined the British 

Trinidad and Tobago's people are mainly of African or East Indian 
descent. Virtually all speak English. Small percentages also speak 
Hindi, French patois, and several other dialects. Trinidad has two major 
folk traditions: Creole and East Indian. Creole is a mixture of African 
elements with Spanish, French, and English colonial culture. Trinidad's 
East Indian culture came to the island with indentured servants brought 
to fill a labor shortage created by the emancipation of the African 
slaves in 1833. Most remained on the land, and they still dominate the 
agricultural sector, but many have become prominent in business and the 
professions. East Indians have retained much of their own way of life, 
including Hindu and Muslim religious festivals and practices.


Endowed with rich deposits of oil and natural gas, Trinidad and Tobago 
became one of the most prosperous countries in the Western Hemisphere 
during the oil boom of the 1970s. Oil revenues let the government embark 
on a rapid industrial and infrastructural development program. Part of 
this was the acquisition of more than 60 state-run enterprises, most of 
which eventually became serious drains on public finances.

With the collapse in oil prices in the early 1980s, Trinidad and Tobago 
slumped into a recession from which it only emerged in 1994. With the 
help of a stringent adjustment program, which began in 1988, Trinidad 
and Tobago's economy has shifted from central planning to free market 
policies, with extensive trade and investment liberalization, divestment 
of state enterprises, and an emphasis on economic diversification and 
export-led growth. 

However, Trinidad and Tobago's economy remains tied to the hydrocarbon 
sector, which still accounts for more than 25% of GDP. Although the 
government, with the help of several foreign oil companies, is pursuing 
an aggressive oil exploration and exploitation campaign, natural gas is 
rapidly replacing oil as the foundation of the economy. It has become 
the input or power source for ammonia, urea, methanol, iron carbide, and 
steel production. U.S. multi-nationals dominate the oil, gas, and 
petrochemical sectors. 

Other successful Trinidadian enterprises are primarily in services - 
banks, insurance firms and other financial institutions - as well as 
trading and distribution companies. Tourism, which only accounts for 
about 3% of GDP (mostly in Tobago), is targeted for expansion and is 
growing, especially in the pleasure boat sector.

Trinidad and Tobago's agricultural sector, which usually generates less 
than 4% of GDP a year, is dominated by sugar. However, the parastatal 
agricultural firm, Caroni Ltd., has diversified into rice, citrus, and 
aquaculture, with limited success. Cocoa and coffee production have 
declined over the years. 

Trinidad and Tobago purchases a broad range of goods and services 
abroad, more than half of them from the U.S. which, in turn, buys almost 
half of Trinidad and Tobago's exports. Policy changes to make Trinidad 
and Tobago more attractive to foreign investors have been implemented, 
including privatization of state firms, and revisions of tax and tariff 
rates and removal of import restrictions on nearly all products.

According to the Trinidad and Tobago Central Statistical Office, real 
GDP growth averaged 2.3% in 1995, following on 3.5% growth in 1994 - a 
marked improvement after a decade of economic decline. Debt-service 
payments, inflation and most other macroeconomic indicators have also 
improved dramatically over the past several years. Persistent 
unemployment of over 16% remains one of the chief challenges of the 


Trinidad and Tobago is a unitary state, with a parliamentary democracy 
modeled after that of the U.K. From 1962 until 1976, Trinidad and 
Tobago, although completely independent, acknowledged the British 
monarch as the figurehead chief of state. In 1976, the country adopted a 
republican constitution, replacing Queen Elizabeth with a president 
elected by parliament. The general direction and control of the 
government rests with the cabinet, led by a prime minister and 
answerable to the bicameral parliament. 

The 36 members of the House of Representatives are elected to terms of 
at least five years. Elections may be called earlier by the president at 
the request of the prime minister or after a vote of no confidence in 
the House of Representatives. The Senate's 31 members are appointed by 
the president: 16 on the advice of the prime minister, six on the advice 
of the leader of the opposition, and nine independents selected by the 
president from among outstanding members of the community. Trinidad's 
seven counties and four largest cities are administered by elected 
councils. Tobago was given a measure of self-government in 1980 and is 
ruled by the Tobago House of Assembly.

The country's highest court is the Court of Appeal, whose chief justice 
is appointed by the president with the concurrence of the prime minister 
and the leader of the opposition. Final appeal on some matters is 
decided by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

Principal Government Officials 
President -- Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson 
Prime Minister -- Basdeo Panday 
Minister of Foreign -- Affairs Ralph Maraj 
Ambassador to the U.S. and the OAS -- Corinne McKnight 
Ambassador to the UN -- Annette des Iles

The embassy of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is located at 1708 
Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 (tel. 202 467-6490) (fax. 


The first political party in Trinidad and Tobago with a continuing 
organization and program - the People's National Movement (PNM) - 
emerged in 1956 under Dr. Eric Williams, who became Prime Minister upon 
independence and remained in that position until his death in 1981. 
Politics have generally run along ethnic lines, with Afro-Trinidadians 
supporting the PNM and Indo-Trinidadians supporting various Indian-
majority parties, such as the United National Congress (UNC) or its 
predecessors. Most political parties, however, have sought to broaden 
their purview. 

The PNM remained in power following the death of Dr. Williams, but its 
30-year rule ended in 1986 when the National Alliance for Reconstruction 
(NAR), a rainbow party aimed at Trinidadians of both African and Indian 
descent, won a landslide victory by capturing 33 of 36 seats. Tobago's 
A.N.R. Robinson, the NAR's political leader, was named Prime Minister. 
The NAR also won 11 of the 12 seats in the Tobago House of Assembly. The 
NAR began to break down when the Indian component withdrew in 1988. 
Basdeo Panday, leader of the old United Labor Front (ULF), formed the 
new opposition with the UNC. The NAR's margin was immediately reduced to 
27 seats, with six for the UNC and three for the PNM.

In July 1990, the Jamaat al Muslimeen, an extremist Black Muslim group 
with an unresolved grievance against the government over land claims, 
tried to overthrow the NAR government. The group held the prime minister 
and members of parliament hostage for five days while rioting shook Port 
of Spain. After a long standoff with the police and military, Black 
Muslim leader Yasin Abu Bakr and his followers surrendered to 
Trinidadian authorities. In July 1992, the Court of Appeal upheld the 
validity of a government amnesty given to the Jamaat members during the 
hostage crisis. All 114 members of the Jamaat jailed since the coup 
attempt were released. The government appealed the ruling.

In December 1991, the NAR captured only the two districts in Tobago. The 
PNM, led by Patrick Manning, carried a majority of 21 seats, and the UNC 
came in second. Patrick Manning became the new Prime Minister, and 
Basdeo Panday continued to lead the opposition. In November 1995, 
Manning called early elections, in which the PNM and UNC both won 17 
seats and the NAR won two seats. The UNC allied with the NAR and formed 
the new government, with Basdeo Panday becoming prime minister. Prime 
Minister Panday has continued free market economic policies and has 
worked to boost foreign and domestic investments. Panday has shown 
significant cooperation with the United States and leadership in the 
regional fight against narcotics trafficking.


Trinidad and Tobago is a democracy that maintains close relations with 
its Caribbean neighbors and major North American and European trading 
partners. As the most industrialized and second largest country in the 
English-speaking Caribbean, Trinidad and Tobago has taken a leading role 
in the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), and strongly 
supports CARICOM economic integration efforts. It is also active in the 
U.S.-initiated Summit of the Americas process and fully supports the 
establishment of the Free Trade Area of the Americas. As a member of 
CARICOM, Trinidad and Tobago strongly backed efforts by the United 
States to bring political stability to Haiti, contributing personnel to 
the Multinational Force in 1994.

After its 1962 independence, Trinidad joined the UN and the 
Commonwealth. In 1967, it became the first Commonwealth country to join 
the Organization of American States (OAS). In 1995 Trinidad played host 
to the inaugural meeting of the Association of Caribbean States and has 
become the seat of this 35-member grouping, which seeks to further 
economic progress and integration among its states. In international 
forums, Trinidad and Tobago generally supports U.S. and EU positions, 
while guarding an independent voting record.


The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program provides 
Travel Warnings and Consular Information Sheets. Travel Warnings are 
issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel 
to a certain country. Consular Information Sheets exist for all 
countries and include information on immigration practices, currency 
regulations, health conditions, areas of instability, crime and 
security, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. posts in 
the country. Public Announcements are issued as a means to disseminate 
information quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively short-
term conditions overseas which pose significant risks to the security of 
American travelers. Free copies of this information are available by 
calling the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202-647-5225 or via the fax-
on-demand system: 202-647-3000. Travel Warnings and Consular Information 
Sheets also are available on the Consular Affairs Internet home page: 
http://travel.state.gov and the Consular Affairs Bulletin Board (CABB). 
To access CABB, dial the modem number: (301-946-4400 (it will 
accommodate up to 33,600 bps), set terminal communications program to N-
8-1 (no parity, 8 bits, 1 stop bit); and terminal emulation to VT100. 
The login is travel and the password is info (Note: Lower case is 
required). The CABB also carries international security information from 
the Overseas Security Advisory Council and Department's Bureau of 
Diplomatic Security. Consular Affairs Trips for Travelers publication 
series, which contain information on obtaining passports and planning a 
safe trip abroad, can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-
7954; telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250. 

Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be 
obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-
5225. For after-hours emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-

Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-hour, 7-
day a week automated system ($.35 per minute) or live operators 8 a.m. 
to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday ($1.05 per minute). The number is 1-900-
225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778). Major credit card users (for a flat rate 
of $4.95) may call 1-888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648) 

Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers 
for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at 
(404) 332-4559 gives the most recent health advisories, immunization 
recommendations or requirements, and advice on food and drinking water 
safety for regions and countries. A booklet entitled Health Information 
for International Travel (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280) is 
available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 
20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.

Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and 
customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to 
travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a country's 
embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see Principal 
Government Officials listing in this publication). 

U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous 
areas, are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a 
country (see Principal U.S. Embassy Officials listing in this 
publication). This may help family members contact you in case of an 

Further Electronic Information: 

Department of State Foreign Affairs Network. Available on the Internet, 
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DOSFAN's World Wide Web site is at http://www.state.gov; this site has a 
link to the DOSFAN Gopher Research Collection, which also is accessible 
at gopher://gopher.state.gov. 

U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published on a semi-annual basis 
by the U.S. Department of State, USFAC archives information on the 
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network, and includes an array of 
official foreign policy information from 1990 to the present. Contact 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. 
Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. To order, call (202) 512-1800 or 
fax (202) 512-2250.

National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department of 
Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related information, 
including Country Commercial Guides. It is available on the Internet 
(www.stat-usa.gov) and on CD-ROM. Call the NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-
1986 for more information. 

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