U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
BACKGROUND NOTES: PERU
PUBLISHED BY THE BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
Official Name: Republic of Peru
Area: 28 million sq. km. (496,222 sq. mi.); three times larger than
Cities: Capital--Lima/Callao metropolitan area (pop. 7 million, 1993).
Other cities--Arequipa, Chiclayo, Cusco, Huancayo, Trujillo, Piura,
Terrain: Western coastal plains, central rugged mountains (Andes),
eastern lowlands with tropical jungle forests. Climate: Coastal area,
arid and mild; Andes, temperate to frigid; eastern lowlands, tropically
warm and humid.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Peruvian(s).
Population (1994 est.): 22.9 million
Annual growth rate (1994 est.): 2.0%.
Ethnic groups: Indian 45%; mestizo 37%; Caucasians 15%; black, Asian,
and other 3%.
Religion: Roman Catholic.
Languages: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara.
Education: Years compulsory--11. Literacy--About 98%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--52/1,000 Life expectancy--65 yrs.
Work force: 8.4 million. Agriculture--35%. Industry--10%. Mining--
12%. Other services--27%. Commerce--16%.
Type: Constitutional republic.
Constitution: December 1993.
Branches: Executive--president, two vice presidents, Council of
Ministers. Legislative--unicameral Congress. Judicial--Supreme Court
and lower courts, Tribunal of Constitutional Guarantees (authorized
under 1993 constitution but not yet established).
Administrative subdivisions: 12 regions, 24 departments, 1
Political parties: Change 90/New Majority, Popular Action (AP),
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Popular Christian Party
(PPC), Democratic Left Movement (MDI).
Suffrage: Universal over 18; compulsory until age 70 (members of the
military may not vote).
GDP (1993): $27.7 billion.
Annual growth rate (1993): 6.5%.
Per capita GDP (1993): $1,207.
Inflation rate (1993): 39.5%.
Natural resources: Minerals, metals, petroleum, forests, and fish.
Agriculture (12% of GDP): Products--coffee, cotton, cocoa, sugar, wool,
corn, potatoes, and livestock products.
Industry (22% of GDP): Types--mineral processing, oil refining,
fishmeal, textile, food processing, light manufacturing, and automobile
Trade (1993): Exports--$3.5 billion: petroleum, copper, silver, gold,
zinc, lead, fishmeal, coffee, sugar, cotton, canned and frozen fish.
Major markets--U.S. (22%), EU, Japan. Imports--$4 billion: machinery,
cereals, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, petroleum and mining equipment.
Major suppliers--U.S. (26%), Andean Pact countries, Argentina, EU, and
Official exchange rate (soles per dollar, Aug. 1994): 2.22=U.S.$1.
Peru's ethnic structure is primarily made up of Indians, mestizos, and
Caucasians. Some Peruvians also are of African descent, and Lima and
other coastal cities have Chinese and Japanese communities. Mestizos
form a cultural bridge between the Hispanic-European and Indian
societies. Caucasians tend to be culturally homogeneous throughout the
country, whereas the mestizos and Indians show greater cultural
diversity. Due to education, economic development, and the movement
from rural to urban areas, however, a more homogeneous national culture
is developing, especially in major cities.
Peru has two official languages--Spanish and the foremost indigenous
language, Quechua. Spanish is used by the government and the media, and
in education and commerce. Indians who live in the Andean highlands
speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from Indians who
live in the jungle and on the eastern side of the Andes. The latter
groups speak various languages and dialects. Some of these tribes still
live much as they have since prehistoric times, while others have been
almost completely assimilated into the mestizo-Hispanic culture.
Under the 1993 constitution, primary education is free and compulsory.
The system is highly centralized, with the Minister of Education
appointing all public school teachers. Eighty-four percent of Peru's
students attend public schools at all levels. School enrollment has
been rising sharply for years, due to a widening educational effort by
the government and a growing school-age population. Illiteracy is more
than 70% in isolated, mountainous areas and is estimated at 28% in urban
areas. Elementary and secondary school enrollment is about 5 million.
University enrollment is more than 250,000.
The relationship between Hispanic and Indian cultures determines much of
the nation's cultural expression. During pre-Columbian times, Peru was
one of the major centers of artistic expression in America. Pre-Inca
cultures, such as Chavin, Paracas, Nazca, Chimu, and Tiahuanaco,
developed high-quality pottery, textiles, and sculpture. Drawing upon
earlier cultures, the Incas continued to maintain these crafts but made
even more impressive achievements in architecture. The great fortress
of Machu Picchu and the buildings at Cusco are excellent examples of
Inca architectural design.
Peru has passed through various intellectual stages--from colonial
Hispanic culture to European Romanticism after independence. The early
20th century brought indigenismo, expressed in a new awareness of Indian
culture. Since World War II, Peruvian writers, artists, and
intellectuals have participated in worldwide intellectual and artistic
movements, drawing especially on U.S. and European trends.
During the colonial period, Spanish baroque fused with the rich Inca
tradition to produce mestizo or creole art. The Peruvian (Cusco) school
followed the Spanish baroque tradition with influence from the Italian,
Flemish, and French schools.
Pancho Fierro made a distinctive contribution with his portrayals of
typical events, manners, and customs of mid-19th century Peru.
Francisco Lazo, forerunner of the indigenous school of painters, also
achieved fame for his portraits, as did others. Peru's 20th-century art
is widely known for its extraordinary variety of styles and originality.
In the 1930s, a group of Peruvian artists reacted against the
limitations of the indigenous styles and adopted a more international
style. Peruvian sculpture has followed the same trend.
When the Spanish landed in 1531, Peru's territory was the nucleus of the
highly developed Inca civilization. Centered at Cusco, the Inca Empire
extended over a vast region from northern Ecuador to central Chile. In
search of Inca wealth, the Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro arrived in
the territory after the Incas had fought a debilitating civil war and
easily conquered the weakened people. The Inca capital at Cusco had
fallen by 1533, and the Spanish had consolidated control by 1542. Gold
and silver from the Andes enriched the conquerors, and Peru became the
principal source of Spanish wealth and power in South America.
Pizarro founded Lima in 1535. The viceroyalty established at Lima in
1542 initially had jurisdiction over all of South America except
Portuguese Brazil. By the time of the wars of independence (1820-24),
Lima had become the most distinguished and aristocratic colonial capital
and the chief Spanish stronghold in America.
Peru's independence movement was led by Jose de San Martin of Argentina
and Simon Bolivar of Venezuela. San Martin proclaimed Peruvian
independence from Spain on July 28, 1821. Emancipation was completed in
December 1824, when Gen. Antonio Jose de Sucre defeated the Spanish
troops at Ayacucho, ending Spanish rule in South America. Spain made
futile attempts to regain its former colonies, but in 1879 it finally
recognized Peru's independence.
After independence, Peru and its neighbors engaged in intermittent
territorial disputes. Chile's victory over Peru and Bolivia in the War
of the Pacific (1879-83) resulted in a territorial settlement.
Following a clash between Peru and Ecuador in 1941, the Rio Protocol--of
which the United States is one of four guarantors--sought to establish
the boundary between the two countries. (Continuing boundary
disagreement last led to a brief armed conflict in early 1981.)
The military has been prominent in Peruvian history. Coups have
repeatedly interrupted civilian constitutional government. The most
recent period of military rule (1968-80) began when Gen. Juan Velasco
Alvarado overthrew elected President Fernando Belaunde Terry of the
Popular Action Party (AP). As part of what has been called the "first
phase" of the military government's nationalist program, Velasco
undertook an extensive agrarian reform program and nationalized the
fishmeal industry, some petroleum companies, and several banks and
Because of Velasco's economic mismanagement and deteriorating health, he
was replaced by Gen. Francisco Morales Bermudez Cerruti in 1975.
Morales Bermudez moved the revolution into a more pragmatic "second
phase," tempering the authoritarian abuses of the first phase and
beginning the task of restoring the country's economy. Morales Bermudez
presided over the return to civilian government in accordance with a new
constitution drawn up in 1979. In the May 1980 elections, President
Belaunde Terry was returned to office by an impressive plurality.
Nagging economic problems left over from the military government
persisted, worsened by a period of unusual weather in 1982-83, which
caused widespread flooding in some parts of the country, severe droughts
in others, and decimated the schools of ocean fish that are one of the
country's major resources. After a promising beginning, Belaunde's
popularity eroded under the stress of inflation, economic hardship, and
During the 1980s, illegal cultivation of coca was established in large
areas on the eastern Andean slope. Rural terrorism by Sendero Luminoso
and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement increased during this time
and derived significant financial support from the illegal drug
industry. The 1983 municipal elections were won largely by opposition
party candidates. In 1985, the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
(APRA), founded in 1928 by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre, won the
presidential election, bringing Alan Garcia Perez to office. The
transfer of the presidency from Belaunde to Garcia on July 28, 1985, was
Peru's first exchange of power from one democratically elected leader to
another in 40 years.
Extreme economic mismanagement by the Garcia administration led to
hyperinflation from 1988 to 1990. Concerned about the economy, the
increasing terrorist threat from the Sendero Luminoso, and allegations
of official corruption, voters chose a relative unknown, Alberto
Fujimori, as president in 1990.
The president is popularly elected for a 5-year term; the 1993
constitution permits re-election. The first and second vice presidents
also are popularly elected but have no constitutional functions unless
the president is unable to discharge his duties. Although currently
vacant, the two vice presidential positions will be filled by the
winning candidates of the April 1995 elections. The principal executive
body is the Council of Ministers, headed by a prime minister. The prime
minister and the Cabinet are appointed by the president. All
presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to Congress must be
approved by the Council of Ministers.
The legislative branch consists of a unicameral congress of 80 members;
this will increase to 120 members in 1995. In addition to passing laws,
Congress is empowered to approve treaties, authorize government loans,
and approve the government budget. The president has the power to
review legislation but may not formally veto laws passed by Congress.
The judicial branch of government is headed by a 16-member Supreme Court
seated in Lima. The Tribunal of Constitutional Guarantees, a separate
judicial body dissolved by President Fujimori in April 1992, is
expected to interpret the constitution on matters of individual rights.
An attorney general serves as a judicial ombudsman; the 1993
constitution calls for the creation of a separate Defender of the
People. Superior courts in departmental capitals reviews appeals from
decisions by lower courts. Courts of first instance are located in
provincial capitals and are divided into civil, penal, and special
Peru is divided into 24 departments and the constitutional province of
Callao, the country's chief port, adjacent to Lima. The departments are
subdivided into provinces, which are composed of districts. Local
authorities below the departmental level are elected.
Principal Government Officials
President--Ing. Alberto Fujimori
First Vice President--vacant
Second Vice President--vacant
Prime Minister--Efrain Goldenberg Schreiber
Minister of the Presidency--Ma. Luisa Federici Soto
Foreign Minister--Efrain Goldenberg Schreiber
Economy and Finance--Ing. Jorge Camet Dickmann
Interior--Dr. Juan Briones Davila
Justice--Dr. Fernando Vega Santa Gadea
Defense--Gen. Victor Malca Villanueva
Education--Jorge Trelles Montero
Public Health--Dr. Jaime Freundt Thurne-Oyanguren
Agriculture and Food--Ing. Absalon Vasquez Villanueva
Labor--Dr. Augusto Antonioli Vasquez
Transportation and Communications --Dr. Dante Cordova Blanco
Energy and Mines--Ing. Daniel Hokama T.
Fisheries--Ing. Jaime Sobero Taira
Industry, Commerce, Tourism, and Integration--Dra. Liliana Ma.Canale
Ambassador to the United States--Ricardo Luna
Permanent Representative to the United Nations--Fernando Guillen
Ambassador to the Organization of American States (OAS)--Beatriz
Peru maintains an embassy in the United States at 1700 Massachusetts
Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20036 (tel. 202-833-9860). Peru has
consulates in New York; Paterson, N.J.; Miami; Chicago; Houston; Los
Angeles; and San Francisco.
President Fujimori inherited a government which faced an increasingly
powerful insurgency by the Sedero Luminoso; hyperinflation; statist
economic policies; international isolation; rapidly growing cocaine
production and trafficking; and a new low in voters' confidence in
political institutions. President Fujimori's economic shock program
sharply reduced inflation. Peru resumed its ties with the international
financial community, reduced trade restrictions, and welcomed foreign
In April 1992, the President carried out an "auto-coup," dissolving
congress and regional governments and assuming control over the
judiciary. There was broad popular support for the coup, which
reflected long frustration with politicians' inefficiency and
corruption. Operating with a small circle of advisers, including the
National Intelligence Service (SIN), the president ruled by decree law.
His intention, frequently stated, was to modernize Peru and end
corruption, drug-trafficking, and terrorism. Following pressure from
the Organization of American States and the United States, the President
convened elections for a constituent congress on November 1992. The OAS
declared that these and the municipal elections held in February 1993
were fair. The government won approval of the new constitution by a
slim margin in October 1993.
Political parties, such as Accion Popular, did well in the 1993
municipal elections. Opposition and independent politicians are
actively preparing for the presidential/congressional elections in 1995.
President Fujimori, whose approval rating was in the 60%- plus range in
October 1994, is campaigning for re-election.
President Fujimori continued the increased focus by the police and army
on intelligence and civic action in fighting the SL. The capture of SL
leader Abimael Guzman in September 1992, followed by other captures,
significantly damaged the guerrillas. Guzman called for SL to enter
peace negotiations with the government in 1993.
Human rights violations by the security forces dropped considerably in
late 1992, as military authorities regained confidence in their
abilities to subdue terrorism. President Fujimori has asserted his
personal authority over the armed forces to an extent almost unequalled
in Peruvian history. The arrest of several generals and other officers
in November 1992 for coup plotting revealed tensions within the armed
The economic restructuring program of the Fujimori administration is
beginning to have a positive effect on Peru's economy, which has
suffered decades of high inflation, unproductive investment policies,
high foreign debt, subsidies, mismanagement, and corruption. Trade,
investment, and foreign exchange policies have been liberalized as well
as laws on labor and land. Inflation has been reduced significantly
through tight monetary and fiscal policies. Domestic deficit financing
has been curbed through tax reform, corrections in public prices, and
expenditure control, including the elimination of subsidies. In mid-
1994, the Fujimori administration had attained significant successes in
privatizing all state-owned enterprises. The government sold its share
in the national phone system to a Spanish company for more than $2
billion and later sold one of two major government banks to an
international consortium in 1994.
The Peruvian economy continues the strong recovery of 1993, which had an
almost 7% increase in GDP. Overall inflation for 1993 was 39%, down
from 57% the previous year and 7,650% in 1990. Economic growth in the
first five months of 1994 was 12% compared with the same 1993 period and
could well exceed 8% for the entire year. Even with slightly relaxed
monetary policies to assist in the maintenance of the recovery, 1994
inflation could be under the 20% target in Peru's current International
Monetary Fund (IMF) program.
Growth in fisheries and the agricultural sector was spurred by the
abatement of the El Nino climatic phenomenon which had caused the
depletion of ocean fish stocks and drought on shore. In fact, in 1993,
the strongest growth took place in the fisheries sector, especially in
the production of fishmeal for animal feed. Fisheries grew 24% in 1993.
Output in the construction sector also grew significantly, with a 14%
increase. Agricultural production rose 6% in 1993. The recovery of
this sector was concentrated in the crop sub-sector, which climbed 10%.
Mining and petroleum production rose 8% with similar increases in
petroleum and mineral production. The manufacturing sector also
underwent a significant recovery, especially in primary processing;
which rose 9% in 1993. Total manufacturing production increased 7%.
Preliminary data for 1994 show that the leading growth sectors--both in
terms of their contribution to overall output--and rates of growth are
manufacturing, which rose 15% in January-May compared with the same
period of 1993; construction, which surged by 30%; agriculture, which
climbed 16%; and electricity, which was up 11%. The fisheries sector,
while accounting for only about 2% of total output, made a significant
contribution to overall growth by rising 34% during the first five
months of 1994 against the comparable 1993 period. Mining output is
projected to grow, aided by recovering international prices and the
development of joint ventures attracting significant foreign investment,
especially in the more prosperous Peruvian mining operations.
For 1994 as a whole, manufacturing is expected to grow by 8%-9%. Use of
capacity should rise to 58%-60% by the end of the year, compared with
53% at the end of 1993. Primary product processing continues to play an
important role, and growth rates are highest in fishmeal, leather and
skins, and foundry products. With an apparent recovery of demand,
output of consumer goods also is on the rise.
The construction sector also will continue to grow strongly with output
increasing a projected 12%-15%. Strong public sector investment in
highway rehabilitation, schools, water, sewage, and rural
electrification should fuel demand. Output should also rise in the
housing sector, because of a strengthened public housing program and the
reinitiation of a private mortgage system.
Peru is the world's leading producer of the coca leaf. Two-thirds of
the world's cocaine supply originates from coca leaf grown in Peru.
Contributions of this illicit industry to national economy is unknown
but probably adds several $100 million a year at a minimum. Some
100,000 farmers are involved in the production. The large inflow of
illegal dollars from the drug industry artificially strengthens the
Peruvian sol against the dollar, helping to erode international
competitiveness of the country's legitimate exports.
In 1993-94, the Government of Peru conducted operations, which included
the seizure of drug traffickers and drugs; the destruction of coca labs;
disablement of clandestine air strips; and prosecution of security
officers involved in narcotics corruption. The government also created
programs to eradicate coca seed beds and enacted laws to ensure the
destruction of poppy cultivation. Peru is cooperating with
multinational efforts to eliminate precursor chemicals used to transform
coca leaf into cocaine.
Foreign Trade and Balance Of Payments
In 1993, Peru recorded a total merchandise trade deficit of more than
$500 million. Peru's first-quarter 1994 merchandise trade deficit
amounted to $247 million. In 1993, U.S. merchandise exports to Peru
totaled $1.1 billion; U.S. imports from Peru were $754 million.
Generally, the 1994 balance of payments strengthened the trends begun in
1993 and increased long-term capital flows into Peru. This resulted in
a larger capital account surplus, and a higher current account deficit.
In 1993, the Peruvian balance-of-payments surplus was $500 million. The
current account deficit of $1.775 billion, according to Central Bank
statistics, was more than covered by capital inflows. Within those
flows, long-term investments are becoming more prominent. The long-term
capital account surplus in 1993 was $1.237 billion, up from $612 million
in 1992. Short-term capital flows fell sharply--from $1.576 billion in
1992 to $1.037 billion in 1993.1
The overall Peruvian balance-of-payments surplus for 1994 was estimated
to be more than $2.5 billion, with inflows from the privatization
program likely to exceed $3 billion. This inflow of capital is
financing a current account deficit that is expected to be somewhat
higher this year than in 1993, especially given an expected real
appreciation of the sol in 1994.
The Fujimori government seeks to attract both foreign and domestic
investment in all sectors of the economy. Macroeconomic instability, a
hostile political climate, and terrorism discouraged such investment in
the past, but increasing reforms and success in the Peruvian
Government's war on terrorism have helped attract more foreign
investors. The new constitution--enacted January 1, 1994--Legislative
Decree 662 (DL 662) of September 1991, the Foreign Investment Promotion
Law, DL 757 of November 1991, and the Framework Law for Private
Investment Growth are the basic legal frameworks for foreign investors
in Peru. Supreme Decree 162 (DS 162) of October 1992 provides the
implementing regulations for these legislative decrees.
Foreign investment is now subject to national treatment and is permitted
in almost all economic activity. Article 63 of the new constitution
states that "national and foreign investment are subject to the same
terms." Although foreign investment must be registered with the
National Commission on Foreign Investment and Technology, if the
investor intends to repatriate capital, profits, and royalties, no
authorization is actually required to move funds abroad. All investors
need prior approval to invest in industries that manufacture weapons.
The Peruvian Government's primary economic objective is to reduce
inflation to single digits and then to focus more on social and economic
growth programs. The government hopes to lower inflation to 9% in 1995.
Current indicators suggest that the 1995 increase in GDP growth rate
could exceed that projected for 1994. With single-digit inflation,
strong economic potential, and continued foreign investment, Peru could
continue its economic recovery well into the latter half of the 1990s.
Nonetheless, the government's preoccupation with macroeconomic issues,
insufficient capital investment funds at home, and a dramatic drop in
foreign credits as a result of Peru's policy of debt-service limitation.
Upgrading education and services, reducing the 2.0% population growth
rate through expanded family planning activities, decentralizing the
economy, and agricultural development remain high government priorities,
as does reducing the high unemployment and underemployment rates.
President Fujimori is increasing Peru's ties to Japan and other
countries on the Pacific Rim, as noted by several presidential visits
and many others by government officials to the region. The April 1992
coup strained Peru's relations with many OAS and European countries.
Relations improved as the government has returned to democratic
institutions through the Constituent Congress process. The President
aims to improve relations with its neighbors. Peru is a member of the
Andean pact together with Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela.
Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949. Former UN
Secretary General (1981-91) Javier Perez de Cuellar is Peruvian.
The principal U.S. interests in Peru continue to be the stability and
strengthening of democratic institutions, protection of human rights,
ending illegal Peruvian exports of cocaine, interdicting the flow of
narcotics to the Untied States, and maintaining sustainable economic
U.S. relations with Peru have improved after the Peruvian Government
implemented its May 1992 promises to the OAS Ministerial Meeting
(Nassau) to restore democracy after the coup. Peru has accepted U.S.
offers to provide technical assistance for the 1995 elections, which
will be an important test for democracy. Human rights remains a
significant element of U.S. policy toward Peru. The terrorists remain
the largest violator of human rights in Peru. The number of
extrajudicial executions and disappearances by security forces dropped
in 1994. With the November 1994 elimination of the repentant terrorist
law, under which terrorists could gain lighter sentences by providing
information on operations and members to the government, the number of
arbitrary detentions should also slow. However, impunity of security
forces accused of past human rights abuses continues, and trials of
accused terrorists in military and civilian courts lack due process
With increasing success against terrorism, the Peruvian Government has
turned more effort and resources toward control of the illegal cocaine
industry. The Peruvian Government recently adopted a comprehensive
national drug control plan. However, corruption and crippling resource
constraints have limited Peruvian efforts. The United States and other
donors recognize that a significant long-term alternative development
assistance effort, complemented by control of illegal drug trafficking,
is necessary to reduce economic dependence of a large farming population
on coca production, and thus make it politically possible to eliminate
coca destined for illicit drug production.
The United States fully supports Peru's efforts to reinsert itself in
the international financial community. The United States was a co-
leader, along with Japan, of the Peru Support Group in 1993.
U.S. Economic Assistance
U.S. bilateral assistance to Peru, including food aid and disaster
relief and rehabilitation, totaled more than $714 million during the
1990-94 period. Peru has been the Agency for International
Development's (USAID) largest program in South America. USAID has
provided valuable resources for priority development projects at a time
when Peru's own domestic resources have been severely restricted by the
need for austerity in public spending and by unprecedented natural
Through Title II Food Aid Programs, USAID assists 2.6 million Peruvians
living below the poverty threshold. Designed to alleviate not only
hunger and to help them become reincorporated into the economy, it also
provides food for work activities, which have created jobs for 125,000
temporary workers while building basic productive infrastructure for
sustainable development. In addition, the assistance has provided
capital access, management, technical, and business skills to 6,000
people, helping them to establish or maintain small businesses.
USAID also provides health, nutrition, and family planning services,
emphasizing preventive health and nutrition interventions for young
children and their mothers. USAID is the major donor for immunization
in Peru. In 1993, immunization coverage of children under age one
reached the highest levels ever in the country. Further, in 1994, a
major public health milestone will be reached: Polio will be declared
eradicated from the Americas, an accomplishment that has not yet been
attained in any other region. The last case of polio in the region
occurred in Peru in 1991. Moreover, adequate clinical treatment and use
of oral rehydration therapy have contributed to an extremely low
fatality rate of slightly over 1% for cholera in 1994.
USAID developed a nationwide computerized health and management
information system--the first in the Latin America and Caribbean region-
-for the Ministry of Health. The system links the ministry's 32 health
regions and gives information-sharing on health statistics nationwide
and for comparative purposes. This will help improve national health
planning and better allocate scarce resources to segments of the
population in greatest need.
Toward strengthening the investment climate through improved legal,
regulatory, and judicial environment, USAID financed the creation of the
Lima Chamber of Commerce's Arbitration Center, which resulted in more
efficient resolution of commercial conflicts and is an effective
alternative to the slow judicial system. The Microenterprise and Small
Producers Support Project helped increase small business earnings by $25
million and expand Peru's agricultural export base by 2,000 small
agricultural producers with more access to both national and
Increased democratization and transparency of government decision-making
has been advanced through proactive initiatives of numerous USAID-
assisted non-governmental organizations, including the Institute for
Liberty and Democracy, Drug Information and Education Center, and FORO
Principal U.S. Officials
Ambassador--Alvin P. Adams
Deputy Chief of Mission--James Mack
Director, AID Mission--George Wachtenheim
Counselor for Public Affairs (USIS)--Pamela Corey-Archer
Counselor for Narcotics Affairs (NAS)--Sherman N. Hinson
Counselor for Political Affairs--Stephen McFarland
Counselor for Economic Affairs--John Riddle
Counselor for Consular Affairs--Thomas Holladay
Counselor for Administrative Affairs--Alphonse Lopez
Naval Attache--Capt. Manuel Durazo
Army Attache--Col. William Spracher
Air and Defense Attache--Col. Thomas Blystad
Chief, Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG)--Col. Roy R. Trumble
Consular Agent, Cusco--Dr. Olga Villagarcia
The U.S. Embassy in Peru is located at Avenidas Garcilaso de la Vega and
Espana, Lima (tel. 33-8000). The consulate is located at Grimaldo Del
Solar 346, Miraflores, Lima (tel. 44-3621).
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