U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Brazil, March 1995
Bureau of Public Affairs


March 1995
Official Name: Federative Republic of Brazil
 
PROFILE
 
Geography
 
Area:  8,511,965 sq. km. (3,290,000 sq. mi.).
Cities:  Capital--Brasilia (pop. 1.8 million).
Other cities:  Sao Paulo (11 million), Rio de Janeiro (6 
million), Belo Horizonte (2.3 million), Salvador (2 million), Fortaleza (1.8 
million), Recife (1.4 million), Porto Alegre (1.4 million), Curitiba (1.4 
million).
Terrain:  Dense forests in northern regions, incl. Amazon Basin; 
semiarid along northeast coast; mountains, hills, and rolling 
plains in the southwest (incl. Mato Grosso); and coastal strip.
Climate:  Mostly tropical or semitropical with temperate zone in the 
south. 

People
 
Nationality:  Noun and adjective--Brazilian(s).
Population:  155 million.
Annual growth rate:  2.1%.
Ethnic groups:  Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African,
Indians (principally Tupi and Guarani linguistic stock).
Religion:  Roman Catholic (80%).
Education:  Literacy--81% of adult population.
Health:  Infant mortality rate--58/1,000. Life expectancy--66 
yrs.
Work force (65 million):  Services--40%.  Agriculture--35%. 
Industry--25%.

Government
 
Type: Federative Republic.
Independence:  September 7, 1822.
Constitution: Promulgated October 5, 1988.
Branches:  Executive--president (chief of state and head of 
government) popularly elected to a single 4-year term. 
Legislative--Senate (81 members popularly elected to 8-year terms), 
Chamber of Deputies (513 members popularly elected to 4-year terms). 
Judicial--Supreme Federal Tribunal. 
Political parties:  Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), 
National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Liberal Front Party (PFL), 
Democratic Social Party (PDS), Democratic Workers Party (PDT), 
Workers Party (PT), Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Liberal Party 
(PL), Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB), Communist Party of Brazil (PC 
do B), Progressive Renewal Party (PPR), Progressive Party (PP), 
Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Progressive Renewal Party PRP, 
Progressive Party (PP), Popular Socialist Party (PPS).
Suffrage:  Compulsory from 18-70.
Subdivisions:  26 states, Federal District of Brasilia. 

Economy (1993)

GDP:  $456 billion.
Annual real growth rate:  5%.
Per capita GDP:  $3,000.
Natural resources:  Iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, 
gemstones, oil.
Agriculture (11% of GDP):  Products--coffee, soybeans, sugarcane, 
cocoa, rice, beef, corn, oranges, cotton, wheat.
Industry:  Types--steel, chemicals, petrochemicals, machinery,
motor vehicles, consumer durables, cement, lumber, shipbuilding.
Trade:  Exports--$38.7 billion.  Major markets--U.S. 21%, Argentina 
9%, Japan 6%, Netherlands 6%, Germany 5%, France 4%, Italy 4%.  
Imports--$25.7 billion.  Major suppliers--U.S. 24%, Argentina 9%, 
Germany 9%, Japan 8%, France 4%.
Official exchange rate:  0.92 Reals=U.S.$1 (Rate stable). 

PEOPLE AND HISTORY
 
With an estimated population of nearly 155 million, Brazil is the most 
populous country in Latin America and ranks sixth in the world.  Most 
of the people live in the south-central area, which includes the 
industrial cities of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte.  
Urban growth has been rapid; by 1991 the urban sector represented 
75% of the total population.  Increased urbanization has aided 
economic development but has also created serious social and political 
problems for major cities.

Four major groups make up the Brazilian population:  the Portuguese, 
who began colonizing in the 16th century; indigenous Indians of Tupi 
and Guarani language stock; Africans brought to Brazil as slaves; and 
various Europeans and Asian immigrant groups that have settled in 
Brazil since the mid-19th century.  The Portuguese often intermarried 
with the Indians; marriage with slaves was common.  Although the 
major European ethnic stock of Brazil was once Portuguese, 
subsequent waves of immigration have contributed to a rich ethnic and 
cultural heritage.

From 1875 until 1960, about 5 million Europeans emigrated to Brazil, 
settling mainly in the four southern states of Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa 
Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul.  Immigrants have also come from 
Italy, Germany, Spain, Japan, Poland, and the Middle East.  The largest 
Japanese community outside Japan is in Sao Paulo.  Despite class 
distinctions, national identity is strong, and racial friction is a relatively 
new phenomenon.

Indigenous full-blooded Indians, located mainly in the northern and 
western border regions and in the upper Amazon Basin, constitute less 
than 1% of the population.  Their numbers are declining as contact with 
the outside world and commercial expansion into the interior increase.  
Brazilian Government programs to establish reservations for them and 
to provide other forms of assistance have existed for years but are 
controversial and often ineffective.

Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas.  About 
80% belong to the Roman Catholic Church, although many Brazilians 
adhere to Protestantism and spiritualism.

Some recent archeological research suggests that Brazil may have been 
inhabited for 30,000 to 40,000 years, but most archeologists agree on 
dates between 10,000 and 20,000 years.  In addition, speculation 
continues that the Brazilian coast may have been visited by 15th 
century Portuguese explorers who ranged widely in the South Atlantic, 
while trading with Africa and settling the Azores and Madeira Islands.

Brazil was formally claimed in 1500 by the Portuguese navigator Pedro 
Alvares Cabral.  It was ruled from Lisbon as a colony until 1808, when 
the Portuguese royal family, having fled from Napoleon's army, 
established the seat of government in Rio de Janeiro.  Brazil became a 
kingdom under Dom Joao VI, who returned to Portugal in 1821, 
leaving his son, the prince Dom Pedro, as regent.  The prince 
successfully declared Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822, and 
became emperor with the title of Dom Pedro I.  His son, Dom Pedro II, 
ruled from 1831 to 1889, when a federal republic was established in a 
coup by Deodoro da Fonseca, marchal of the army.  Slavery had been 
abolished a year earlier by the acting Regent Princess Isabel while Dom 
Pedro II was in Europe.

From 1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional democracy, 
the presidency alternating between the dominant states of Sao Paulo 
and Minas Gerais.  This period ended with a military coup that placed 
Getulio Vargas, a civilian, in the presidency; Vargas remained as 
dictator until 1945.  From 1945 to 1961, Eurico Dutra, Vargas, 
Juscelino Kubitschek, and Janio Quadros were elected presidents.  
When Quadros resigned in 1961, he was succeeded by Vice President 
Joao Goulart.

Goulart's years in office were marked by high inflation, economic 
stagnation, and the increasing influence of radical political elements.  
The armed forces, alarmed by these developments, staged a coup on 
March 31, 1964.  The coup leaders chose as president Humberto 
Castello Branco, followed by Arthur da Costa e Silva (1967-69), 
Emilio Garrastazu Medici (1969-74), and Ernesto Geisel (1974-79) all 
of whom were senior army officers. Geisel began a liberalization which 
was carried further by his successor, Gen. Jose Baptista de Oliveira 
Figueiredo (1979-85).  Figueiredo not only permitted the return of 
politicians exiled or banned from political activity during the 1960s 
and 1970s but also allowed them to run for state and federal offices in 
1982.

An electoral college, however, consisting of all members of congress 
and six delegates chosen from each state, continued to choose the 
president.  In January 1985, the electoral college voted Tancredo Neves 
from the opposition Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB) 
into office as President.  However, Tancredo Neves became ill in 
March and died a month later.  His Vice President, former Senator Jose 
Sarney, became President upon Neves' death.

Brazil completed its transition to a popularly elected government in 
1989, when Fernando Collor de Mello won 53% of the vote in the first 
direct presidential election in 29 years.  In 1992 a major corruption 
scandal led to the impeachment and ultimate resignation of President 
Collor de Mello.  Consistent with the Brazilian constitution, Vice 
President Itamar Franco took office and governed for the remainder of 
his term in office culminating in the 1994 presidential elections, when 
Fernando Henrique Cardoso was elected President.  In national 
elections held October 3, 1994, Fernando Henrique Cardoso was 
elected President with 54% of the vote.  He took office January 1, 
1995.  President Cardoso has indicated that his key goals are to 
establish a basis for long-term stability and growth and to improve 
Brazil's socio-economic imbalances.  His proposals to Congress include 
constitutional amendments for solidifying the economic stabilization 
program.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
 
Brazil is a federative republic with broad powers granted to the federal 
government.  A constituent assembly drafted a new constitution in late 
1988.  At the national level, the constitution establishes a presidential 
system with three branches--executive, legislative, and judicial.

The president is assisted by a vice president (elected with the 
president), a presidentially appointed cabinet, and specialized 
administrative and advisory bodies.

The bicameral National Congress consists of 81 Senators (three for 
each state and the federal district) elected to eight-year terms, and 513 
deputies elected at large in each state to four-year terms.  The elections 
are based on proportional representation weighted in favor of less 
populous states.

The apex of the judicial system is the Supreme Federal Tribunal, whose 
11 justices, including the chief justice, are appointed by the president to 
serve until age 70.

Brazil is divided administratively into 27 states and a federal district, 
Brasilia.  The framework of state and local govern-ments closely 
parallels that of the federal government.  Governors are elected for 
four-year terms.  A federal revenue sharing system, in place since the 
1988 constitution, provides states with considerable resources.

The federal district, which moved from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia in 
April 1960, is governed by a governor and a vice governor, both of 
whom will be chosen in direct elections.

Brazil's major parties are:
 
--Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB): Brazil's largest 
party, a loosely-knit coalition of politicians from across the political 
spectrum.  It elected federal deputies in all 27 states and the federal 
district in 1990. 
--Liberal Front Party (PFL):  the country's second largest party and the 
largest on the center-right.  The PFL is strongest in small and medium-
sized towns, particularly in the impoverished northeast and Amazon 
regions.  The PFL was founded in 1985 by dissidents of the military-
created Democratic Social Party. 
--Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB):  formed in 1988 by 
dissidents of the PMDB, the PSDB espouses a center-left social 
democratic agenda.  PSDB leaders, including Fernando Henrique 
Cardoso, support a free market economy with greater government 
involvement in such social areas as health care and education.
--Workers' Party (PT):  formed in 1979, the PT is Brazil's European-
style leftist party, with a clearly defined ideology, strict party 
discipline, hierarchical structure, and extensive grassroots organization.  
It is strongest among intellectuals, organized labor, and the 
economically disadvantaged.  It draws considerable support from the 
liberation-theology wing of the Catholic Church and from the 4-
million-member labor confederation, the Sole Workers Central.  The 
PT is headed by party founder Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva, a 
presidential candidate in 1989 and 1994. 
--Progressive Renewal Party (PPR):  formed in 1993, the PPR 
represents a merger between Paulo Maluf's former Democratic Social 
Party and the Christian Democratic Party.  The party is based primarily 
in the more industrialized south and southeast and includes many 
former supporters of Brazil's military government.  The PPR is a 
center-right party that generally supports free market reforms. 
--Progressive Party (PP):  founded in 1993 as a merger of the 
Renovating Workers' Party and the Social Workers' Party, two splinter 
center-right parties formed in 1990 to support the gubernatorial 
campaigns of several local politicians.  The PP claims to support 
market-orient-ed policies and is strong in a handful of states, such as 
Parana, and in the federal district. 
--Democratic Workers Party (PDT):  a populist party founded by 
Leonel Brizola in 1980.  The PDT is strongest in Rio de Janeiro and 
Rio Grande do Sul, states where Brizola served as governor.  Much of 
its support come from urban and rural poor.   PDT members usually 
stress a greater role for the government in tackling Brazil's pressing 
social problems. 
--Brazilian Labor Party (PTB):  founded in 1945, a populist party that 
no longer has a major national leader or following.  Its appeal is limited 
to several western states, such as Mato Grosso do Sul and Roraima. 
--Liberal Party (PL):  a center-right party popular among small 
businessmen at the state and local level in Sao Paulo and Rio de 
Janeiro.  The party advocates a mini-mum role for the state in 
economic affairs and is a staunch proponent of a flat tax on businesses 
and individuals. 
--National Reconstruction Party (PRN): formed in 1988 and Collor's 
personal vehicle for his 1989 presidential bid.  Following Collor's 
impeachment in late 1992, PRN membership in congress dropped 
considerably. 
--Popular Socialist Party (PPS):  the former Brazilian Communist 
Party, renamed in 1992 in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union.  
The PPS espouses Marxist doctrine but frequently cooperates with 
other center-left parties. 
--Communist Party of Brazil (PC do B):  avoided modifying its Soviet-
style platform since the end of the Cold War.  It has participated, 
though minimally, in the 1989 and 1994 electoral coalitions formed to 
support the PT presidential candidate. 
--Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB):  founded in 1946, the PSB, a leftist 
party with one senator and 11 deputies.

Brazil also has several dozen smaller parties, some of which (e.g. 
National Mobilization Party--PMN, and the Social Christian Party--
PSC) command a following in a handful of states.

Principal Government Officials

President--Fernando Henrique Cardoso 
Vice President--Marco Maciel
Foreign Affairs--Luis Felipe Lampreia 

Ambassador to the U.S.--Paulo Tarso Flecha de Lima 
Ambassador to the UN--Celso Amorim 
Ambassador to the OAS--Luis Agosto de Araujo Castro 

Brazil maintains an embassy in the United States at 3006 
Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008  (tel. 202-745-
2700).  Brazil maintains consulates general in New Orleans,   New 
York, Chicago, and Los Angeles, and consulates in Miami, Houston, 
Dallas, San Francisco, and Atlanta.
 
ECONOMY
 
Brazil is a country rich in resources and natural advantages, but  its 
economic performance has lagged behind its potential.  Economically, 
it is a country of contrasts ranging from sophisticated economic centers 
around Sao Paulo to relatively undeveloped trading outposts in the 
northern region.  Industrial development has been concentrated in the 
southeastern states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, and Rio 
Grande do Sul but is now expanding to include the northeast and center 
west.

In 1993, Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) totaled $456 billion, 
with an estimated per capita GDP of  $3,000.  In 1993, economic 
growth was 5%; growth for 1994 is estimated to reach 3%. 

Agriculture, Industry, and Natural Resources
 
About one-half of Brazil is covered by forests.  The largest rainforest in 
the world is located in the Amazon Basin and is so impressive in 
character and extent that the entire Amazon region is identified with it.  
Recent migrations into the Amazon and controversial large-scale 
burning of forests areas placed the international spotlight on Brazil.  
The government has subsequently reduced incentives for such activity 
and has begun to implement an ambitious environmental plan.

Eastern Brazil has tropical and semideciduous forests and soil of 
limited agricultural value; the nutrients in the small amount of humus 
usually are exhausted after only a few years of farming.  The softwood 
forests of the southern highlands still provide a substantial portion of 
the construction timber used in Brazil.  However, fears that these 
forests are being cut down so fast that they are in danger of extinction 
within the next few decades have led the industry to move north.  
Major timber supplies for domestic and export markets now come from 
the tropical hardwoods of the Amazon.  The thorn forests of the 
northeast interior contain dry, cactus-infested, drought-resistant 
vegetation, its sparseness due as much to overgrazing and 
overcultivation as to the unreliability of rainfall.

In Central Brazil, the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, 
Goias, and parts of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo contain substantial 
areas of grassland, with only scattered trees.  Unlike the plains of North 
America, the Brazilian grasslands are less fertile, and large areas of 
these grasslands are best suited to pastures.

The agricultural sector employs 35% of Brazil's population and 
accounts for about 11% of its GDP and almost 40% of the country's 
exports.  Except for wheat, Brazil is largely self-sufficient in food.  It is 
the world's leading exporter of coffee, orange juice concentrate, and 
tobacco, and is the second largest exporter of sugar and soybeans.

During the past decade, in an effort to expand its agricultural exports, 
Brazil began opening new regions to cultivation.  The most important 
of these are devoted to soybean production in Mato Grosso and Bahia, 
and, more recently, Minas Gerais and Goias.  Brazil also has expanded 
cultivation of sugarcane, the raw material used to produce ethyl alcohol 
fuel that powers 40% of the nation's cars.

Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems generally 
have kept pace with development.  However, in recent years,  facilities 
in some areas have not met demand, due to lack of investment and 
maintenance funds.  The country has a large and increasingly 
sophisticated industrial base, producing basic industrial products such 
as steel, chemicals, and petrochemicals and finished consumer goods 
and aircraft.  A computer industry is also emerging.  Within the past 
decade, industry has been the greatest contributor to economic growth.  
Today, it accounts for nearly 36% of GDP and 75% of exports.

Brazil is one of the world's leading producers of hydroelectric power, 
with a potential of 106,500 megawatts.  Existing hydroelectric plants 
provide 90% of the nation's electricity.  Two large hydro-electrical 
projects, the 12,600-megawatt Itaipu Dam on the Parana River--the 
world's largest dam--and the Tucurui Dam in Para in northern Brazil 
are in operation.

Brazil's first commercial nuclear reactor, Angra I, located near Rio de 
Janeiro, has been in operation for more than 10 years.  Angra II and III 
are under construction.  With a combined capacity of 1,245 megawatts, 
these are the first of eight nuclear plants planned under the 1975 
nuclear accord between Germany and Brazil.  However, continued 
troubles with Angra I and scarce funds have slowed construction of 
nuclear plants, limiting further expansion for the foreseeable future.

Proven mineral resources are extensive.  Large iron and manganese 
reserves provide important sources of industrial raw materials and 
export earnings.  Deposits of nickel, tin, chromite, bauxite, beryllium, 
copper, lead, tungsten, zinc, and gold, as well as lesser known 
minerals, are exploited.  High-quality coal, especially of the coking 
grade required in the steel industry, is in short supply.

The Brazilian Government has undertaken an ambitious program to 
reduce dependence on imported oil.  Imports previously accounted for 
more than 70% of the country's oil needs but now account for less than 
50%.  In addition to developing hydroelectric, nuclear, and coal 
resources, Brazil has become a world leader in the development of 
alcohol fuel derived from sugarcane.  Brazilian automotive gasoline is 
a mixture containing up to 22% ethyl alcohol.  Its auto manufacturers 
began large-scale production of 100% alcohol-powered cars in 1979, 
and today more than 3 million are on the road.  Alcohol production has 
not always kept pace, however, leading to alcohol shortages in 1989-
1990.  Alcohol subsidies were reduced in the early 1990s, and car 
makers have begun to increase production of gasoline-powered 
automobiles.

Government Economic Strategy

Following the 1964 coup, the Brazilian Government focused on two 
major economic goals, high growth rates and control of inflation.  
Sustained economic growth continued into the 1970s.

By the late 1970s, escalating oil prices, governmental indebtedness, 
and high interest rates brought the Brazilian economy to a virtual 
standstill.  Throughout the 1980s, these problems were attacked 
through a number of programs emphasizing reduced government 
expenditures and subsidies and income tax increases.  Nevertheless, 
budget deficits have persisted.  The combined public sector deficit in 
1993 was at least 2% of GDP.

On July 1, 1994, Brazil introduced its fifth currency in seven years, the 
"Real," as part of an economic stabilization plan designed to curb once-
again rampant inflation, which reached an annual level of nearly 
5,000% at the end of 1993.  Other facets of the plan include balancing 
the budget, privatization of state-run industries, and strict monetary 
controls.

Foreign direct investment represents a relatively small but important 
part of Brazil's capital base.  The share of foreign direct investment and 
reinvestment totals $8.7 billion, largely in manufacturing and finance.  
The constitution restricts the entry of new foreign investors in the 
financial services area, although U.S. and other foreign institutions 
established before the prohibition continue to have a prominent share.  
The constitution also contains provisions that restrict investment in 
petroleum and minerals exploration, health care, chemicals, 
biotechnology, and new materials.  It is believed by many economists, 
however, that long-term stabilization will require further structural 
reforms as well as revision of the constitution. 

Trade and Investment

Foreign direct investment and reinvestment in Brazil (registered with 
Central Bank as of June 30, 1993) is $41.9 billion.  Sources include the 
U.S. $13.6 billion (33%); Germany $6.1 billion (14%) Japan $4 billion 
(9%) U.K. $2.3 billion (5%), Canada $1.7 billion (4%), and 
Switzerland $1.7 billion (4%).

Brazil's industrial development strategy contributed to significant 
growth and, in the late 1980s, to large trade surpluses.  The country 
recorded a $19 billion surplus in 1988 and $16 billion in 1989--a 
remarkable turnaround from the deficits experienced at the beginning 
of the decade.  Surpluses for 1992 and 1993 were $15 billion and $13 
billion respectively.
 
FOREIGN RELATIONS
 
Traditionally, Brazil has been a leader in the inter-American 
community and has played an important role in collective security 
efforts as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere.  
Brazil aligned with the allies in both World Wars and, during World 
War II, its expeditionary force in Italy played a key role in the allied 
victory at Monte Castello.  It is a party to the Inter-American Treaty of 
Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty) and the Organization of American 
States (OAS).  Recently, Brazil has given high priority to expanding 
relations with its South American neighbors and is a founding member 
of the Amazon Pact; the Latin American Integration Association 
(ALADI)--the successor to the Latin American Free Trade Association 
(LAFTA); and MERCOSUL (Spanish is MERCOSUR)--uniting 
Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil.

Brazil is a charter member of the United Nations and participates in 
many of its specialized agencies.  It held a two-year Security Council 
seat through the end of 1994.  It has contributed troops to UN 
peacekeeping efforts in the Middle East, the former Belgian Congo, 
Cyprus, Mozambique, and Angola.

As Brazil's domestic economy has grown and diversified, the country 
has become increasingly involved in international politics and 
economics.  The United States, Western Europe, and Japan are primary 
markets for Brazilian exports and sources of foreign lending and 
investment. Brazil's dependence on imported petroleum has resulted in 
more intensive political and economic ties with Middle Eastern 
countries.  In the 1970s, Brazil expanded its relations with sub-Saharan 
African countries.  In 1986, it introduced a proposal at the UN General 
Assembly to establish a Zone of Peace and Cooperation in the South 
Atlantic.  As an indication of Brazil's broader international role, trade 
with other developing countries increased from 9% of the total in the 
1970s to nearly 30% in 1993.  In the past year, Brazil has also bolstered 
its commitment to nuclear non-proliferation through the signing of a 
full scale nuclear safeguard agreement with the International Atomic 
Energy Agency (IAEA) and through ratification of the Treaty of 
Tlatelolco.

U.S.-BRAZILIAN RELATIONS

The United States was the first country to recognize Brazil's 
independence in 1822.  Brazil's 19th-century leader, Emperor Dom 
Pedro II, admired Abraham Lincoln and visited the United States 
during the 1876 centennial.  Presidents Roosevelt and Truman made 
earlier visits; President Carter visited in 1978, President Reagan in 
1982, and President Bush in 1990.  President Sarney visited the United 
States in 1986, and President Collor came to Washington in 1991.

In the 1950s and 1960s, Brazil received about $2.4 billion in U.S. 
econ-omic assistance--$1.4 billion under the auspices of the U.S. 
Agency for International Development (USAID) and the remainder 
under P.L. 480 (Food for Peace) and Peace Corps programs.

In view of Brazil's impressive economic development and its increased 
ability to obtain loans and technical assistance from private and 
multilateral sources, U.S. assistance programs were phased out in the 
1970s, major USAID activities in Brazil ended in 1979, and the Peace 
Corps program was ended in 1980.  Currently, USAID maintains a 
small advanced developing country program that emphasizes 
cooperation on environment, health, and family planning and responds 
to endemic disease, emergencies, and natural disasters.

The United States is Brazil's most important commercial partner and 
largest investor.  The U.S. share of Brazilian trade averages 23%, and 
two-way trade amounted to $13.3 billion in 1993.  Brazil's lack of 
intellectual property protection (especially patents in certain areas) led 
to frictions with the United States and other major trading partners in 
1993.  These came to a head in 1994, when the United States named 
Brazil in formal trade actions on two occasions under U.S. trade law.  
The U.S. objective was to stimulate negotiations as well as appropriate 
action by Brazil to protect intellectual property rights.  For its part, 
Brazil is critical of the United States for high U.S. tariffs on products 
such as steel and orange juice, which Brazil exports.  Recent efforts by 
both sides have begun to reduce the tensions arising from these issues.

Bilateral agreements between Brazil and the United States include a 
treaty of peace and friendship; an extradition treaty; a joint 
participation agreement on communication satellites; and, scientific 
cooperation, civil aviation, and maritime agreements.  Brazil and the 
United States exchange professors under Fulbright and other academic 
programs and carry out university cooperation projects.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Ambassador--Melvyn Levitsky 
Deputy Chief of Mission--Mark Lore 
Defense Attache--Col. Layton Dunbar, U.S. Army 
Economic Counselor--Paul Wackerbarth 
Commercial Counselor--Richard Ades 
Political Counselor--Theodore Wilkinson 
Science Counselor--Roy Simpkins 
Public Affairs Counselor (USIS)--Carl Howard 
Consul General in Rio de Janeiro--David Zweifel 
Consul General in Sao Paulo--Philip Taylor 

The U.S. embassy in Brazil is located at Avenida das Nacoes Sul, 
Quadra 801, Lote 3, Brasilia, DF, CEP 70403-900 (tel. 061 321-7272, 
telex 061-1091).

U.S. consulates general are in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.  
Consulates are at Porto Alegre and Recife. Consular agents are in 
Manaus, Sao Luis, Belem, and Salvador da Bahia.  Branch offices of 
the U.S. Information Service (USIS) are located in Brasilia, Rio de 
Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Recife.  Branch offices of the U.S. Foreign 
Commercial Service are located in Brasilia, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, 
Belo Horizonte and Belem.

======================================
Published by the U.S. Department of State -- Bureau of Public Affairs 
-- Office of Public Communication -- Washington, DC -- March 1995 --
 Managing Editor: Peter A. Knecht

Department of State Publication 7756 -- Background Notes Series -- 
This material is in the public domain and may be reprinted without 
permission; citation of this source is appreciated.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, DC 20402.
(###)

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