U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Brazil, March 1995
Bureau of Public Affairs
Official Name: Federative Republic of Brazil
Area: 8,511,965 sq. km. (3,290,000 sq. mi.).
Cities: Capital--Brasilia (pop. 1.8 million).
Other cities: Sao Paulo (11 million), Rio de Janeiro (6
million), Belo Horizonte (2.3 million), Salvador (2 million), Fortaleza (1.8
million), Recife (1.4 million), Porto Alegre (1.4 million), Curitiba (1.4
Terrain: Dense forests in northern regions, incl. Amazon Basin;
semiarid along northeast coast; mountains, hills, and rolling
plains in the southwest (incl. Mato Grosso); and coastal strip.
Climate: Mostly tropical or semitropical with temperate zone in the
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Brazilian(s).
Population: 155 million.
Annual growth rate: 2.1%.
Ethnic groups: Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African,
Indians (principally Tupi and Guarani linguistic stock).
Religion: Roman Catholic (80%).
Education: Literacy--81% of adult population.
Health: Infant mortality rate--58/1,000. Life expectancy--66
Work force (65 million): Services--40%. Agriculture--35%.
Type: Federative Republic.
Independence: September 7, 1822.
Constitution: Promulgated October 5, 1988.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state and head of
government) popularly elected to a single 4-year term.
Legislative--Senate (81 members popularly elected to 8-year terms),
Chamber of Deputies (513 members popularly elected to 4-year terms).
Judicial--Supreme Federal Tribunal.
Political parties: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB),
National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Liberal Front Party (PFL),
Democratic Social Party (PDS), Democratic Workers Party (PDT),
Workers Party (PT), Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Liberal Party
(PL), Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB), Communist Party of Brazil (PC
do B), Progressive Renewal Party (PPR), Progressive Party (PP),
Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Progressive Renewal Party PRP,
Progressive Party (PP), Popular Socialist Party (PPS).
Suffrage: Compulsory from 18-70.
Subdivisions: 26 states, Federal District of Brasilia.
GDP: $456 billion.
Annual real growth rate: 5%.
Per capita GDP: $3,000.
Natural resources: Iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium,
Agriculture (11% of GDP): Products--coffee, soybeans, sugarcane,
cocoa, rice, beef, corn, oranges, cotton, wheat.
Industry: Types--steel, chemicals, petrochemicals, machinery,
motor vehicles, consumer durables, cement, lumber, shipbuilding.
Trade: Exports--$38.7 billion. Major markets--U.S. 21%, Argentina
9%, Japan 6%, Netherlands 6%, Germany 5%, France 4%, Italy 4%.
Imports--$25.7 billion. Major suppliers--U.S. 24%, Argentina 9%,
Germany 9%, Japan 8%, France 4%.
Official exchange rate: 0.92 Reals=U.S.$1 (Rate stable).
PEOPLE AND HISTORY
With an estimated population of nearly 155 million, Brazil is the most
populous country in Latin America and ranks sixth in the world. Most
of the people live in the south-central area, which includes the
industrial cities of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte.
Urban growth has been rapid; by 1991 the urban sector represented
75% of the total population. Increased urbanization has aided
economic development but has also created serious social and political
problems for major cities.
Four major groups make up the Brazilian population: the Portuguese,
who began colonizing in the 16th century; indigenous Indians of Tupi
and Guarani language stock; Africans brought to Brazil as slaves; and
various Europeans and Asian immigrant groups that have settled in
Brazil since the mid-19th century. The Portuguese often intermarried
with the Indians; marriage with slaves was common. Although the
major European ethnic stock of Brazil was once Portuguese,
subsequent waves of immigration have contributed to a rich ethnic and
From 1875 until 1960, about 5 million Europeans emigrated to Brazil,
settling mainly in the four southern states of Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa
Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Immigrants have also come from
Italy, Germany, Spain, Japan, Poland, and the Middle East. The largest
Japanese community outside Japan is in Sao Paulo. Despite class
distinctions, national identity is strong, and racial friction is a relatively
Indigenous full-blooded Indians, located mainly in the northern and
western border regions and in the upper Amazon Basin, constitute less
than 1% of the population. Their numbers are declining as contact with
the outside world and commercial expansion into the interior increase.
Brazilian Government programs to establish reservations for them and
to provide other forms of assistance have existed for years but are
controversial and often ineffective.
Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas. About
80% belong to the Roman Catholic Church, although many Brazilians
adhere to Protestantism and spiritualism.
Some recent archeological research suggests that Brazil may have been
inhabited for 30,000 to 40,000 years, but most archeologists agree on
dates between 10,000 and 20,000 years. In addition, speculation
continues that the Brazilian coast may have been visited by 15th
century Portuguese explorers who ranged widely in the South Atlantic,
while trading with Africa and settling the Azores and Madeira Islands.
Brazil was formally claimed in 1500 by the Portuguese navigator Pedro
Alvares Cabral. It was ruled from Lisbon as a colony until 1808, when
the Portuguese royal family, having fled from Napoleon's army,
established the seat of government in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil became a
kingdom under Dom Joao VI, who returned to Portugal in 1821,
leaving his son, the prince Dom Pedro, as regent. The prince
successfully declared Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822, and
became emperor with the title of Dom Pedro I. His son, Dom Pedro II,
ruled from 1831 to 1889, when a federal republic was established in a
coup by Deodoro da Fonseca, marchal of the army. Slavery had been
abolished a year earlier by the acting Regent Princess Isabel while Dom
Pedro II was in Europe.
From 1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional democracy,
the presidency alternating between the dominant states of Sao Paulo
and Minas Gerais. This period ended with a military coup that placed
Getulio Vargas, a civilian, in the presidency; Vargas remained as
dictator until 1945. From 1945 to 1961, Eurico Dutra, Vargas,
Juscelino Kubitschek, and Janio Quadros were elected presidents.
When Quadros resigned in 1961, he was succeeded by Vice President
Goulart's years in office were marked by high inflation, economic
stagnation, and the increasing influence of radical political elements.
The armed forces, alarmed by these developments, staged a coup on
March 31, 1964. The coup leaders chose as president Humberto
Castello Branco, followed by Arthur da Costa e Silva (1967-69),
Emilio Garrastazu Medici (1969-74), and Ernesto Geisel (1974-79) all
of whom were senior army officers. Geisel began a liberalization which
was carried further by his successor, Gen. Jose Baptista de Oliveira
Figueiredo (1979-85). Figueiredo not only permitted the return of
politicians exiled or banned from political activity during the 1960s
and 1970s but also allowed them to run for state and federal offices in
An electoral college, however, consisting of all members of congress
and six delegates chosen from each state, continued to choose the
president. In January 1985, the electoral college voted Tancredo Neves
from the opposition Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB)
into office as President. However, Tancredo Neves became ill in
March and died a month later. His Vice President, former Senator Jose
Sarney, became President upon Neves' death.
Brazil completed its transition to a popularly elected government in
1989, when Fernando Collor de Mello won 53% of the vote in the first
direct presidential election in 29 years. In 1992 a major corruption
scandal led to the impeachment and ultimate resignation of President
Collor de Mello. Consistent with the Brazilian constitution, Vice
President Itamar Franco took office and governed for the remainder of
his term in office culminating in the 1994 presidential elections, when
Fernando Henrique Cardoso was elected President. In national
elections held October 3, 1994, Fernando Henrique Cardoso was
elected President with 54% of the vote. He took office January 1,
1995. President Cardoso has indicated that his key goals are to
establish a basis for long-term stability and growth and to improve
Brazil's socio-economic imbalances. His proposals to Congress include
constitutional amendments for solidifying the economic stabilization
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
Brazil is a federative republic with broad powers granted to the federal
government. A constituent assembly drafted a new constitution in late
1988. At the national level, the constitution establishes a presidential
system with three branches--executive, legislative, and judicial.
The president is assisted by a vice president (elected with the
president), a presidentially appointed cabinet, and specialized
administrative and advisory bodies.
The bicameral National Congress consists of 81 Senators (three for
each state and the federal district) elected to eight-year terms, and 513
deputies elected at large in each state to four-year terms. The elections
are based on proportional representation weighted in favor of less
The apex of the judicial system is the Supreme Federal Tribunal, whose
11 justices, including the chief justice, are appointed by the president to
serve until age 70.
Brazil is divided administratively into 27 states and a federal district,
Brasilia. The framework of state and local govern-ments closely
parallels that of the federal government. Governors are elected for
four-year terms. A federal revenue sharing system, in place since the
1988 constitution, provides states with considerable resources.
The federal district, which moved from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia in
April 1960, is governed by a governor and a vice governor, both of
whom will be chosen in direct elections.
Brazil's major parties are:
--Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB): Brazil's largest
party, a loosely-knit coalition of politicians from across the political
spectrum. It elected federal deputies in all 27 states and the federal
district in 1990.
--Liberal Front Party (PFL): the country's second largest party and the
largest on the center-right. The PFL is strongest in small and medium-
sized towns, particularly in the impoverished northeast and Amazon
regions. The PFL was founded in 1985 by dissidents of the military-
created Democratic Social Party.
--Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB): formed in 1988 by
dissidents of the PMDB, the PSDB espouses a center-left social
democratic agenda. PSDB leaders, including Fernando Henrique
Cardoso, support a free market economy with greater government
involvement in such social areas as health care and education.
--Workers' Party (PT): formed in 1979, the PT is Brazil's European-
style leftist party, with a clearly defined ideology, strict party
discipline, hierarchical structure, and extensive grassroots organization.
It is strongest among intellectuals, organized labor, and the
economically disadvantaged. It draws considerable support from the
liberation-theology wing of the Catholic Church and from the 4-
million-member labor confederation, the Sole Workers Central. The
PT is headed by party founder Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva, a
presidential candidate in 1989 and 1994.
--Progressive Renewal Party (PPR): formed in 1993, the PPR
represents a merger between Paulo Maluf's former Democratic Social
Party and the Christian Democratic Party. The party is based primarily
in the more industrialized south and southeast and includes many
former supporters of Brazil's military government. The PPR is a
center-right party that generally supports free market reforms.
--Progressive Party (PP): founded in 1993 as a merger of the
Renovating Workers' Party and the Social Workers' Party, two splinter
center-right parties formed in 1990 to support the gubernatorial
campaigns of several local politicians. The PP claims to support
market-orient-ed policies and is strong in a handful of states, such as
Parana, and in the federal district.
--Democratic Workers Party (PDT): a populist party founded by
Leonel Brizola in 1980. The PDT is strongest in Rio de Janeiro and
Rio Grande do Sul, states where Brizola served as governor. Much of
its support come from urban and rural poor. PDT members usually
stress a greater role for the government in tackling Brazil's pressing
--Brazilian Labor Party (PTB): founded in 1945, a populist party that
no longer has a major national leader or following. Its appeal is limited
to several western states, such as Mato Grosso do Sul and Roraima.
--Liberal Party (PL): a center-right party popular among small
businessmen at the state and local level in Sao Paulo and Rio de
Janeiro. The party advocates a mini-mum role for the state in
economic affairs and is a staunch proponent of a flat tax on businesses
--National Reconstruction Party (PRN): formed in 1988 and Collor's
personal vehicle for his 1989 presidential bid. Following Collor's
impeachment in late 1992, PRN membership in congress dropped
--Popular Socialist Party (PPS): the former Brazilian Communist
Party, renamed in 1992 in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The PPS espouses Marxist doctrine but frequently cooperates with
other center-left parties.
--Communist Party of Brazil (PC do B): avoided modifying its Soviet-
style platform since the end of the Cold War. It has participated,
though minimally, in the 1989 and 1994 electoral coalitions formed to
support the PT presidential candidate.
--Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB): founded in 1946, the PSB, a leftist
party with one senator and 11 deputies.
Brazil also has several dozen smaller parties, some of which (e.g.
National Mobilization Party--PMN, and the Social Christian Party--
PSC) command a following in a handful of states.
Principal Government Officials
President--Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Vice President--Marco Maciel
Foreign Affairs--Luis Felipe Lampreia
Ambassador to the U.S.--Paulo Tarso Flecha de Lima
Ambassador to the UN--Celso Amorim
Ambassador to the OAS--Luis Agosto de Araujo Castro
Brazil maintains an embassy in the United States at 3006
Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-745-
2700). Brazil maintains consulates general in New Orleans, New
York, Chicago, and Los Angeles, and consulates in Miami, Houston,
Dallas, San Francisco, and Atlanta.
Brazil is a country rich in resources and natural advantages, but its
economic performance has lagged behind its potential. Economically,
it is a country of contrasts ranging from sophisticated economic centers
around Sao Paulo to relatively undeveloped trading outposts in the
northern region. Industrial development has been concentrated in the
southeastern states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, and Rio
Grande do Sul but is now expanding to include the northeast and center
In 1993, Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) totaled $456 billion,
with an estimated per capita GDP of $3,000. In 1993, economic
growth was 5%; growth for 1994 is estimated to reach 3%.
Agriculture, Industry, and Natural Resources
About one-half of Brazil is covered by forests. The largest rainforest in
the world is located in the Amazon Basin and is so impressive in
character and extent that the entire Amazon region is identified with it.
Recent migrations into the Amazon and controversial large-scale
burning of forests areas placed the international spotlight on Brazil.
The government has subsequently reduced incentives for such activity
and has begun to implement an ambitious environmental plan.
Eastern Brazil has tropical and semideciduous forests and soil of
limited agricultural value; the nutrients in the small amount of humus
usually are exhausted after only a few years of farming. The softwood
forests of the southern highlands still provide a substantial portion of
the construction timber used in Brazil. However, fears that these
forests are being cut down so fast that they are in danger of extinction
within the next few decades have led the industry to move north.
Major timber supplies for domestic and export markets now come from
the tropical hardwoods of the Amazon. The thorn forests of the
northeast interior contain dry, cactus-infested, drought-resistant
vegetation, its sparseness due as much to overgrazing and
overcultivation as to the unreliability of rainfall.
In Central Brazil, the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul,
Goias, and parts of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo contain substantial
areas of grassland, with only scattered trees. Unlike the plains of North
America, the Brazilian grasslands are less fertile, and large areas of
these grasslands are best suited to pastures.
The agricultural sector employs 35% of Brazil's population and
accounts for about 11% of its GDP and almost 40% of the country's
exports. Except for wheat, Brazil is largely self-sufficient in food. It is
the world's leading exporter of coffee, orange juice concentrate, and
tobacco, and is the second largest exporter of sugar and soybeans.
During the past decade, in an effort to expand its agricultural exports,
Brazil began opening new regions to cultivation. The most important
of these are devoted to soybean production in Mato Grosso and Bahia,
and, more recently, Minas Gerais and Goias. Brazil also has expanded
cultivation of sugarcane, the raw material used to produce ethyl alcohol
fuel that powers 40% of the nation's cars.
Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems generally
have kept pace with development. However, in recent years, facilities
in some areas have not met demand, due to lack of investment and
maintenance funds. The country has a large and increasingly
sophisticated industrial base, producing basic industrial products such
as steel, chemicals, and petrochemicals and finished consumer goods
and aircraft. A computer industry is also emerging. Within the past
decade, industry has been the greatest contributor to economic growth.
Today, it accounts for nearly 36% of GDP and 75% of exports.
Brazil is one of the world's leading producers of hydroelectric power,
with a potential of 106,500 megawatts. Existing hydroelectric plants
provide 90% of the nation's electricity. Two large hydro-electrical
projects, the 12,600-megawatt Itaipu Dam on the Parana River--the
world's largest dam--and the Tucurui Dam in Para in northern Brazil
are in operation.
Brazil's first commercial nuclear reactor, Angra I, located near Rio de
Janeiro, has been in operation for more than 10 years. Angra II and III
are under construction. With a combined capacity of 1,245 megawatts,
these are the first of eight nuclear plants planned under the 1975
nuclear accord between Germany and Brazil. However, continued
troubles with Angra I and scarce funds have slowed construction of
nuclear plants, limiting further expansion for the foreseeable future.
Proven mineral resources are extensive. Large iron and manganese
reserves provide important sources of industrial raw materials and
export earnings. Deposits of nickel, tin, chromite, bauxite, beryllium,
copper, lead, tungsten, zinc, and gold, as well as lesser known
minerals, are exploited. High-quality coal, especially of the coking
grade required in the steel industry, is in short supply.
The Brazilian Government has undertaken an ambitious program to
reduce dependence on imported oil. Imports previously accounted for
more than 70% of the country's oil needs but now account for less than
50%. In addition to developing hydroelectric, nuclear, and coal
resources, Brazil has become a world leader in the development of
alcohol fuel derived from sugarcane. Brazilian automotive gasoline is
a mixture containing up to 22% ethyl alcohol. Its auto manufacturers
began large-scale production of 100% alcohol-powered cars in 1979,
and today more than 3 million are on the road. Alcohol production has
not always kept pace, however, leading to alcohol shortages in 1989-
1990. Alcohol subsidies were reduced in the early 1990s, and car
makers have begun to increase production of gasoline-powered
Government Economic Strategy
Following the 1964 coup, the Brazilian Government focused on two
major economic goals, high growth rates and control of inflation.
Sustained economic growth continued into the 1970s.
By the late 1970s, escalating oil prices, governmental indebtedness,
and high interest rates brought the Brazilian economy to a virtual
standstill. Throughout the 1980s, these problems were attacked
through a number of programs emphasizing reduced government
expenditures and subsidies and income tax increases. Nevertheless,
budget deficits have persisted. The combined public sector deficit in
1993 was at least 2% of GDP.
On July 1, 1994, Brazil introduced its fifth currency in seven years, the
"Real," as part of an economic stabilization plan designed to curb once-
again rampant inflation, which reached an annual level of nearly
5,000% at the end of 1993. Other facets of the plan include balancing
the budget, privatization of state-run industries, and strict monetary
Foreign direct investment represents a relatively small but important
part of Brazil's capital base. The share of foreign direct investment and
reinvestment totals $8.7 billion, largely in manufacturing and finance.
The constitution restricts the entry of new foreign investors in the
financial services area, although U.S. and other foreign institutions
established before the prohibition continue to have a prominent share.
The constitution also contains provisions that restrict investment in
petroleum and minerals exploration, health care, chemicals,
biotechnology, and new materials. It is believed by many economists,
however, that long-term stabilization will require further structural
reforms as well as revision of the constitution.
Trade and Investment
Foreign direct investment and reinvestment in Brazil (registered with
Central Bank as of June 30, 1993) is $41.9 billion. Sources include the
U.S. $13.6 billion (33%); Germany $6.1 billion (14%) Japan $4 billion
(9%) U.K. $2.3 billion (5%), Canada $1.7 billion (4%), and
Switzerland $1.7 billion (4%).
Brazil's industrial development strategy contributed to significant
growth and, in the late 1980s, to large trade surpluses. The country
recorded a $19 billion surplus in 1988 and $16 billion in 1989--a
remarkable turnaround from the deficits experienced at the beginning
of the decade. Surpluses for 1992 and 1993 were $15 billion and $13
Traditionally, Brazil has been a leader in the inter-American
community and has played an important role in collective security
efforts as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere.
Brazil aligned with the allies in both World Wars and, during World
War II, its expeditionary force in Italy played a key role in the allied
victory at Monte Castello. It is a party to the Inter-American Treaty of
Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty) and the Organization of American
States (OAS). Recently, Brazil has given high priority to expanding
relations with its South American neighbors and is a founding member
of the Amazon Pact; the Latin American Integration Association
(ALADI)--the successor to the Latin American Free Trade Association
(LAFTA); and MERCOSUL (Spanish is MERCOSUR)--uniting
Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil.
Brazil is a charter member of the United Nations and participates in
many of its specialized agencies. It held a two-year Security Council
seat through the end of 1994. It has contributed troops to UN
peacekeeping efforts in the Middle East, the former Belgian Congo,
Cyprus, Mozambique, and Angola.
As Brazil's domestic economy has grown and diversified, the country
has become increasingly involved in international politics and
economics. The United States, Western Europe, and Japan are primary
markets for Brazilian exports and sources of foreign lending and
investment. Brazil's dependence on imported petroleum has resulted in
more intensive political and economic ties with Middle Eastern
countries. In the 1970s, Brazil expanded its relations with sub-Saharan
African countries. In 1986, it introduced a proposal at the UN General
Assembly to establish a Zone of Peace and Cooperation in the South
Atlantic. As an indication of Brazil's broader international role, trade
with other developing countries increased from 9% of the total in the
1970s to nearly 30% in 1993. In the past year, Brazil has also bolstered
its commitment to nuclear non-proliferation through the signing of a
full scale nuclear safeguard agreement with the International Atomic
Energy Agency (IAEA) and through ratification of the Treaty of
The United States was the first country to recognize Brazil's
independence in 1822. Brazil's 19th-century leader, Emperor Dom
Pedro II, admired Abraham Lincoln and visited the United States
during the 1876 centennial. Presidents Roosevelt and Truman made
earlier visits; President Carter visited in 1978, President Reagan in
1982, and President Bush in 1990. President Sarney visited the United
States in 1986, and President Collor came to Washington in 1991.
In the 1950s and 1960s, Brazil received about $2.4 billion in U.S.
econ-omic assistance--$1.4 billion under the auspices of the U.S.
Agency for International Development (USAID) and the remainder
under P.L. 480 (Food for Peace) and Peace Corps programs.
In view of Brazil's impressive economic development and its increased
ability to obtain loans and technical assistance from private and
multilateral sources, U.S. assistance programs were phased out in the
1970s, major USAID activities in Brazil ended in 1979, and the Peace
Corps program was ended in 1980. Currently, USAID maintains a
small advanced developing country program that emphasizes
cooperation on environment, health, and family planning and responds
to endemic disease, emergencies, and natural disasters.
The United States is Brazil's most important commercial partner and
largest investor. The U.S. share of Brazilian trade averages 23%, and
two-way trade amounted to $13.3 billion in 1993. Brazil's lack of
intellectual property protection (especially patents in certain areas) led
to frictions with the United States and other major trading partners in
1993. These came to a head in 1994, when the United States named
Brazil in formal trade actions on two occasions under U.S. trade law.
The U.S. objective was to stimulate negotiations as well as appropriate
action by Brazil to protect intellectual property rights. For its part,
Brazil is critical of the United States for high U.S. tariffs on products
such as steel and orange juice, which Brazil exports. Recent efforts by
both sides have begun to reduce the tensions arising from these issues.
Bilateral agreements between Brazil and the United States include a
treaty of peace and friendship; an extradition treaty; a joint
participation agreement on communication satellites; and, scientific
cooperation, civil aviation, and maritime agreements. Brazil and the
United States exchange professors under Fulbright and other academic
programs and carry out university cooperation projects.
Principal U.S. Embassy Officials
Deputy Chief of Mission--Mark Lore
Defense Attache--Col. Layton Dunbar, U.S. Army
Economic Counselor--Paul Wackerbarth
Commercial Counselor--Richard Ades
Political Counselor--Theodore Wilkinson
Science Counselor--Roy Simpkins
Public Affairs Counselor (USIS)--Carl Howard
Consul General in Rio de Janeiro--David Zweifel
Consul General in Sao Paulo--Philip Taylor
The U.S. embassy in Brazil is located at Avenida das Nacoes Sul,
Quadra 801, Lote 3, Brasilia, DF, CEP 70403-900 (tel. 061 321-7272,
U.S. consulates general are in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.
Consulates are at Porto Alegre and Recife. Consular agents are in
Manaus, Sao Luis, Belem, and Salvador da Bahia. Branch offices of
the U.S. Information Service (USIS) are located in Brasilia, Rio de
Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Recife. Branch offices of the U.S. Foreign
Commercial Service are located in Brasilia, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro,
Belo Horizonte and Belem.
Published by the U.S. Department of State -- Bureau of Public Affairs
-- Office of Public Communication -- Washington, DC -- March 1995 --
Managing Editor: Peter A. Knecht
Department of State Publication 7756 -- Background Notes Series --
This material is in the public domain and may be reprinted without
permission; citation of this source is appreciated.
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, DC 20402.
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