U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Peru, October 1998
Released by the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs.
Official Name: Republic of Peru
Area: 1.28 million sq. km. (496,225 sq. mi.); three times larger than
Cities: Capital--Lima/Callao metropolitan area (pop. 7 million, 1996).
Other cities--Arequipa, Chiclayo,
Cuzco, Huancayo, Trujillo, Ayacucho, Piura, Iquitos, Chimbote.
Terrain: Western coastal plains, central rugged mountains (Andes),
eastern lowlands with tropical forests.
Climate: Coastal area, arid and mild; Andes, temperate to frigid;
eastern lowlands, tropically warm and
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Peruvian(s).
Population (1997 est.): 24.9 million (70% urban).
Annual growth rate (1997 est.): 1.7%.
Ethnic groups: Indian 45%; Mestizo 37%; White 15%; Black, Japanese,
Chinese, and other 3%.
Religion: Roman Catholic (90%).
Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), and Aymara.
Education: Years compulsory--11. Literacy--about 89%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (1997 est.)--43/1,000. Life expectancy
(1997)--67 yrs. male; 71 yrs. female.
Work force (1995, 7.6 million): Manufacturing--22%. Commerce--14%.
Construction--9%. Government--5%. Other services--27%.
Type: Constitutional republic.
Constitution: December 1993.
Branches: Executive--president, two vice presidents, Council of
Congress. Judicial--Supreme Court and lower courts, Tribunal of
Administrative subdivisions: 12 regions, 24 departments, 1
Political parties and movements: Change 90/New Majority, Union For Peru
(UPF), American Popular
Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Independent Moralizer Front (FIM),
Popular Christian Party (PPC),
Popular Action (AP).
Suffrage: Universal over 18; compulsory until age 70 (members of the
military may not vote).
GDP (est.): $54.0 billion.
Annual growth rate: 7.4%.
Per capita GDP: $2,150.
Inflation rate: 6.5%.
Natural resources: Minerals, metals, petroleum, forests, and fish.
Agriculture (12% of GDP): Products--sugar, potatoes, rice, plantain,
milk, yellow corn, cotton, coffee.
Industry (22% of GDP): Types-plastics, soft drinks, paper, varnishes and
lacquers, non-metallic minerals,
Trade: Exports--$6.8 billion: petroleum, fish meal, textiles, zinc,
gold, coffee, sugar, petroleum products.
Major markets--U.S. (23%), China (7.3%), Switzerland (6.1%), Germany
(5.7%). Imports--$8.6 billion:
machinery, cereals, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, petroleum and mining
equipment. Major suppliers--U.S.
(25%), Andean Pact countries, Argentina, EU, and Japan.
Official exchange rate (new soles per dollar, March 1998): 3.00=U.S.$1.
Most Peruvians are mestizo, a term that usually refers to a mixture of
Amerindians and Peruvians of
European descent. Peruvians of European descent make up about 15% of the
population; there are also
smaller numbers of persons of African, Japanese, and Chinese descent. In
the past decade, Peruvians of
Asian heritage have made significant advancements in business and
political fields; the president, a cabinet
member, and several members of the Peruvian Congress are of Japanese or
Chinese descent. Socio-
economic and cultural indicators are increasingly important as
identifiers. For example, Peruvians of
Amerindian descent who have adopted aspects of Hispanic culture are also
considered mestizo. With
economic development, access to education, intermarriage, and large-
scale migration from rural to urban
areas, a more homogeneous national culture is developing, mainly along
the relatively more prosperous
Peru has two official languages--Spanish and the foremost indigenous
language, Quechua. Spanish is used
by the government and the media, and in education and commerce.
Amerindians who live in the Andean
highlands speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from the
diverse indigenous groups who
live on the eastern side of the Andes and in the tropical lowlands
adjacent to the Amazon basin.
Peru's distinct geographical regions are mirrored in a socio-economic
divide between the coast's mestizo-
Hispanic culture and the more diverse, traditional Andean cultures of
the mountains and highlands. The
indigenous populations east of the Andes speak various languages and
dialects. Some of these groups still
adhere to traditional customs, while others have been almost completely
assimilated into the mestizo-
Under the 1993 constitution, primary education is free and compulsory.
The system is highly centralized,
with the Ministry of Education appointing all public school teachers.
Eighty-four percent of Peru's students
attend public schools at all levels.
School enrollment has been rising sharply for years, due to a widening
educational effort by the
government and a growing school-age population. The illiteracy rate is
25.3 % (37.5% for women) in rural
areas and is estimated at 5.3% (8.1% for women) in urban areas.
Elementary and secondary school
enrollment is approximately 6.l million. Peru's 65 universities (1997),
roughly divided between public and
private institutions, enrolled about 380,000 students in 1996.
The relationship between Hispanic and Indian cultures determines much of
the nation's cultural expression.
During pre-Columbian times, Peru was one of the major centers of
artistic expression in America. Pre-Inca
cultures, such as Chavin, Paracas, Nazca, Chimu, and Tiahuanaco,
developed high quality pottery, textiles,
and sculpture. Drawing upon earlier cultures, the Incas continued to
maintain these crafts but made even
more impressive achievements in architecture. The mountain town of Machu
Picchu and the buildings at
Cuzco are excellent examples of Inca architectural design.
Peru has passed through various intellectual stages--from colonial
Hispanic culture to European
Romanticism after independence. The early 20th century brought
"indigenismo," expressed in a new
awareness of Indian culture. Since World War II, Peruvian writers,
artists, and intellectuals have
participated in worldwide intellectual and artistic movements, drawing
especially on U.S. and European
During the colonial period, Spanish baroque fused with the rich Inca
tradition to produce mestizo or creole
art. The Peruvian (Cuzco) school followed the Spanish baroque tradition
with influence from the Italian,
Flemish, and French schools. Painter Francisco Fierro made a distinctive
contribution with his portrayals of
typical events, manners, and customs of mid-19th century Peru. Francisco
Lazo, forerunner of the
indigenous school of painters, also achieved fame for his portraits, as
did others. Peru's 20th century art is
widely known for its extraordinary variety of styles and originality.
In the decade after 1932, the "indigenous school" of painting headed by
Jose Sabogal dominated the
cultural scene in Peru. Nevertheless, a reaction among Peruvian artists
led to the beginning of modern
Peruvian painting. Sabogal's resignation as director of the National
School of Arts in 1943 coincided with
the return of several Peruvian painters from Europe who revitalized
"universal" and international styles of
painting in Peru. During the 1960s, Fernando de Szyszlo, an
internationally recognized Peruvian artist,
became the main advocate for abstract painting and pushed Peruvian art
toward modernism. Peru continues
to be an art-producing center with painters such as Gerardo Chavez,
Alberto Quintanilla, and Jose Carlos
Ramos, along with sculptor Victor Delfin, gaining international stature.
Promising young artists continue to
develop now that Peru's economy allows more promotion of the arts.
When the Spanish landed in 1531, Peru's territory was the nucleus of the
highly developed Inca
civilization. Centered at Cuzco, the Inca Empire extended over a vast
region from northern Ecuador to
central Chile. In search of Inca wealth, the Spanish explorer Francisco
Pizarro, who arrived in the territory
after the Incas had fought a debilitating civil war, conquered the
weakened people. The Spanish had
captured the Incan capital at Cuzco by 1533 and consolidated their
control by 1542. Gold and silver from
the Andes enriched the conquerors, and Peru became the principal source
of Spanish wealth and power in
Pizarro founded Lima in 1535. The viceroyalty established at Lima in
1542 initially had jurisdiction over
all of South America except Portuguese Brazil. By the time of the wars
of independence (1820-24), Lima
had become the most distinguished and aristocratic colonial capital and
the chief Spanish stronghold in
Peru's independence movement was led by Jose de San Martin of Argentina
and Simon Bolivar of
Venezuela. San Martin proclaimed Peruvian independence from Spain on
July 28, 1821. Emancipation was
completed in December 1824, when General Antonio Jose de Sucre defeated
the Spanish troops at
Ayacucho, ending Spanish rule in South America. Spain made futile
attempts to regain its former colonies,
but in 1879 it finally recognized Peru's independence.
After independence, Peru and its neighbors engaged in intermittent
territorial disputes. Chile's victory over
Peru and Bolivia in the War of the Pacific (1879-83) resulted in a
territorial settlement. Following a clash
between Peru and Ecuador in 1941, the Rio Protocol--of which the United
States is one of four guarantors--
sought to establish the boundary between the two countries. Continuing
boundary disagreement led to brief
armed conflicts in early 1981 and early 1995.
The military has been prominent in Peruvian history. Coups have
repeatedly interrupted civilian
constitutional government. The most recent period of military rule
(1968-80) began when General Juan
Velasco Alvarado overthrew elected President Fernando Belaunde Terry of
the Popular Action Party (AP).
As part of what has been called the "first phase" of the military
government's nationalist program, Velasco
undertook an extensive agrarian reform program and nationalized the fish
meal industry, some petroleum
companies, and several banks and mining firms.
Because of Velasco's economic mismanagement and deteriorating health, he
was replaced by General
Francisco Morales Bermudez Cerruti in 1975. Morales Bermudez moved the
revolution into a more
pragmatic "second phase," tempering the authoritarian abuses of the
first phase and beginning the task of
restoring the country's economy. Morales Bermudez presided over the
return to civilian government in
accordance with a new constitution drawn up in 1979. In the May 1980
elections, President Belaunde Terry
was returned to office by an impressive plurality.
Nagging economic problems left over from the military government
persisted, worsened by an occurrence
of the "El Nino" weather phenomenon in 1982-83, which caused widespread
flooding in some parts of the
country, severe droughts in others, and decimated the schools of ocean
fish that are one of the country's
major resources. After a promising beginning, Belaunde's popularity
eroded under the stress of inflation,
economic hardship, and terrorism.
During the 1980s, cultivation of illicit coca was established in large
areas on the eastern Andean slope.
Rural terrorism by Sendero Luminoso (SL) and the Tupac Amaru
Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)
increased during this time and derived significant financial support
from their alliances with the
narcotraffickers. In 1985, the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
(APRA) won the presidential
election, bringing Alan Garcia Perez to office. The transfer of the
presidency from Belaunde to Garcia on
July 28, 1985, was Peru's first exchange of power from one
democratically elected leader to another in 40
Extreme economic mismanagement by the Garcia Administration led to
hyperinflation from 1988 to 1990.
Concerned about the economy, the increasing terrorist threat from
Sendero Luminoso, and allegations of
official corruption, voters chose a relatively unknown mathematician-
turned-politician, Alberto Fujimori,
as president in 1990.
The president is popularly elected for a 5-year term, and the 1993
Constitution permits one consecutive re-
election. The first and second vice presidents also are popularly
elected but have no constitutional
functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties. The
principal executive body is the Council
of Ministers, headed by a prime minister. The prime minister and the
Cabinet are appointed by the
president. All presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to Congress
must be approved by the Council of
The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress of 120 members.
In addition to passing laws,
Congress is empowered to approve treaties, authorize government loans,
and approve the government
budget. The president has the power to block legislation with which the
executive branch does not agree.
The judicial branch of government is headed by a 16-member Supreme Court
seated in Lima. The
Constitutional Tribunal interprets the constitution on matters of
individual rights. Superior courts in
departmental capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts.
Courts of first instance are located in
provincial capitals and are divided into civil, penal, and special
chambers. The judiciary has created several
temporary specialized courts, in an attempt to reduce the large backlog
of cases pending final court action.
In 1996, a Human Rights Ombudsman's office was created to address human
Peru is divided into 24 departments and the constitutional province of
Callao, the country's chief port,
adjacent to Lima. The departments are subdivided into provinces, which
are composed of districts. Local
authorities below the departmental level are elected.
Principal Government Officials
President--Ing. Alberto FUJIMORI Fujimori
First Vice President--Ing. Ricardo MARQUEZ Flores
Second Vice President--Dr. Cesar PAREDES Canto
Prime Minister--Ing. Alberto PANDOLFI Arbulu
Foreign Minister--Fernando de TRAZEGNIES
Defense--Julio SALAZAR Monroe
Economy and Finance--Ing. Jorge BACA Campodonico
Interior--Gen. Jose VILLANUEVA Ruesta
Justice--Dr. Alfredo QUISPE Correa
Education--Ing. Domingo PALERMO Cabrejos
Health--Dr. Marino COSTA Bauer
Agriculture and Food--Ing. Rodolfo MUNANTE Sanguinetti
Labor--Econ. Jorge GONZALEZ Izquierdo
Industry, Commerce, Tourism, and Integration--Ing. Gustavo CAILLAUX
Transportation and Communications--Ing. Antonio PAUCAR Carbajal
Energy and Mines--Ing. Daniel HOKAMA Tokashiki
Fisheries--Sr. Ludwig MEIER Cornejo
Promotion of Women & Human Resources Development--Dra. Miriam SCHENONE
Minister of the Presidency--Ing. Tomas GONZALES Reategui
Ambassador to the United States--Ricardo LUNA Mendoza
Permanent Representative to the United Nations--Fernando GUILLEN Salas
Ambassador to the Organization of American States--Dra. Beatriz
Peru maintains an embassy in the United States at 1700 Massachusetts
Avenue, NW, Washington, DC
20036 (tel. 202-833-9860/67, consular section: 202-462-1084). Peru has
consulates in New York;
Paterson, NJ; Miami; Chicago; Houston; Los Angeles; San Francisco; and
San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Peru is a republic with a dominant executive branch headed by President
Alberto Fujimori. President
Fujimori won re-election to a second five year term in 1995, and his
"Change 90/New Majority" supporters
enjoy a substantial majority in Congress. In 1996, the Congress passed
legislation interpreting the
Constitutional term limits for president, making it possible for
President Fujimori to seek re-election in
In April 1992, two years after his election, President Fujimori carried
out an "auto-coup," dissolving
Congress and regional governments and assuming control over the
judiciary. There was broad popular
support for the coup, which reflected deep public frustration with
politicians' inefficiency and corruption.
The president subsequently convened elections for a constituent congress
on November 1992, and won
public approval of the new constitution in an October 1993 referendum.
The Fujimori Government has substantially reduced the terrorist threat
of Shining Path (SL) and the
MRTA. Although greatly weakened since the 1992 capture of its leader
Abimael Guzman, Shining Path
remains capable of launching violent attacks, particularly in the coca-
producing Upper Huallaga Valley
and occasionally in Lima. Elements of SL are reported to be actively
recruiting in some of Lima's
shantytowns. Despite the December 1995 arrest of MRTA leader Miguel
Rincon Rincon and others at a
safe house in a Lima suburb, remaining armed militants of the MRTA were
able to carry out an attack on a
diplomatic reception at the residence of the Japanese Ambassador to Peru
in December 1996. More than
500 guests were initially held captive by the MRTA, which demanded the
release of all MRTA members
being held in Peruvian prisons. On April 22, 1997, after 126 days,
Peruvian commandos stormed the
residence and freed 71 of the remaining 72 hostages. One hostage, two
commandos and all of the hostage-
takers were killed.
Human rights violations by the security forces dropped considerably over
the last four years, although their
use of torture, and the lack of accountability and due process remain
areas of concern. In 1995, the
Peruvian Congress passed a law which granted amnesty from prosecution to
those who committed human
rights abuses during the war on terrorism from May 1980 to June 1995.
The Peruvian Government
established in 1996 the Human Rights Ombudsman's office to address human
rights issues and an ad hoc
commission to review and recommend for presidential pardon those
unjustly detained for terrorism or
Peru's economy rebounded in 1997, spurred mainly by a growth in exports
(especially, so-called "non-
traditional" exports). GDP grew 7.4% in 1997, much improved from the
previous year's slump, during
which the economy grew only 2.8%, and much better than most observers
predicted. January 1998's output
grew only 0.2%--clearly affected by "El Nino." The Lima Stock Exchange
had an extraordinary year in
1997, despite significant declines in October (along with most other
stock exchanges worldwide). The
general index rose 25.5% in nominal terms in 1997; the selective ("blue
chip") index rose 32.2%. Both
experienced severe declines since the end of 1997.
1997's inflation rate was at a 25-year low, at 6.5%. This measure far
exceeded expectations, which at the
beginning of the year were that inflation might reach 9% under optimal
conditions. Due to the two
exogenous shocks--the "El Nino" weather phenomenon and the Asian
economic and financial crisis--1998
inflation is officially predicted at 8%, due to supply bottlenecks
domestically (especially on food items)
and higher dollar costs of imports (due to faster depreciation of the
sol vis-a-vis the dollar). Although
accumulated inflation for January and February was 2.2%, inflation is
predicted to slow significantly in the
second half of the year, after the effects of "El Nino" are expected to
Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments
After falling between 1995 and 1996, Peru's merchandise trade deficit
was expected to rise slightly in
1997. Instead, the deficit narrowed significantly, as exports grew much
faster than did imports. Overall,
export revenues rose 14.5% (compared to early 1997 estimates of 2%) to
$6.8 billion. Imports also rose
faster than expected (8.5% vs. 2.0%) to $8.6 billion. Peru's total
capital inflows (including estimated illicit
narcotics earnings of $300 million to $600 million) are forecast to be
more than enough to cover the
country's 1997 current account deficit (equal to about 5.2% of GDP.) The
effects of "El Nino" and the
Asian crisis are expected to cause the current account deficit to
increase to about 6% of GDP in 1998.
During 1997, Peru re-inserted itself into the international financial
system, beginning with a Brady debt
restructuring in March. In December, it also completed a debt swap with
the United States Government, by
which it repaid part of its debt (part of which had already been
written-off by the U.S.) in return for using
part of the funds for environmental projects or projects that will
enhance child survival.
Net international reserves of the Central Bank stood at $10.2 billion at
the end of 1997, $1.6 billion higher
than at the end of the previous year.
The Peruvian Government actively seeks to attract both foreign and
domestic investment in all sectors of
the economy. International investment has been spurred by the
significant progress Peru has made over the
last seven years toward economic, social, and political stability. While
Peru was previously marked by
terrorism, hyperinflation, and government intervention in the economy,
the Government of Peru under
President Alberto Fujimori has taken the steps necessary to bring those
problems under control. However,
democratic institutions, especially the judiciary, remain weak.
The Government of Peru's economic stabilization and liberalization
program has lowered trade barriers,
eliminated restrictions on capital flows, and opened the economy to
foreign investment, with the result that
Peru now has one of the most open investment regimes in the world.
Between 1991 and 1997, Peru
attracted over $7 billion in foreign direct investment in Peru, mainly
from Spain (34%), the United States
(21%), the United Kingdom (13%), and Panama and the Netherlands (7%
each). The basic legal structure
for foreign investment in Peru is formed by the 1993 Constitution, the
Private Investment Growth Law, and
the Investment Promotion Law of November 1996. While Peru has neither a
bilateral investment treaty nor
a bilateral taxation treaty with the United States, it has signed an
agreement (1993) with the Overseas
Private Investment Corporation concerning OPIC-financed loans,
guarantees, and investments. Peru has
also committed itself to arbitration of government-to-government
investment disputes under the auspices of
ICSID--the World Bank's International Centre for the Settlement of
Although 1997 was a good year for Peru's macroeconomy, 1998 will be
substantially more difficult. The
Asian economic and financial crisis and the unexpectedly harsh effects
of the "El Nino" weather
phenomenon will both adversely affect Peru's economy, which is not
likely to meet 1997's 7.4% GDP
growth rate and 6.5% inflation rate. Official forecasts are for 3%
output growth and 8% inflation. Forecasts
for the medium- and long-term remain bright, as the country continues to
attract both domestic and foreign
investment in the tourism, mining, petroleum and natural gas, and
electric power industries.
The fight against narcotics trafficking in Peru has resulted in an
unprecedented 40% decline in the number
of acres of illegal coca leaf under production in the past two years:
however, most of the world's cocaine
supply still originates from coca leaf grown in Peru. The contribution
of this illicit industry to the national
economy is difficult to measure, but estimates range from $300-600
million. An estimated 200,000
Peruvians are engaged in the production, refining, or distribution of
the narcotic. Many economists believe
that large flows of dollars into the banking system contribute to the
traditional depression in the dollar
exchange rate vis-a-vis the sol, prompting the Central Bank to engage in
open market activities to prevent
the price of the sol from rising to levels that would otherwise hurt
Confronted by effective Peruvian Air Force interdiction efforts, drug
traffickers are increasingly using land
and river routes to transport cocaine paste around the country. Peru
continues to seize drug traffickers and
drugs, destroy coca labs, disable clandestine airstrips, and prosecute
security officers involved in narcotics
Working with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the
Peruvian Government has
begun alternative development programs in the leading coca-growing areas
in an effort to convince coca
farmers not to grow that crop. The government also has programs to
eradicate coca seed beds and is
working to eliminate precursor chemicals. In 1996, the Fujimori
Administration created a new office--
"Contradrogas"--to facilitate coordination among Peruvian Government
agencies working on
Armed conflict broke out between Peru and Ecuador in January 1995 over
an undemarcated portion of
their border. Both countries agreed to a cease-fire in February 1995.
The United States, along with
Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, are guarantors of the 1942 Rio Protocol
and supported Peruvian and
Ecuadorian efforts to find a permanent viable solution to the border
demarcation issue. In April 1997,
Peruvian and Ecuadorian delegations began substantive discussions aimed
at this objective, and reached
agreement on a treaty of commerce and navigation, and agreement on
border integration, and an agreement
on confidence- and security-building measures. In October 1998,
Presidents Fujimori and Mahuad
requested that the Rio Protocol Guarantors propose a solution to the
remaining unresolved border issues.
As a condition for proposing a solution, the Guarantors asked that the
Ecuadorian and Peruvian congresses
agree to accept the Guarantors' proposal as binding. The Guarantors'
decision led to the signing of a border
demarcation agreement, and the other agreements, in Brasilia on October
President Fujimori is increasing Peru's ties to Japan and other
countries on the Pacific Rim. In 1996, the
Prime Minister of Japan and the President of South Korea visited Peru.
In the wake of the December 1996
hostage-taking by MRTA terrorists at the Japanese ambassadorial
residence in Lima, the Japanese and
Peruvian Governments consulted closely on the means of resolving the
crisis. Prime Minister Hashimoto of
Japan visited Lima in April 1997 to express gratitude for the rescue
operation by Peruvian security
personnel which claimed the life of only one of the 72 remaining
Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and Peruvian
Javier Perez de Cuellar served as
UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. The April 1992 auto-coup
strained Peru's relations with many
Latin American and European countries, but relations improved as the
government returned to democratic
processes. Peru recently reached agreement with the other members of the
Andean community on full
integration into the Andean Free Trade Area, and is joining APEC at the
November summit in Kuala
The United States enjoys friendly relations with Peru. Relations were
strained after the 1992 auto-coup, but
improved subsequently as Peru undertook steps to restore democratic
institutions and to address human
rights problems related to its counter-terrorism efforts. The United
States continues to promote the
strengthening of democratic institutions and human rights safeguards in
The United States and Peru cooperate on efforts to interdict the flow of
narcotics, particularly cocaine, to
the United States. The Peruvian Air Force has successfully interdicted
narcotics trafficking aircraft, and
appears to have significantly curbed the flow of narcotics through
Peruvian air space. In tandem with
successful law enforcement operations, the United States and Peru
cooperate on promoting programs of
alternative development in coca-growing regions.
The United States has supported Peru's efforts to become more integrated
with the international financial
community. Those efforts, together with increased economic and social
stability, have resulted in a
substantial increase in U.S. investment and tourism in Peru in recent
years. U.S. exports to Peru (1997)
were valued at $1.96 billion, accounting for about 25% of Peru's
imports. In the same year, Peru exported
$1.77 billion in goods to the United States ($1.58 billion according to
Peruvian statistics), accounting for
about 23% of Peru's exports to the world.
In 1997, approximately 140,000 U.S. citizens visited Peru for business,
tourism, and study. About 10,000
Americans reside in Peru and over 200 U.S. companies are represented in
U.S. Economic Assistance
U.S. bilateral assistance to Peru, including food aid and disaster
relief and rehabilitation, totaled more than
$950 million during the 1990-97 period. The Agency for International
Development's largest South
American program is in Peru. USAID has provided resources for priority
development projects at a time
when Peru's own domestic resources have been severely restricted by the
need for austerity in public
U.S. assistance to Peru is focused on achieving five strategic
objectives: broader citizen participation and
more responsive government; increased incomes for Peru's poor; improved
health of high risk populations;
improved environmental conditions; and, perhaps most importantly,
reduced production of illicit narcotics.
Broader Citizen Participation. The United States Government, through
USAID, provides support to
Government of Peru electoral bodies and non-governmental organizations
(NGO's) to strengthen the
electoral system, to the Controller General to improve public
accountability, and to local NGO's to promote
greater civic action and public interest in governmental affairs. A
significant amount of funding is given to
the Human Rights Ombudsman's Office and NGO's working in the human
rights field. USAID also has a
program to strengthen local governments and promote community
participation in targeted areas.
Increased Incomes. USAID has sought to provide much needed services to
the 20% of Peru's population
characterized as "extremely poor." Working principally through private
sector and not-for-profit
organizations, USAID has provided assistance to 270,000 nutritionally
at-risk children and 200,000 heads
of households in poor areas.
Improved Health. The United States Government supports immunization,
family planning, prenatal care,
safe childbearing, and oral rehydration programs in Peru. USAID
assistance has contributed to decreases in
infant and child mortality over the past decade.
Improved Environmental Conditions. USAID provides assistance to help
Peru (a) improve its legal, policy,
and regulatory framework governing environmental protection; (b) prevent
pollution in selected settings;
and (c) protect biologically diverse areas.
Alternative Development. The United States Government provides
integrated development services to
farmers in five target areas in order to wean them from coca production.
USAID hopes to reduce coca
cultivation by 50% in the targeted areas within several years.
Principal U.S. Officials
Ambassador--Dennis C. Jett
Deputy Chief of Mission--Heather M. Hodges
Director, AID Mission--Thomas Geiger
Counselor for Political Affairs--Arnold Chacon
Counselor for Economic Affairs--Krishna R. Urs
Counselor for Narcotics Affairs (NAS)--Candis Cunningham
Counselor for Public Affairs (USIS)--John S. Dickson
Counselor for Administrative Affairs--James Williard
Counselor for Consular Affairs--Annette L. Veler
Naval and Defense Attache--Capt. Francis G. Satterthwaite
Army Attache--Col. Samuel K. Stouffer
Air & Defense Attache--Col. Michael McCarthy
Chief, Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG)--Col. Manuel Fuentes
Consular Agent, Cuzco--Dr. Olga Villagarcia
The U.S. Embassy in Peru is located at Avendia la Encalada, Cuadra 17
s/n, Monterrico (Surco), Lima 33
(tel. (511) 434-3000; fax. (511) 434-3037). Home page:
The embassy is open from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., except U.S. and
Peruvian holidays. The mailing address
from the United States is American Embassy Lima, APO AA 34031 (use U.S.
domestic postage rates). The
American Citizen Services section is open to the public from 8:00 a.m.
to 12:00 p.m.
The Consular Agency in Cuzco is located at Anda Tullamayu 125 (tel. (51)
(84) 224112 or (51) (84)
239451; fax. (51) (84) 233541).
OTHER CONTACT INFORMATION:
U.S. Department of State
Bureau of Inter-American Affairs
Office of Andean Affairs (Room 5906)
2201 "C" Street NW
Washington, DC 20520-6263
Home Page: http://www.state.gov
U.S. Department of Commerce
International Trade Administration
Office of Latin America and the Caribbean
14th and Constitution, NW
Washington, DC 20230
Tel: (202) 482-0475
Fax: (202) 482-0464
Home Page: http://www.ita.doc.gov
American Chamber of Commerce of Peru
Avenida Ricardo Palma 836, Miraflores
Lima 18, Peru
Tel: (511) 241-0708
Fax: (511) 241-0709
Home Page: http://www.amcham.org.pe
TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATION
The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program provides
Travel Warnings and Consular
Information Sheets. Travel Warnings are issued when the State Department
recommends that Americans
avoid travel to a certain country. Consular Information Sheets exist for
all countries and include
information on immigration practices, currency regulations, health
conditions, areas of instability, crime
and security, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S.
posts in the country. Public
Announcements are issued as a means to disseminate information quickly
about terrorist threats and other
relatively short-term conditions overseas which pose significant risks
to the security of American travelers.
Free copies of this information are available by calling the Bureau of
Consular Affairs at 202-647-5225 or
via the fax-on-demand system: 202-647-3000. Travel Warnings and Consular
Information Sheets also are
available on the Consular Affairs Internet home page:
http://travel.state.gov and the Consular Affairs
Bulletin Board (CABB). To access CABB, dial the modem number: 301-946-
4400 (it will accommodate
up to 33,600 bps), set terminal communications program to N-8-1(no
parity, 8 bits, 1 stop bit); and
terminal emulation to VT100. The login is travel and the password is
info. (Note: Lower case is required).
The CABB also carries international security information from the
Overseas Security Advisory Council
and Department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Consular Affairs Trips
for Travelers publication series,
which contain information on obtaining passports and planning a safe
trip abroad, can be purchased from
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O.
Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA
15250-7954; telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250.
Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be
obtained from the Office of
Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-5225. For after-hours
emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call
Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-hour, 7-
day a week automated system
($.35 per minute) or live operators 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday
($1.05 per minute). The number
is 1-900-225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778). Major credit card users (for a
flat rate of $4.95) may call 1-
888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648).
Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention
in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at (404) 332-4559 gives the most recent
health advisories, immunization
recommendations or requirements, and advice on food and drinking water
safety for regions and countries.
A booklet entitled Health Information for International Travel (HHS
publication number CDC-95-8280) is
available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC
20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.
Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and
customs regulations, legal holidays, and
other items of interest to travelers also may be obtained before your
departure from a country's embassy
and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see "Principal
Government Officials" listing in this
U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous areas
are encouraged to register at the
U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country (see "Principal U.S. Embassy
Officials" listing in this publication).
This may help family members contact you in case of an emergency.
Further Electronic Information
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network. Available on the Internet,
DOSFAN provides timely, global
access to official U.S. foreign policy information. Updated daily,
DOSFAN includes Background Notes;
Dispatch, the official magazine of U.S. foreign policy; daily press
briefings; Country Commercial Guides;
directories of key officers of foreign service posts; etc. DOSFAN's
World Wide Web site is at
U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published on an annual basis by
the U.S. Department of
State, USFAC archives information on the Department of State Foreign
Affairs Network, and includes an
array of official foreign policy information from 1990 to the present.
Contact the Superintendent of
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh,
PA 15250-7954. To order,
call (202) 512-1800 or fax (202) 512-2250.
National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department of
Commerce, the NTDB contains a
wealth of trade-related information. It is available on the Internet
(www.stat-usa.gov) and on CD-ROM.
Call the NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-1986 for more information.
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