U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Haiti, September 1996
Released by the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs.
Official Name: Republic of Haiti
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Haitian(s).
Population (est.): 7 million.
Annual growth rate: 2.3%.
Ethnic groups: African descent 95%, African and European descent 5%.
Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 10%; voodoo practices widespread.
Languages: French (official), Creole (official).
Education: Years compulsory--6. Attendance--73% of 6-11 year-old children;
secondary school 15%. Adult literacy--35%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--74/1,000. Life expectancy--57 yrs.
Work force (est.): 3.6 million. Agriculture--66%. Industry and
Area: 27,750 sq. km. (10,714 sq. mi.); about the size of Maryland.
Cities: Port-au-Prince (1995 est. pop. 1.5 million). Other Cities--Cap
Terrain: Mountainous; rest is plain.
Climate: Warm, semiarid; high humidity in many coastal areas.
Type: Elected government.
Branches: Executive--President. Legislative--Senate (27 Seats) Chamber of
Deputies (83 Seats). Judicial--Court of Cassation.
Administrative subdivisions: Nine departments.
Political parties: Numerous.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
GNP (1995 est): $1.9 billion (unadjusted for inflation)
GNP growth rate (FY 1995): 4.5%.
Inflation (FY 1995): 18%.
Per capita GNP (est.): $270.
Natural resources: Bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble.
Agriculture (44% of GNP): Products--coffee, sugarcane, rice, corn, cacao,
sorghum, pulses, fruits, vegetables.
Industry (12% of GNP): Types--apparel, handicrafts, electronics, food
processing, beverages, tobacco products, leather goods, furniture, printing,
chemicals, steel, cleaning products, toiletries.
Services (44% of GNP): Types--commerce, government, tourism.
Trade (1995): Exports to U.S.--$111.9 million: apparel, mangos, essential
oils, toys/sporting goods, electrical. Major market--U.S. (historically
Imports from U.S.--$477 million: rice, motor vehicles, soybean oil,
machinery, sugar, wheat flour, petroleum. Major supplier--U.S. (historically
Free foreign exchange market. The U.S. dollar traded in mid-1996 for
approximately 16 gourdes.
U.S. Policy Toward Haiti
U.S. policy toward Haiti is designed to foster democracy, help alleviate
poverty in the Western Hemisphere's poorest country, and promote respect for
human rights. As President Clinton stated on the eve of the U.S.-led
intervention in 1994, U.S. involvement was based on the need to "protect our
interests, to stop the brutal atrocities that threaten . . . Haitians; to
secure our borders and to preserve stability and promote democracy in our
hemisphere . . . ." The United States has taken a leading role in organizing
international efforts at the United Nations, the Organization of American
States, with the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), and individual countries to
achieve these objectives.
Maintaining good relations with and fostering democracy in Haiti are
important for many reasons, not the least of which is its geographical
proximity to the continental United States. On top of a steady stream of
legal immigrants to the U.S., tens of thousands of undocumented Haitian
migrants were intercepted at sea by the U.S. Coast Guard before and during
the 1991-94 period of illegal military rule. Thus the U.S. is determined to
promote a stable democracy in Haiti, a country historically plagued by
autocratic rule and recurring political violence. In addition, the U.S.
helps provide relief to Haiti from severe poverty, environmental
degradation, and poor public health conditions.
U.S. Economic and Development Assistance
Many of Haiti's conditions can be attributed to its history of unstable
regimes. In order to bolster the stability of Haiti's fragile democracy, the
U.S. has led the effort to rebuild Haiti's economy. The U.S. has been the
largest donor since 1973, with a total aid package of $566 million from 1990
to 1995. Providing human resources as well, the U.S. returned Peace Corps
volunteers to Haiti this year after a five-year hiatus: ten were sworn in on
July 18 and fourteen are due in Haiti on September 30. The U.S. has also
contributed extensively to the reform of Haiti's economy, with a focus on
the following areas:
--Strengthening governance and responsiveness in public sector institutions;
--Strengthening private sector participation in an emerging civil society;
--Supporting sustainable private sector economic growth; and
--Protecting and developing the human resource base.
Additional U.S. efforts include the establishment of the U.S.-Haiti Business
Development Council, an Overseas Private Investment Corporation commercial
loan program, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative, all providing greater
market opportunities for American and Haitian businesses.
The United States allotted economic assistance worth $120.3 million for FY
1996. USAID appropriations to Haiti totaled $25.6 million for development
assistance, $34.3 million for foodstuffs, and $60.4 million for economic
support. These appropriations have been used to achieve such objectives as
fostering democratic institutions, increasing private sector employment and
income, helping Haiti fund its arrears to international institutions,
providing humanitarian aid, and increasing agricultural production in Haiti.
Elections assistance up to March 1995 totaled $6.9 million, for voter
education, polling activities, transportation, and the procurement of
U.S. development assistance is largely channeled through non-governmental
organizations in Haiti.
Democratic gains cannot be sustained without demonstrable improvement in the
economy and access to opportunities for Haiti's poor. For this reason,
objectives of providing assistance to Haiti include policy reform and
expanding credit availability. Initiatives advancing democratic processes
and institutions, promoting economic recovery, reorienting humanitarian
relief activities toward developmental activities, stemming environmental
degradation, and enhancing agricultural yields and incomes lay a solid
foundation for political stability and sustainable development.
The loss of 50,000-70,000 jobs in the formal sector alone since 1991
provides perspective on the challenges the government faces in revitalizing
the economy. Notwithstanding this challenge, efforts to increase commercial
bank lending in productive activities in the agricultural sector through
guarantees have already resulted in thousands of new jobs for unemployed
Haitian agricultural workers. A transitional program has also been
established to ease rural mass unemployment, which employed as many as
50,000 workers per day.
Humanitarian assistance from Haitian and U.S. NGO's includes food for up to
1,200,000 Haitians and helps reinforce the planning and management
capacities of the Ministry of Public Health and Population. In addition to
sponsoring vaccination programs, the U.S. Government has financed basic
health care services, accessed by more than 2 million people. Health
services are also provided for child survival, reproductive health, and rape
victims. By providing economic assistance, the U.S. seeks to improve the
quality of life for Haitians.
President Preval and the Smarth Government are committed to the success of
the Haitian National Police (HNP), and our active support for their efforts
will remain strong for a considerable period to come. Having completed early
this year the basic training of the 5000-person force, we have now turned
our efforts to more specialized training. U.S. instructors from the
International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP)
are providing specialized training to select HNP officers in such areas as
crowd control, operation of firearms and VIP protection. Most importantly,
experts with ICITAP are working closely with the Haitian government in
recruiting and training qualified individuals to fill mid-level supervisory
positions. Finally, the U.S. recently provided assistance from military
stocks through the police training program (once it established that
sufficient inventory controls were in place) to help the HNP fully equip
U.S. Business Opportunities
Support of the Haitian economy continues through the private sector. The
U.S. has been and still is Haiti's largest trading partner. With a number of
U.S. businesses, including banks, airlines, oil companies, agribusinesses,
and U.S.-owned assembly plants, more than 8300 American (mostly
Haitian-American) residents, and as many as 1500 American tourists in Haiti
at one time, the U.S. maintains its economic presence in this new democracy.
Opportunities for U.S. businesses include developing or trading essential
drugs, medical and surgical equipment, rebuilding and modernizing Haiti's
infrastructure, tourism, waste disposal, transportation, energy,
telecommunications, and export assembly operations. Because of the assembly
sector's importance, opportunities exist for U.S. exporters to supply this
industry; primary inputs include textiles, electronics components, packaging
materials, and raw materials used in the manufacture of toys and sporting
goods. Other U.S. export prospects include construction materials, plumbing
fixtures, hardware and lumber. Benefits for both Haitian and American
importers and exporters are available under the 806 and 807/HTSUS Programs
(U.S. Customs laws on products assembled from U.S. components or materials),
and under the Caribbean Basin Initiative.
Markets exist for four-wheel-drive vehicles, consumer electronics, rice,
wheat, flour, sugar, and processed foodstuffs. The government wants to
reactivate and develop agricultural industries where Haiti enjoys
considerable comparative advantages, among which are essential oils, spices,
fruits and vegetables, and sisal. The government encourages the inflow of
new capital and technological innovations.
Establishing a Business
In order for foreigners to set up a business in Haiti, one must obtain a
residence visa, and a transient businessman or woman must have a locally
licensed agent to conduct business transactions within the country.
Requirements for individuals wishing to practice a trade in Haiti include
--Obtaining an immigrant visa from a Haitian Consulate;
--Obtaining a work permit, with some exceptions;
--All transient and resident traders must have a professional ID card.
Property restrictions still exist for foreign individuals. Property rights
of foreigners are limited to 1.29 hectares in urban areas and 6.45 hectares
in rural areas. No foreigner may own more than one residence in the same
district, nor own property or buildings near the border. To own real estate,
authorization from the Ministry of Justice is necessary.
Hurdles for businesses in Haiti include the poor infrastructure, crime, the
port as the most expensive in the Caribbean, and customs delays. The
government places a 30% withholding tax on all profits received. There is
little direct investment, though more is incoming than outgoing (see
Foreign investment protection is provided by the Constitution of 1987, which
permits expropriation for public use or land reform with payment in advance.
American firms enjoy free transfer of interest, dividends, profits and other
revenues stemming from their investments, and are guaranteed just
compensation paid in advance of expropriation, as well as compensation in
case of damages or losses caused by war, revolution, or insurrection.
Policy in Action
After the September 1991 coup d'etat ousted Haiti's democratically elected
government, the United States was pressured to take action. The United
States imposed a series of economic sanctions on Haiti, followed by the OAS
and ultimately the UN adopting a series of economic sanctions aimed at
restoring constitutional rule to the country. As political conditions
worsened, however, the United States intervened militarily in Haiti under
Operation Uphold Democracy. Launched on September 19, 1994, Operation Uphold
Democracy's aim was initially to restore Haiti's democratically elected
government, and later to establish and maintain a safe and secure
environment for institutional reform and democracy (see History). A peaceful
operation set the stage for a Multinational Force to be established.
The U.S. has led the training for judicial officials and the reform of the
court and prison systems. The U.S. has led the movement to support
democracy, and maintains a visible presence in Haiti.
Principal U.S. Officials
Ambassador--William Lacy Swing
Deputy Chief of Mission--Robert C. Felder
The U.S. Embassy in Haiti is located on Harry Truman Blvd., Port-au-Prince
(tel: (509) 22-0200) (fax: (509) 23-1641).
U.S. citizens traveling to Haiti are urged to register at the U.S. embassy's
consular section upon arrival. Citizens may obtain updated information from
the embassy on travel and security within Haiti.
Health: Medical care is limited. Travelers face the range of diseases
normally found in a tropical country, including malaria, typhoid, polio, and
dengue fever. The level of community sanitation is low. Public water sources
often contain impurities that can cause severe intestinal disorders. Bottled
water is generally safe.
For additional information, travelers should contact the Centers for Disease
Control's international travelers' hotline at (404) 332-4559.
Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)
1615 M Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20527
tel: (202) 457-7200; fax: (202) 331-4234
U.S. Department of Commerce
International Trade Administration
14th and Constitution Ave., NW
Washington, D.C. 20230
Haiti Hotline (202) 482-4302
Haiti Telefax (202) 482-2521
Office of Latin America and the Caribbean (202) 482-0704; fax (202) 482-0464
Caribbean/Latin American Action
1818 N Street, NW, Suite 310
Washington, D.C. 20036
tel: (202) 466-7464 fax: (202) 822-0075
Association des Industries d'Haiti (ADIH)
Bldg. Le Triangle
Delmas 31, #139
tel: (509) 46-4509, (509) 46-4510
Centre Pour la Livre Entreprise et la Democratie (CLED)
37, Avenue Marie-Jeanne, No. 8
tel: (509) 22-9720, fax: (509) 22-9721
Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie d'Haiti
Blvd. Harry Truman
P.O. Box 982
tel: (509) 22-0281, (509) 22-2475
Haitian American Chamber of Commerce and Industry (HAMCHAM)
Complexe 384, Delmas Road
P.O. Box 13486 Delmas
tel: (509) 57-4767, fax # not available
Haiti is one of the world's most densely populated countries, with
approximately 250 people per square kilometer (650 per sq. mi.). About 95%
of the Haitians are of African descent; the rest of the population is mostly
of mixed African-Caucasian ancestry. A few are of European or Levantine
stock. About 70% of the people live in rural areas.
French is one of two official languages, but it is spoken by only about 10%
of the people. All Haitians speak Creole, the country's other official
language. English is increasingly spoken among the young and in the business
The state religion is Roman Catholicism, which most of the population
professes. Some have been converted to Protestantism by missionaries active
throughout the country. Haitians, however, tend to see no conflict with
voodoo traditions of African origin co-existing with Christian faiths.
Although public education is free, private and parochial schools provide
perhaps 75% of educational programs offered. Only 63% of those enrolled will
complete primary school; on average, it takes 16 years to produce a single
graduate of the 6-year cycle. Though Haitians place a high value on
education, most families cannot afford to send their children to secondary
Recent large-scale emigration to the U.S., and secondarily to Canada and
Caribbean neighbors, has created what Haitians refer to as the "Tenth
Department." About one out of every six Haitians lives abroad.
The Spaniards used Hispaniola (of which Haiti is the western part and the
Dominican Republic is the eastern) as a "jumping-off point" to explore the
rest of the Western Hemisphere. French buccaneers later used the western
third of the island as a point from which to harass English and Spanish
ships. In 1697, Spain ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France. As
piracy was gradually suppressed, some French adventurers became planters,
making Saint-Domingue--as the French portion of the island was then
called--one of the richest colonies of the 18th-century French empire.
During this period, African slaves were brought to work the sugar cane and
coffee plantations. In 1791, the slave population--led by Toussaint
L'Ouverture, Jean Jacques Dessalines, and Henri Christophe-- revolted and
gained control of the northern part of Saint-Domingue.
In 1804, local forces defeated an army deployed by Napoleon Bonaparte,
established independence from France, and renamed the area Haiti. The defeat
of the French in Haiti is widely credited with contributing to Napoleon's
decision to sell the Louisiana territory to the United States in 1804. Haiti
is the world's oldest black republic and the second-oldest republic after
the United States in the Western Hemisphere. Haitians actively assisted the
American Revolution and independence movements of Latin American countries.
Two separate regimes (north and south) emerged after independence but were
unified in 1820. Two years later, Haiti conquered Santo Domingo, the
eastern, Spanish-speaking portion of Hispaniola. In 1844, however, Santo
Domingo broke away from Haiti and became the Dominican Republic. With 22
changes of government from 1843 until 1915, Haiti experienced numerous
periods of intense political and economic disorder, prompting United States
military intervention in 1915. U.S. military forces were withdrawn in 1934
at the request of the elected Government of Haiti.
From 1986, when the thirty-year dictatorship of the Duvalier family ended,
until 1991, Haiti was ruled by a series of provisional governments. In 1987,
a constitution was adopted that provides for an elected bicameral
parliament, an elected president who serves as head of state, and a prime
minister, cabinet of ministers and supreme court appointed by the President
with Parliament's consent. The constitution also provides for the election
of mayors and administrative bodies responsible for local government.
Aristide and the 1991 Coup d'Etat
In December 1990, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a charismatic Roman Catholic
priest, won 67 percent of the vote in a presidential election that
international observers deemed largely free and fair. Aristide took office
in February 1991, but was overthrown by dissatisfied elements of the army
and forced to leave the country in September of the same year. It is
estimated that between 300 and 500 Haitians were killed in the days
following the September coup, and 3000 in the following three years. The
coup created a large-scale exodus from the country; in fact, the Coast Guard
rescued a total of 41,342 Haitians from 1991 to 1992, more than the number
of rescued refugees from the previous ten years combined.
From October 1991 to June 1992, Joseph Nerette, as President, led an
unconstitutional de facto regime and governed with a parliamentary majority
and the armed forces. In June 1992 he resigned, and Parliament approved Marc
Bazin as Prime Minister of a de facto government, with no replacement named
for president. Bazin sought to negotiate a solution with exiled President
Aristide and to end the economic embargo and diplomatic isolation of Haiti
imposed after Aristide's ouster. In June 1993, Bazin resigned and the UN
imposed an oil and arms embargo, bringing the Haitian military to the
Transition to Democracy
President Aristide and General Raoul Cedras, head of the Haitian Armed
Forces, signed the UN-brokered Governors Island agreement on July 3, 1993,
establishing a 10-step process for the restoration of constitutional
government and the return of President Aristide by October 30, 1993. As part
of this process, Robert Malval was sworn in as Prime Minister on August 30,
1993. The military derailed the process and the UN reimposed economic
sanctions. Malval resigned on December 15, 1993, but remained as acting
Prime Minister for 11 more months. The political and human rights climate
continued to deteriorate as the military and the de facto government
sanctioned repression, assassination, torture, and rape in open defiance of
the international community's condemnation.
In May 1994, the military selected Supreme Court Justice Emile Jonassaint to
be provisional president of its third de facto regime. The UN and the U.S.
reacted to this extraconstitutional move by tightening economic sanctions
(UN Res. 917). On July 31, 1994, the UN adopted Resolution 940 authorizing
member states to use all necessary means to facilitate the departure of
Haiti's military leadership and restore constitutional rule and Aristide's
In August 1994, Haiti had parallel governments, the illegitimate
military-backed Jonassaint regime that controlled the government apparatus
in Haiti, and the constitutional government, whose members-- like President
Aristide--were in exile or who, like acting Prime Minister Malval, were
blocked from carrying out their duties.
In the weeks that followed, the United States took the lead in forming a
Multinational Force (MNF) to carry out the UN's mandate by means of a
military intervention. In September, with U.S. troops prepared to enter
Haiti in a matter of hours, President Clinton dispatched a negotiating team
led by former President Jimmy Carter to discuss with the de facto Haitian
leadership the terms of their departure. As a result, the MNF deployed
peacefully, Cedras and other top military leaders left Haiti, and
restoration of the legitimate government began, leading to Aristide's return
on October 15.
Elections for Parliament and local government offices were held successfully
between June and October 1995, although they were delayed by seven months
and marred by serious administrative problems and some violence. President
Aristide's Lavalas party and its affiliates swept into power at all levels.
In the December 1995 presidential election, with Aristide barred by the
Haitian constitution from succeeding himself, prominent Lavalas figure Rene
Preval (who was Aristide's first prime minister in 1991) overwhelmed his
thirteen opponents by garnering 88% of the vote and took office the
With the situation in Haiti gradually stabilizing, the international
security presence has been reduced. The MNF, which at one time had more than
20,000 troops in Haiti, gave way in March 1995 to a UN peacekeeping mission
under U.S. leadership, including approximately 6,000 troops. By mid-1996,
the UN forces no longer included any U.S. military personnel, and the UN
Mission had been scaled back to about 600 troops under Canadian leadership,
as well as 300 international police monitors from six different countries.
The judicial system in Haiti remains weak, and is a high priority for the
United States. International and Haitian officials are cooperating to
investigate several high profile murders that may have been politically
motivated. Since September 1994 there have about a dozen execution-style
killings; the U.S. government has helped the Government of Haiti to set up a
Special Investigative Unit with the Haitian National Police, and the
investigation of many of these crimes are in progress. This number does not
include the murder of nine active duty police officers in the first eight
months of 1996. By March of this year, President Preval had removed from the
security services a number of individuals who appear to have been implicated
in murders, a step allowing the United States to continue assisting Haiti's
security forces. In addition, the Haitian Senate rejected earlier this year
the nomination of a police Director General publicly linked to allegations
of corruption. Training Haiti's police to be a non-political,
competitively-selected, and well-trained force committed to the rule of law
has also greatly contributed to this progress.
Principal Government Officials
Prime Minister--Rosny Smarth
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Fritz Longchamp
Ambassador to the U.S.--Jean Casimir
Ambassador to the OAS--Jean Casimir
The Embassy of Haiti is located at 2311 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington,
DC 20008 (tel. 202-332-4090).
Haiti's economic reform agenda under President Preval includes trade
liberalization, modernization (privatization) of state-owned enterprises,
measures to increase state revenues, and public administration reform.
Structural adjustment agreements with the International Monetary Fund, World
Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, and other international financial
institutions are aimed at creating necessary conditions for private sector
growth. The government's reform measures were under consideration in
Parliament in August 1996.
External aid is essential to Haiti's future economic development. Haiti is
the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, and one of the poorest in the
world. Comparisons of social and economic indicators show that Haiti has
been falling behind other low-income developing countries (particularly in
the hemisphere) since the 1980s. Haiti's economic stagnation is the result
of earlier inappropriate economic policies, a shortage of good arable land,
environmental deterioration, continued use of traditional technologies,
undercapitalization, a weak national savings rate, un- and under-employment
estimated at between 65 and 80 percent, and the emigration of many
relatively well-educated and skilled workers.
The consequences of the 1991 coup d'etat and irresponsible economic and
financial policies of the de facto authorities greatly accelerated Haiti's
economic decline. Following the coup, the United States adopted mandatory
sanctions, and the OAS instituted voluntary sanctions aimed at restoring
constitutional government. International sanctions culminated in the May
1994 UN embargo of all goods entering Haiti except humanitarian supplies,
such as food and medicine. The assembly sector, heavily dependent on U.S.
markets for its products, employed up to 50,000 workers in the mid-1980s.
During the embargo, employment fell from 36,000 workers in 1991 to 400 in
October 1994. Since the return of constitutional rule, employment has
gradually recovered to a level of 19,442 in June 1996.
Domestic and foreign investment has been slow to return to Haiti, as
businessmen have awaited the establishment of stable political conditions.
International financial institutions and donor agencies have committed
substantial sums to assist Haiti in restoring and expanding its physical
infrastructure. Further investment in infrastructure is a necessary
condition for future economic growth. High domestic interest rates, tight
monetary policies by the central bank, and poorly developed internal capital
markets are other factors restraining economic performance.
As political stability increases in Haiti, tourism could take its place next
to export-oriented manufacturing (the assembly sector) as a potential source
of foreign exchange. Remittances from abroad now constitute a significant
source of financial support for many Haitian households.
Workers in Haiti are guaranteed the right of association, and trade
organizing activities are protected by the labor code. A legal minimum wage
of 36 gourdes a day (approximately US$2.20) applies to most workers.
FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT
Haiti is one of the original members of the United Nations and several of
its specialized and related agencies, as well as the Organization of
American States (OAS). It maintains diplomatic relations with 37 countries.
The international community rallied to Haiti's defense during the three
years of illegal military rule from 1991 to 1994. In the end a total of 31
countries participated in the U.S.-led Multinational Force (MNF) which,
acting under UN auspices, intervened in September 1994 to help restore the
legitimate government and create a secure and stable environment in Haiti.
At its peak the MNF had over 23,000 troops, mostly Americans, and over 1,000
international police monitors. Within six months, the troop level was
gradually reduced as the MNF was replaced smoothly by the UN Mission in
Haiti (UNMIH), consisting of approximately 6,000 UN peacekeeping troops and
900 civilian police who were charged with maintaining the secure environment
which the MNF had helped establish. A total of 38 countries participated in
From March 1995 to February 1996 UNMIH was led by the U.S., which kept
approximately 2,500 troops in Haiti. As U.S. troops were withdrawn in early
1996, Canada assumed the leadership of UNMIH and its successor, the UN
Support Mission in Haiti, which as of July 1996 included 1300 troops from
Canada and Pakistan and approximately 300 police monitors from 6 countries.
UNSMIH's mandate is similar to that of UNMIH and runs from July to December
In order to spur Haiti's economic recovery, international development banks
and donor agencies made a total of $1.5 billion in assistance available to
Haiti in 1995-96. Additional support depends on the passage by Parliament of
significant portions of the economic reform program negotiated between the
Government of Haiti and the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and
other international financial institutions. The IMF, World Bank,
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), and UN Development Program (UNDP),
all have resident representatives in Haiti. The European Union (EU)
contributes economic assistance to Haiti under the Lome Accords, which Haiti
joined as a full member in 1989. Major bilateral donors are led by the
United States, with the largest bilateral assistance program, and include
Canada, France, Germany, and Japan.
Two-hundred eighty-three private voluntary organizations (PVO's) coordinate
different help networks in the country. Led by the U.S., the international
community feeds 1.3 million Haitian people a day.
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