U.S. Department of State  
Background Notes: Peru 
September 1997 
Released by the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs.

Official Name: Republic of Peru



Area: 28 million sq. km. (496,225 sq. mi.); three times larger than 
Cities: Capital--Lima/Callao metropolitan area (pop. 7 million, 1996).  
Other cities--Arequipa, Chiclayo, Cuzco, Huancayo, Trujillo, Ayacucho, 
Piura, Iquitos, Chimbote.  Terrain: Western coastal plains, central 
rugged mountains (Andes), eastern lowlands with tropical forests. 
Climate: Coastal area, arid and mild; Andes, temperate to frigid; 
eastern lowlands, tropically warm and humid.


Nationality: Noun and adjective--Peruvian(s).  
Population (1997 est.): 24.9 million (70% urban). 
Annual growth rate (1997 est.): 1.7%.  
Ethnic groups: Indian 45%; Mestizo 37%; White 15%; Black, Japanese, 
Chinese and other 3%.  
Religion: Roman Catholic (90%).  
Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), and Aymara.
Education: Years compulsory--10. Literacy--About 87%.  
Health: Infant mortality rate (1997 est.)--50/1,000. Life expectancy 
(1997)--67 male; 71 female. 
Work force: (1995) 7.6 million. Manufacturing--22%; Commerce--14%; 
Agriculture--12%; Mining--11%; Construction--9%; Government--5%; Other 


Type: Constitutional republic.  
Independence: 1821.  
Constitution: December 1993. 
Branches: Executive--president, two vice presidents, Council of 
Legislative--unicameral Congress. 
Judicial--Supreme Court and lower courts, Tribunal of Constitutional 
Administrative subdivisions: 12 regions, 24 departments, 1 
constitutional province. 
Political parties: Change 90/New Majority, Union For Peru (UPF), 
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Independent Moralizer 
Front (FIM), Popular Christian Party (PPC), Popular Action (AP).
Suffrage: Universal over 18; compulsory until age 70 (members of the 
military may not vote).

ECONOMY (1996)

GDP (est.): $50.0 billion.  
Annual growth rate: 2.8%. 
Per capita GDP: $2,000.  
Inflation rate: 11.8%. 
Natural resources: Minerals, metals, petroleum, forests, and fish.
Agriculture (12% of GDP): Products--coffee, cotton, cocoa, sugar, wool, 
corn, potatoes, and livestock products. 
Industry (22% of GDP): Types--mineral processing, oil refining, fish 
meal, textile, food processing, light manufacturing, and automobile 
Trade: Exports--$6 billion: petroleum, copper, silver, gold, zinc, lead, 
fish meal, coffee, sugar, cotton, canned and frozen fish. 
Major markets--U.S. (22%), EU, Japan. Imports--$7.5 billion: machinery, 
cereals, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, petroleum and mining equipment. 
Major suppliers--U.S. (26%), Andean Pact countries, Argentina, EU, and 
Official exchange rate (soles per dollar, August 1997): 2.62=U.S.$1.


Most Peruvians are "mestizo," a term that usually refers to a mixture of 
Amerindians and Peruvians of European descent. Peruvians of European 
descent make up about 15% of the population; there are also smaller 
numbers of persons of African, Japanese, and Chinese descent. In the 
past decade, Peruvians of Asian heritage have made significant 
advancements in business and political fields; the president, a cabinet 
member, and several members of the Peruvian congress are of Japanese or 
Chinese descent. Socio-economic and cultural indicators are increasingly 
important as identifiers. For example, Peruvians of Amerindian descent 
who have adopted aspects of Hispanic culture are also considered 
"mestizo." With economic development, access to education, 
intermarriage, and large-scale migration from rural to urban areas, a 
more homogeneous national culture is developing, mainly along the 
relatively more prosperous coast.

Peru has two official languages--Spanish and the foremost indigenous 
language, Quechua. Spanish is used by the government and the media, and 
in education and commerce. Amerindians who live in the Andean highlands 
speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from the diverse 
indigenous groups who live on the eastern side of the Andes and in the 
tropical lowlands adjacent to the Amazon basin. 

Peru's distinct geographical regions are mirrored in a socio-economic 
divide between the coast's mestizo-Hispanic culture and the more 
diverse, traditional Andean cultures of the mountains and highlands. The 
indigenous populations east of the Andes speak various languages and 
dialects. Some of these groups still adhere to traditional customs, 
while others have been almost completely assimilated into the mestizo-
Hispanic culture.

Under the 1993 constitution, primary education is free and compulsory. 
The system is highly centralized, with the Ministry of Education 
appointing all public school teachers. Eighty-four percent of Peru's 
students attend public schools at all levels.

School enrollment has been rising sharply for years, due to a widening 
educational effort by the government and a growing school-age 
population. The illiteracy rate is 29.8% in isolated, mountainous areas 
and is estimated at 6.7% in urban areas. Elementary and secondary school 
enrollment is approximately 6.l million. Peru has over 50 universities, 
roughly divided between public and private institutions, which enroll 
over 400,000 students.

The relationship between Hispanic and Indian cultures determines much of 
the nation's cultural expression. During pre-Columbian times, Peru was 
one of the major centers of artistic expression in America. Pre-Inca 
cultures, such as Chavin, Paracas, Nazca, Chimu, and Tiahuanaco, 
developed high quality pottery, textiles, and sculpture. Drawing upon 
earlier cultures, the Incas continued to maintain these crafts but made 
even more impressive achievements in architecture. The mountain town of 
Machu Picchu and the buildings at Cuzco are excellent examples of Inca 
architectural design.

Peru has passed through various intellectual stages--from colonial 
Hispanic culture to European Romanticism after independence. The early 
20th century brought "indigenismo," expressed in a new awareness of 
Indian culture. Since World War II, Peruvian writers, artists, and 
intellectuals have participated in worldwide intellectual and artistic 
movements, drawing especially on U.S. and European trends.

During the colonial period, Spanish baroque fused with the rich Inca 
tradition to produce mestizo or creole art. The Peruvian (Cuzco) school 
followed the Spanish baroque tradition with influence from the Italian, 
Flemish, and French schools. Painter Francisco Fierro made a distinctive 
contribution with his portrayals of typical events, manners, and customs 
of mid-19th century Peru. Francisco Lazo, forerunner of the indigenous 
school of painters, also achieved fame for his portraits, as did others. 
Peru's 20th century art is widely known for its extraordinary variety of 
styles and originality. 

In the decade after 1932, the "indigenous school" of painting headed by 
Jose Sabogal dominated the cultural scene in Peru. Nevertheless, a 
reaction among Peruvian artists led to the beginning of modern Peruvian 
painting. Sabogal's resignation as director of the National School of 
Arts in 1943 coincided with the return of several Peruvian painters from 
Europe who revitalized "universal" and international styles of painting 
in Peru. During the 1960's, Fernando de Szyszlo, an internationally 
recognized Peruvian artist, became the main advocate for abstract 
painting and pushed Peruvian art toward modernism. Peru continues to be 
an art-producing center with painters such as Gerardo Chavez, Alberto 
Quintanilla, and Jose Carlos Ramos, along with sculptor Victor Delfin, 
gaining international stature. Promising young artists continue to 
develop now that Peru's economy allows more promotion of the arts.


When the Spanish landed in 1531, Peru's territory was the nucleus of the 
highly developed Inca civilization. Centered at Cuzco, the Inca Empire 
extended over a vast region from northern Ecuador to central Chile. In 
search of Inca wealth, the Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro, who 
arrived in the territory after the Incas had fought a debilitating civil 
war, conquered the weakened people. The Spanish had captured the Incan 
capital at Cuzco by 1533 and consolidated their control by 1542. Gold 
and silver from the Andes enriched the conquerors, and Peru became the 
principal source of Spanish wealth and power in South America.

Pizarro founded Lima in 1535. The viceroyalty established at Lima in 
1542 initially had jurisdiction over all of South America except 
Portuguese Brazil. By the time of the wars of independence (1820-24), 
Lima had become the most distinguished and aristocratic colonial capital 
and the chief Spanish stronghold in America. 

Peru's independence movement was led by Jose de San Martin of Argentina 
and Simon Bolivar of Venezuela. San Martin proclaimed Peruvian 
independence from Spain on July 28, 1821. Emancipation was completed in 
December 1824, when General Antonio Jose de Sucre defeated the Spanish 
troops at Ayacucho, ending Spanish rule in South America. Spain made 
futile attempts to regain its former colonies, but in 1879 it finally 
recognized Peru's independence.

After independence, Peru and its neighbors engaged in intermittent 
territorial disputes. Chile's victory over Peru and Bolivia in the War 
of the Pacific (1879-83) resulted in a territorial settlement. Following 
a clash between Peru and Ecuador in 1941, the Rio Protocol--of which the 
United States is one of four guarantors--sought to establish the 
boundary between the two countries. Continuing boundary disagreement led 
to brief armed conflicts in early 1981 and early 1995.

The military has been prominent in Peruvian history. Coups have 
repeatedly interrupted civilian constitutional government. The most 
recent period of military rule (1968-80) began when General Juan Velasco 
Alvarado overthrew elected President Fernando Belaunde Terry of the 
Popular Action Party (AP). As part of what has been called the "first 
phase" of the military government's nationalist program, Velasco 
undertook an extensive agrarian reform program and nationalized the fish 
meal industry, some petroleum companies, and several banks and mining 

Because of Velasco's economic mismanagement and deteriorating health, he 
was replaced by General Francisco Morales Bermudez Cerruti in 1975. 
Morales Bermudez moved the revolution into a more pragmatic "second 
phase," tempering the authoritarian abuses of the first phase and 
beginning the task of restoring the country's economy. Morales Bermudez 
presided over the return to civilian government in accordance with a new 
constitution drawn up in 1979. In the May 1980 elections, President 
Belaunde Terry was returned to office by an impressive plurality.

Nagging economic problems left over from the military government 
persisted, worsened by a period of unusual weather in 1982-83, which 
caused widespread flooding in some parts of the country, severe droughts 
in others, and decimated the schools of ocean fish that are one of the 
country's major resources. After a promising beginning, Belaunde's 
popularity eroded under the stress of inflation, economic hardship, and 

During the 1980's, cultivation of illicit coca was established in large 
areas on the eastern Andean slope. Rural terrorism by Sendero Luminoso 
(SL) and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) increased during 
this time and derived significant financial support from their alliances 
with the narcotraffickers. In 1985, the American Popular Revolutionary 
Alliance (APRA) won the presidential election, bringing Alan Garcia 
Perez to office. The transfer of the presidency from Belaunde to Garcia 
on July 28, 1985, was Peru's first exchange of power from one 
democratically elected leader to another in 40 years.

Extreme economic mismanagement by the Garcia administration led to 
hyperinflation from 1988 to 1990. Concerned about the economy, the 
increasing terrorist threat from Sendero Luminoso, and allegations of 
official corruption, voters chose a relatively unknown mathematician-
turned-politician, Alberto Fujimori, as president in 1990.


The president is popularly elected for a 5-year term, and the 1993 
Constitution permits one consecutive re-election. The first and second 
vice presidents also are popularly elected but have no constitutional 
functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties. The 
principal executive body is the Council of Ministers, headed by a prime 
minister. The prime minister and the Cabinet are appointed by the 
president. All presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to Congress 
must be approved by the Council of Ministers.

The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress of 120 members. 
In addition to passing laws, Congress is empowered to approve treaties, 
authorize government loans, and approve the government budget. The 
president has the power to block legislation with which the executive 
branch does not agree.

The judicial branch of government is headed by a 16-member Supreme Court 
seated in Lima. The Constitutional Tribunal interprets the constitution 
on matters of individual rights. Superior courts in departmental 
capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts. Courts of first 
instance are located in provincial capitals and are divided into civil, 
penal, and special chambers. The judiciary has created several temporary 
specialized courts, including a drug court, in an attempt to reduce the 
large backlog of cases pending final court action. In 1996 Human Rights 
Ombudsman's office was created to address human rights issues. 

Peru is divided into 24 departments and the constitutional province of 
Callao, the country's chief port, adjacent to Lima. The departments are 
subdivided into provinces, which are composed of districts. Local 
authorities below the departmental level are elected.

Principal Government Officials

President--Ing. Alberto FUJIMORI Fujimori 
First Vice President--Ing. Ricardo MARQUEZ Flores 
Second Vice President--Dr. Cesar PAREDES Canto 
 Prime Minister/Energy and Mines--Ing. Alberto PANDOLFI Arbulu
Foreign Minister--Dr. Eduardo FERRERO COSTA 
Defense--Gen. Cesar SAUCEDO Sanchez 
Economy and Finance--Ing. Jorge CAMET Dickmann 
Interior--Gen. Jose VILLANUEVA Ruesta 
Justice--Dr. Alfredo QUISPE Correa 
Education--Ing. Domingo PALERMO Cabrejos 
Health--Dr. Marino COSTA Bauer 
Agriculture and Food--Ing. Rodolfo MUNANTE Sanguinetti 
Labor--Econ. Jorge GONZALEZ Izquierdo 
Industry, Commerce, Tourism, and Integration--Gustavo CAILLAUX
Transportation and Communications--Ing. Elsa CARRERA de Escalante
Energy and Mines--Ing. Alberto PANDOLFI Arbulu 
Fisheries--Ludwig MEIER Carnejo 
Promotion of Women and Human Resources Development--Dr. Miriam SCHENONE 
Minister of the Presidency--Ing. Daniel HOKAMA Tokashiki 
Ambassador to the United States--Ricardo LUNA Mendoza 
Permanent Representative to the United Nations--Fernando GUILLEN Salas 
Ambassador to the Organization of American States (OAS)--Beatriz 

Peru maintains an embassy in the United States at 1700 Massachusetts 
Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (tel. 202-833-9860/67, consular 
section: 202-462-1084). Peru has consulates in New York; Paterson, NJ; 
Miami; Chicago; Houston; Los Angeles; San Francisco; and San Juan, 
Puerto Rico.


Peru is a republic with a dominant executive branch headed by President 
Alberto Fujimori. President Fujimori won re-election to a second five 
year term in 1995, and his "Change 90/New Majority" supporters enjoy a 
substantial majority in Congress.

In 1996, the Congress passed legislation interpreting the Constitutional 
term limits for president, making it possible for President Fujimori to 
seek re-election in 2000.

In April 1992, two years after his election, President Fujimori carried 
out an "auto-coup," dissolving Congress and regional governments and 
assuming control over the judiciary. There was broad popular support for 
the coup, which reflected deep public frustration with politicians' 
inefficiency and corruption. The President subsequently convened 
elections for a constituent congress on November 1992, and won public 
approval of the new constitution in an October 1993 referendum.

The Fujimori government has substantially reduced the terrorist threat 
of Shining Path (SL) and the MRTA. Although greatly weakened since the 
1992 capture of its leader Abimael Guzman, Shining Path remains capable 
of launching violent attacks, particularly in the coca-producing Upper 
Huallaga Valley and occasionally in Lima. Elements of SL are reported to 
be actively recruiting in some of Lima's shantytowns. Despite the 
December 1995 arrest of MRTA leader Miguel Rincon Rincon and others at a 
safe house in a Lima suburb, remaining armed militants of the MRTA were 
able to carry out an attack on a diplomatic reception at the residence 
of the Japanese Ambassador to Peru in December 1996. More than 500 
guests were initially held captive by the MRTA, which demanded the 
release of all MRTA members being held in Peruvian prisons. On April 22, 
1997, after 126 days, Peruvian commandos stormed the residence and freed 
71 of the remaining 72 hostages. One hostage, two commandos and all of 
the hostage-takers were killed.

Human rights violations by the security forces dropped considerably over 
the last four years, although their use of torture, and the lack of 
accountability and due process remain areas of concern. In 1995, the 
Peruvian Congress passed a law which granted amnesty from prosecution to 
those who committed human rights abuses during the war on terrorism from 
May 1980 to June 1995. The Peruvian Government established in 1996 the 
Human Rights Ombudsman's office to address human rights issues and an ad 
hoc commission to review and recommend for presidential pardon those 
unjustly detained for terrorism or treason.


Peru's economy returned to a lower growth rate in 1996, after growing by 
nearly one-third in real terms during the 1993-1995 period. Economic 
growth oscillated during 1996, before ending up at 2.8% overall, as the 
Peruvian Government attempted to revitalize the economy while keeping 
the external accounts position under control. After a lackluster first 
quarter (zero growth compared with the first quarter of 1995), the 
economy picked up strongly in the second quarter, growing by 3.8% on a 
seasonally adjusted basis over the first quarter. Early in the third 
quarter, the government again took steps to cool down the economy, 
including reducing the interest paid on dollar reserves held with the 
Central Bank and further tightening monetary policy on soles. Combined 
with a slump in fisheries production, these measures slowed Peru's 
economy significantly during the third quarter. Boosted by a record fish 
catch in November and December, the economy picked up again in the 
fourth quarter, growing by 0.9% on a seasonally adjusted basis over the 
previous quarter. 

The stronger economic outlook continued into the new year. Growth for 
January 1997 came in at 4.5%, compared with the same month one year 
previously. The recovery spread to all sectors with the exception of 
fisheries. Agricultural production led the way, with growth of 17.1%, 
followed by construction (up 11.2%) and trade (up 5.3%). The mining 
industry, where most foreign investment is concentrated, lagged, with 
growth of just 0.1%. Fisheries production fell by 17.3% compared with 
the same month one year earlier, largely because Peru imposed the annual 
February-March fishing ban on sardines and anchovy two weeks early after 
the November and December catches brought the harvest up to the maximum 
sustainable biological yield. Peru's economy is projected to grow by 4-
5% in 1997, led by the agriculture, mining and retail sectors.

Inflation dropped into the single digits for the first time in 20 years 
in early 1997. Based on inflation figures for the first 6 months of the 
year, Peru is well on its way to achieving its calendar year 1997 
inflation target of 9.0%.

Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments 
After falling from $2.1 billion in 1995 to $1.90 billion in 1996, Peru's 
merchandise trade deficit is expected to increase slightly to $1.97 
billion in 1997. Export revenues are expected to jump by about 2% to 
$6.0 billion in 1997 while import revenues increase about 2% to $8.0 
billion. The country's total 1997 capital inflows (including estimated 
illicit narcotics earnings of $300 million to $600 million) are forecast 
at $5.1 billion, more than enough to cover the country's 1997 $3.3 
billion current account deficit (equal to about 5.3% of GDP, down from 
5.7% of GDP in 1996). The Government of Peru estimates that it will 
increase international reserves by roughly $1.8 billion during the year. 
With the July 1996 Paris Club rescheduling and the March 7, 1997, Brady 
Plan debt restructuring, Peru is now fully reintegrated into the 
international financial system.

Foreign Investment 
The Peruvian Government actively seeks to attract both foreign and 
domestic investment in all sectors of the economy. Until recently, 
macroeconomic instability, a hostile political climate, and terrorism 
discouraged significant investment in Peru.

However, President Fujimori has steadfastly followed an economic 
stabilization/liberalization program which has lowered trade barriers, 
eliminated restrictions on capital flows, and opened the economy to 
foreign investment. The Fujimori administration has also made important 
inroads against terrorism, although it remains a problem in some parts 
of Peru. Peru's 1993 Constitution, Legislative Decree 662 of September 
2, 1991, the Foreign Investment Promotion Law of November 13, 1991, and 
the Framework Law for Private Investment Growth form the basic legal 
framework for foreign investment in Peru.

Economic Outlook 
Although economic growth was sluggish in 1996, by recent Peruvian 
standards, reaching no more than 2.8%, the economic outlook for Peru 
remains bright. The country continues to attract significant foreign 
investment, particularly in the tourism, mining, petroleum, and electric 
power generating industries. These industries are likely to become 
engines for growth in 1997 and beyond. Inflows of foreign capital into 
Peru are likely to accelerate once Peru restructures its debt with its 
commercial bank creditors.

Sixty percent of the world's cocaine supply originates from coca leaf 
grown in Peru, making it the world's leading producer. The contribution 
of this illicit industry to the national economy is difficult to measure 
but estimates range from $300 million to $600 million. Some 200,000 
Peruvians are engaged in production, refining or distribution of the 
narcotic. The large inflow of illegal dollars from the drug industry 
contributes to the overvaluation of the Peruvian sol against the dollar, 
helping to erode international competitiveness of the country's 
legitimate exports. 

Confronted by effective Peruvian Air Force interdiction efforts, drug 
traffickers are increasingly using land and river routes to transport 
cocaine paste outside the country. Peru continues to seize drug 
traffickers and drugs, destroy coca labs, disable clandestine airstrips, 
and prosecute security officers involved in narcotics corruption.

Working with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the 
Peruvian Government has begun alternative development programs in 
prominent coca-growing areas in an effort to wean farmers from coca 
cultivation. The government has also created programs to eradicate coca 
seed beds and is working to eliminate precursor chemicals. President 
Fujimori created a new "Contradrogas" office in 1996 to facilitate 
coordination among Peruvian Government agencies working on 
counternarcotics issues. As a result of these efforts, a 1996 survey 
registered an 18% reduction in coca leaf production in Peru. 


Armed conflict broke out between Peru and Ecuador in January 1995 over 
an undemarcated portion of their border. Both countries agreed to a 
cease-fire in February 1995 which remains in effect. The United States, 
along with Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, are guarantors of the 1942 Rio 
Protocol and are supporting Peruvian and Ecuadorian efforts to find a 
permanent viable solution to the border demarcation issue. In April 
1997, Peruvian and Ecuadorian delegations began substantive discussions 
in Brasilia aimed at this objective.

President Fujimori is increasing Peru's ties to Japan and other 
countries on the Pacific Rim. In 1996, the Prime Minister of Japan and 
the President of South Korea visited Peru. In the wake of the December 
1996 hostage-taking by MRTA terrorists at the Japanese ambassadorial 
residence in Lima, the Japanese and Peruvian Governments consulted 
closely on the means of resolving the crisis. Prime Minister Hashimoto 
of Japan visited Lima in April 1997 to express gratitude for the rescue 
operation by Peruvian security personnel which claimed the life of only 
one of the 72 remaining hostages.

Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and Peruvian 
Javier Perez de Cuellar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 
1991. The April 1992 auto-coup strained Peru's relations with many Latin 
American and European countries, but relations improved as the 
government returned to democratic processes. Peru recently reached 
agreement with the other members of the Andean community on full 
integration into the Andean Free Trade Area.


The United States enjoys friendly relations with Peru. Relations were 
strained after the 1992 auto-coup, but improved subsequently as Peru 
undertook steps to restore democratic institutions and to address human 
rights problems related to its counter-terrorism efforts. The United 
States continues to promote the strengthening of democratic institutions 
and human rights safeguards in Peru.

The United States and Peru cooperate on efforts to interdict the flow of 
narcotics, particularly cocaine, to the United States. The Peruvian Air 
Force has successfully interdicted narcotics trafficking aircraft, and 
appears to have significantly curbed the flow of narcotics through 
Peruvian air space. In tandem with successful law enforcement 
operations, the United States and Peru cooperate on promoting programs 
of alternative development in coca-growing regions.

In response to Peru's economic liberalization program and increased 
stability, U.S. investment and tourism in Peru have increased 
substantially in recent years. The United States supports Peru's efforts 
to become more integrated with the international financial community 
through debt rescheduling.

U.S. exports to Peru in 1996 were valued at $1.8 billion, accounting for 
26% of Peru's imports. Peru exported $1.2 billion in goods to the U.S. 
in 1996, accounting for 22% of Peru's exports to the world.

In 1996, approximately 122,000 U.S. citizens visited Peru for study, 
business, and tourism. In addition, some 8,700 Americans reside in Peru 
and about 200 U.S. companies are represented in the country.

U.S. Economic Assistance 
U.S. bilateral assistance to Peru, including food aid and disaster 
relief and rehabilitation, totaled more than $850 million during the 
1990-96 period. The Agency for International Development's (USAID) 
largest South American program is in Peru. USAID has provided resources 
for priority development projects at a time when Peru's own domestic 
resources have been severely restricted by the need for austerity in 
public spending.

U.S. assistance to Peru is focused on achieving five strategic 
objectives: broader citizen participation and more responsive 
government; increased incomes for Peru's poor; improved health of high 
risk populations; improved environmental conditions; and, perhaps most 
importantly, reduced production of illicit narcotics.

Broader Citizen Participation: 
The United States Government, through USAID, provides support to 
Government of Peru electoral bodies and non-governmental organizations 
(NGO's) to strengthen the electoral system, to the Controller General to 
improve public accountability, and to local NGOs to promote greater 
civic action and public interest in governmental affairs. A significant 
amount of funding is given to the Human Rights Ombudsman's Office and 
NGOs working in the human rights field. USAID also has a program to 
strengthen local governments and promote community participation in 
targeted areas.

Increased Incomes: 
USAID has sought to provide much needed services to the 20% of Peru's 
population characterized as "extremely poor." Working principally 
through private sector and not-for-profit organizations, USAID has 
provided assistance to 270,000 nutritionally at-risk children and 
200,000 heads of households in poor areas.

Improved Health: 
The United States Government supports immunization, family planning, 
pre-natal care, safe childbearing, and oral rehydration programs in 
Peru. USAID assistance has contributed to decreases in infant and child 
mortality over the past decade.

Improved Environmental Conditions: 
USAID provides assistance to help Peru (a) improve its legal, policy, 
and regulatory framework governing environmental protection; (b) prevent 
pollution in selected settings; and (c) protect biologically diverse 

Alternative Development: 
The United States Government provides integrated development services to 
farmers in five target areas in order to wean them from coca production. 
USAID hopes to reduce coca cultivation by 50% in the targeted areas 
within several years.

Principal U.S. Officials 
Ambassador--Dennis C. Jett 
Deputy Chief of Mission--Heather Hodges  
Director, AID Mission--Donald W. Boyd  
Counselor for Political Affairs--Jim E. Wagner 
Counselor for Economic Affairs--Kris Urs  
Counselor for Narcotics Affairs (NAS)--John M. Crow 
Counselor for Public Affairs (USIS)--John S. Dickson 
Counselor for Administrative Affairs--Alphonse Lopez 
Counselor for Consular Affairs--Annette L. Veler 
Naval and Defense Attache--Capt. Francis G. Satterthwaite 
Army Attache--Lt. Col. Leocadio Muniz 
Air and Defense Attache--Col. Charles W. Griffin 
Chief, Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG)--Col. Manuel Fuentes
Consular Agent, Cuzco--Dr. Olga Villagarcia

The U.S. embassy in Peru is located at La Avenida Encalada, Cuadra 17, 
Santiago de Surco, Lima (tel. (511) 434-3000; fax. (511) 434-3037). It 
is open from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. The American Citizen Services 
section is open to the public from 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.

The Consular Agency in Cuzco is located at Anda Tullamayu 125 (tel. (51) 
(84) 224112 or (51) (84) 239451; fax. (51) (84) 233541).

Other Contact Information:

U.S. Department of Commerce International Trade Administration Office of 
Latin America and the Caribbean 14th and Constitution, NW Washington, DC 
20230 Tel: (202) 482-0475 (800) USA-TRADE Fax: (202) 482-0464 

American Chamber of Commerce of Peru Avenida Ricardo Palma 836, 
Miraflores Lima 18, Peru Tel: (511) 241-0708 Fax: (511) 241-0709 
E-Mail: postmaster@amchampe.org.pe


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Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be 
obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-
5225. For after-hours emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-

Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-hour, 7-
day a week automated system ($.35 per minute) or live operators 8 a.m. 
to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday ($1.05 per minute). The number is 1-900-
225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778). Major credit card users (for a flat rate 
of $4.95) may call 1-888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648) 

Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers 
for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at 
(404) 332-4559 gives the most recent health advisories, immunization 
recommendations or requirements, and advice on food and drinking water 
safety for regions and countries. A booklet entitled Health Information 
for International Travel (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280) is 
available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 
20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.

Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and 
customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to 
travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a country's 
embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see "Principal 
Government Officials" listing in this publication). 

U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous areas 
are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country 
(see "Principal U.S. Embassy Officials" listing in this publication). 
This may help family members contact you in case of an emergency. 

Further Electronic Information: 

Department of State Foreign Affairs Network. Available on the Internet, 
DOSFAN provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign policy 
information. Updated daily, DOSFAN includes Background Notes; Dispatch, 
the official magazine of U.S. foreign policy; daily press briefings; 
Country Commercial Guides; directories of key officers of foreign 
service posts; etc. DOSFAN's World Wide Web site is at 

U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published on a semi-annual basis 
by the U.S. Department of State, USFAC archives information on the 
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network, and includes an array of 
official foreign policy information from 1990 to the present. Contact 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. 
Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. To order, call (202) 512-1800 or 
fax (202) 512-2250.

National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department of 
Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related information. It is 
available on the Internet (www.stat-usa.gov) and on CD-ROM. Call the 
NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-1986 for more information. 
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