U.S. Department of State
Background Notes:  Bangladesh, November 1997
Released by the Bureau of South Asian Affairs

Official Name: People's Republic of Bangladesh 



Area: 143,998 sq. km. (55,813 sq. mi.); about the size of Wisconsin. 
Cities: Capital--Dhaka (pop. 10 million). Other cities--Chittagong (2.8 
million), Khulna (1.8 million), Rajshahi (1 million). 
Terrain: Mainly flat alluvial plain, with hills in the northeast and 
Climate: Semitropical, monsoonal. 


Nationality: Noun and adjective--Bangladeshi(s). 
Population: 126 million.
Annual growth rate: 1.5%. 
Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims. 
Religions: Muslim 83%; Hindu 16%; Christian, Buddhist, others 1%.
Languages: Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English. 
Education: Attendance--73% (primary school), 17% (secondary school). 
Literacy--47% for males; 22% for females. 
Health: Infant mortality rate--75/1,000. Life expectancy--58 years 
(male), 58 years (female). 
Work force: 50 million. Agriculture--74%. Industry--11%. Services--15%.


Type: Parliamentary democracy. 
Independence: 1971, from Pakistan.
Constitution: 1972; amended 1974, 1979, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1996. 
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of 
government), cabinet. Legislative--unicameral parliament (330 members). 
Judicial--civil court system based on British model.
Administrative subdivisions: Divisions, districts, subdistricts, unions, 
Political parties: 30-40 active political parties. 
Suffrage: Universal at age 18.


GDP (1996): $33 billion. 
Annual growth rate (1996): 5.7%. 
Per capita GDP (1996): $276. 
Natural resources: Natural gas, fertile soil, water. 
Agriculture (30% of GDP): Products--rice, jute, tea, sugar, wheat. Land-
-cultivable area cropped at rate of 159% in 1987; largely subsistence 
farming dependent on monsoonal rainfall. 
Industry (18% of GDP): Types--garments and knitwear, jute goods, frozen 
fish and seafood, textiles, fertilizer, sugar, tea, leather, 
shipbreaking for scrap, pharmaceuticals, ceramic tableware, newsprint. 
Trade (1996): Merchandise exports--$4.4 billion: garments and knitwear, 
frozen fish, jute and jute goods, leather and leather products, tea, 
urea fertilizer, ceramic tableware. Exports to U.S.--$1.343 billion. 
Merchandise imports--$7.1 billion: capital goods, foodgrains, petroleum, 
textiles, chemicals, vegetable oils. Imports from U.S.--$210 million. 
Official exchange rate (Oct. 1997): 45.00 taka = U.S. $1.


Although the U.S. relationship with Bangladesh was initially troubled 
because of strong U.S. ties with Pakistan, U.S.-Bangladesh friendship 
and support developed quickly following Bangladesh's independence from 
Pakistan in 1971. U.S.-Bangladesh relations are excellent, as 
demonstrated by the visits to Washington, DC, in August 1980 by 
President Zia; in 1983, 1988, and 1990 by President Ershad; and in 1992 
by Prime Minister Khaleda Zia. In 1995, First Lady Hillary Rodham 
Clinton visited Bangladesh. U.S. policy has focused primarily on efforts 
to promote Bangladesh's economic development and the strength of its 
democratic institutions.

The centerpiece of the bilateral relationship is a large U.S. economic 
aid program, totaling about $94 million in 1995. U.S. economic and food 
aid programs--which began as emergency relief following the 1971 war for 
independence--now concentrate on long-term development. Objectives of 
U.S. assistance include stabilizing population growth, protecting human 
health, encouraging broad-based economic growth, and building democracy.

In total, the United States has provided more than $3.4 billion in food 
and development assistance to Bangladesh. Food aid under Titles I, II, 
and III of PL-480 (congressional "food-for-peace" legislation) has been 
designed to help Bangladesh meet minimum food requirements, promote food 
production, and moderate fluctuation in consumer prices. Other U.S. 
development assistance emphasizes family planning and health, 
agricultural development, and rural employment. The United States works 
with other donors and the Bangladesh Government to avoid duplication and 
ensure that resources are used to maximum benefit.

Since 1986--with the exception of 1988-89, when an aircraft purchase 
made the trade balance even--the U.S. trade balance with Bangladesh has 
been negative, due largely to growing imports of ready-made garments. 
Jute carpet-backing is the other major U.S. import from Bangladesh; 
total imports from Bangladesh were about $1.343 billion in 1996. U.S. 
exports to Bangladesh (some $210 million in 1996) include wheat, 
fertilizer, cotton, communications equipment, aircraft, and medical 
supplies, a portion of which is financed by the U.S. Agency for 
International Development (USAID). A bilateral investment treaty was 
signed in 1989.

Relations between Bangladesh and the United States were further 
strengthened by the participation of Bangladesh troops in the 1991 Gulf 
War coalition and the 1994 multinational force in Haiti as well as by 
the assistance of a U.S. Naval task force after a disastrous March 1991 
cyclone in Bangladesh. The relief efforts of U.S. troops are credited 
with having saved as many as 200,000 lives.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Ambassador--John C. Holzman 
Deputy Chief of Mission--Theodore A. Nist 
Political/Economic/Commercial Counselor--Stephen Eisenbraun 
Consular Officer--David R. Dreher
Administrative Counselor--Lawrence Blackburn 
Regional Security Officer--Kim O'Connor
Agricultural Attache--Thomas Pomeroy (resident in New Delhi, India)
USAID Director--Richard Brown 
Public Affairs Officer (USIS)--John Kincannon

The embassy and the USAID mission in Bangladesh are located in the 
diplomatic enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka; tel: 880-2-884700; 
fax: 880-2-883744; USAID fax: 880-2-883648.

Historical and Cultural Highlights

The area which is now Bangladesh has a rich historical and cultural 
past, combining Dravidian, Indo-Aryan, Mongol/Mughul, Arab, Persian, 
Turkic, and West European cultures. Residents of Bangladesh, about 98% 
of whom are ethnic Bengali and speak Bangla, are called Bangladeshis. 
Urdu-speaking, non-Bengali Muslims of Indian origin and various tribal 
groups, mostly in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, comprise the remainder. 
Most Bangladeshis (about 83%) are Muslims, but Hindus constitute a 
sizable (16%) minority. There are also a small number of Buddhists, 
Christians, and animists. English is spoken in urban areas and among the 

About 1200 AD, Muslim invaders, under Sufi influence, supplanted 
existing Hindu and Buddhist dynasties in Bengal. This incursion led to 
the conversion to Islam of most of the population in the eastern areas 
of Bengal and created a sizable Muslim minority in the western areas of 
Bengal. Since then, Islam has played a crucial role in the region's 
history and politics.

Bengal was absorbed into the Mughul Empire in the 16th century, and 
Dhaka, the seat of a nawab (the representative of the emperor), gained 
some importance as a provincial center. But it remained remote and thus 
difficult to govern region--especially the section east of the 
Brahmaputra River--outside the mainstream of Mughul politics.

Portuguese traders and missionaries were the first Europeans to reach 
Bengal, in the latter part of the 15th century. They were followed by 
representatives of the Dutch, the French, and the British East India 
Companies. By the end of the 17th century, the British presence on the 
Indian subcontinent was centered in Calcutta. During the 18th and 19th 
centuries, the British gradually extended their commercial contacts and 
administrative control beyond Calcutta to Bengal. In 1859, the British 
Crown replaced the East India Company, extending British dominion from 
Bengal--which became a region of India--in the east to the Indus River 
in the west.

The rise of nationalism throughout British-controlled India in the late 
19th century resulted in mounting animosity between the Hindu and Muslim 
communities. In 1885, the All-India National Congress was founded with 
Indian and British membership. Muslims seeking an organization of their 
own founded the All-India Muslim League in 1906. Although both the 
League and the Congress supported the goal of Indian self-government 
within the British Empire, the two parties were unable to agree on a way 
to ensure the protection of Muslim political, social, and economic 

The subsequent history of the nationalist movement was characterized by 
periods of Hindu-Muslim cooperation as well as by communal antagonism. 
The idea of a separate Muslim state gained increasing popularity among 
Indian Muslims after 1936, when the Muslim League suffered a decisive 
defeat in the first elections under India's 1935 constitution. In 1940, 
the Muslim League called for an independent state in regions where 
Muslims were in the majority. Campaigning on that platform in provincial 
elections in 1946, the League won the majority of the Muslim seats 
contested in Bengal. Widespread communal violence followed, especially 
in Calcutta.

When British India was partitioned and the independent dominions of 
India and Pakistan were created in 1947, the region of Bengal was 
divided along religious lines. The predominantly Muslim eastern half was 
designated East Pakistan--and made part of the newly independent 
Pakistan--while the predominantly Hindu western part became the Indian 
state of West Bengal.

Pakistan's history from 1947 to 1971 was marked by political instability 
and economic difficulties. Dominion status was rejected in 1956 in favor 
of an "Islamic republic within the Commonwealth." Attempts at civilian 
political rule failed, and the government imposed martial law between 
1958 and 1962, and again between 1969 and 1972.

Almost from the advent of independent Pakistan in 1947, frictions 
developed between East and West Pakistan, which were separated by more 
than 1,000 miles of Indian territory. East Pakistanis felt exploited by 
the West Pakistan-dominated central government. Linguistic, cultural, 
and ethnic differences also contributed to the estrangement of East from 
West Pakistan. Bengalis strongly resisted attempts to impose Urdu as the 
sole official language of Pakistan. Responding to these grievances, 
Sheikh Mujibir Rahman--known widely as "Mujib"--in 1949 formed the Awami 
League (AL), a party designed mainly to promote Bengali interests.

Mujib became president of the Awami League and emerged as leader of the 
Bengali autonomy movement. In 1966, he was arrested for his political 
activities. After the Awami League won all the East Pakistan seats of 
the Pakistan national assembly in 1970-71 elections, West Pakistan 
opened talks with the East on constitutional questions about the 
division of power between the central government and the provinces, as 
well as the formation of a national government headed by the Awami 

The talks proved unsuccessful, however, and on March 1, 1971, Pakistani 
President Yahya Khan indefinitely postponed the pending national 
assembly session, precipitating massive civil disobedience in East 
Pakistan. Mujib was arrested again; his party was banned, and most of 
his aides fled to India, where they organized a provisional government. 
On March 26, 1971, following a bloody crackdown by the Pakistan army, 
Bengali nationalists declared an independent People's Republic of 
Bangladesh. As fighting grew between the army and the Bengali mukti 
bahini ("freedom fighters"), an estimated 10 million Bengalis, mainly 
Hindus, sought refuge in the Indian states of Assam and West Bengal.

The crisis in East Pakistan produced new strains in Pakistan's troubled 
relations with India. The two nations had fought a war in 1965, mainly 
in the west, but the refugee pressure in India in the fall of 1971 
produced new tensions in the east. Indian sympathies lay with East 
Pakistan, and in November, India intervened on the side of the 
Bangladeshis. On December 16, 1971, Pakistani forces surrendered and 
Bangladesh--meaning "Bengal nation"--was born; the new country became a 
parliamentary democracy under a 1972 constitution.


Although one of the world's poorest and most densely populated 
countries, Bangladesh has made major strides to produce domestically and 
import from abroad enough food to feed its rapidly increasing 
population. The land is devoted mainly to rice and jute cultivation, and 
the country is largely self-sufficient in rice production.

Nonetheless, an estimated 10% to 15% of the population faces serious 
nutritional risk. Bangladesh's predominantly agricultural economy 
depends heavily on an erratic monsoonal cycle, with periodic flooding 
and drought. Although improving, infrastructure to support 
transportation, communications, and power supply is poorly developed. 
The country has limited reserves of coal and oil, but estimates of 
natural gas reserves look promising. While Bangladesh's industrial base 
is weak, unskilled labor is inexpensive and plentiful.

Since independence in 1971, Bangladesh has received more than $30 
billion in grant aid and loan commitments from foreign donors, about $15 
billion of which has been disbursed. Major donors include the World 
Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the UN Development Program, the United 
States, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and West European countries. 

Bangladesh has historically run a large trade deficit, financed largely 
through aid receipts and remittances from workers overseas. Foreign 
reserves dropped markedly in 1995 and 1996, but had stabilized at low 
levels by the middle of 1997. 

Land, Climate, and Demographics 

Bangladesh is a low-lying, riverine country located in South Asia with a 
largely marshy jungle coastline of 600 kilometers (370 mi.) on the 
northern littoral of the Bay of Bengal. Formed by a deltaic plain at the 
confluence of the Ganges (Padma), Brahmaputra (Jamuna), and Meghna 
Rivers and their tributaries, Bangladesh's alluvial soil is highly 
fertile but vulnerable to flood and drought. Hills rise above the plain 
only in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in the far southeast and the Sylhet 
division in the northeast.

Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladesh has a subtropical monsoonal 
climate characterized by heavy seasonal rainfall, moderately warm 
temperatures, and high humidity. Natural calamities, such as floods, 
tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores affect the country almost 
every year. Bangladesh also is affected by major cyclones--on average 16 
times a decade.

Bangladesh is the most densely populated agricultural country in the 
world. With a per capita GDP of $276, it is also one of the poorest. 
Bangladesh's 126 million people are concentrated in an area about the 
size of Wisconsin. Its population growth rate is estimated at about 1.5% 
annually; population is expected to reach 129 million by the year 2000. 
At present, 45% of the population is under 15 years of age.

Urbanization is proceeding rapidly, and it is estimated that only 30% of 
the population entering the labor force in the future will be absorbed 
into agriculture, although many will likely find other kinds of work in 
rural areas. The areas around Dhaka and Comilla are the most densely 
settled. The Sundarbans, an area of coastal tropical jungle in the 
southwest, and the Chittagong Hill Tracts on the southeastern border 
with Burma and India are the least densely populated.

Moves Toward a Market Economy

Following the violent events of 1971 during the fight for independence, 
Bangladesh--with the help of large infusions of donor relief and 
development aid--slowly began to turn its attention to developing new 
industrial capacity and rehabilitating its economy. The statist economic 
model adopted by its early leadership, however--including the 
nationalization of much of the industrial sector--resulted in 
inefficiency and economic stagnation.

Beginning in 1975, the government gradually gave greater scope to 
private sector participation in the economy, a pattern that has 
continued. Some state-owned enterprises have been privatized, but many, 
including major portions of the banking and jute sectors, remain under 
government control. Population growth, inefficiency in the public 
sector, and limited natural resources and capital have continued to 
restrict economic growth.

In the mid-1980s, there were encouraging, if halting, signs of progress. 
Economic policies aimed at encouraging private enterprise and 
investment, denationalizing public industries, reinstating budgetary 
discipline, and liberalizing the import regime were accelerated. In 
1985, the government also began an economic structural adjustment 
program with the International Monetary Fund.

Although the Khaleda Zia government (1991-96) initially took significant 
strides toward pro-market reform, preoccupation with its domestic 
political troubles helped stall progress on this critical front in the 
last year of its tenure. The government of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, 
elected in June 1996, has indicated that it will continue along the path 
toward privatization and open-market reform, but progress has been slow. 
In the government's first year, real GDP growth of 5.7%, and inflation 
of 2.6%, were the best figures in the 1990s. However, industrial growth 
was very slow, and serious structural macroeconomic problems persisted.

Efforts to achieve Bangladesh's microeconomic goals have been 
problematic. The privatization of public sector industries has proceeded 
at a slow pace, due in part to worker unrest in affected industries. The 
government has also proven unable to resist demands for wage hikes in 
government-owned industries. Economic growth has been further slowed by 
an archaic banking system which has impeded access to capital--a serious 
problem in rural areas where many farmers have difficulty obtaining 
credit at reasonable rates.


Most Bangladeshis earn their living from agriculture. While rice and 
jute are the primary crops, wheat is assuming greater importance, and 
tea is grown in the northeast. Because of Bangladesh's fertile soil and 
normally ample water supply, rice can be grown and harvested three times 
a year in many areas.

Due to a number of factors, Bangladesh's labor-intensive agriculture has 
achieved steady increases in foodgrain production despite the often 
unfavorable weather conditions. These include better flood control and 
irrigation, a generally more efficient use of fertilizers, and the 
establishment of better distribution and rural credit networks. With 18 
million metric tons produced in 1993, rice is Bangladesh's principal 
crop. By comparison, wheat output in 1993 was 1.2 million metric tons. 
Population pressure continues to place a severe burden on productive 
capacity, creating a food deficit, especially of wheat. Foreign 
assistance and commercial imports fill the gap.

Underemployment remains a serious problem, and a growing concern for 
Bangladesh's agricultural sector will be its ability to absorb 
additional manpower. Finding alternative sources of employment is a 
daunting problem, particularly for the increasing numbers of landless 
peasants who already account for about half the rural labor force.

Industry and Investment

Industrial development has been a priority for successive Bangladesh 
governments. Although small, the industrial sector contributes 
significantly to export receipts, and provides employment and a market 
for cash crops. Jute products--mainly burlap sacking and carpet-backing 
for export--and cotton textiles for domestic consumption remain 

Production of ready-made garments for export to the U.S., Canadian, and 
European markets has grown rapidly and now dominates Bangladeshi 
exports. Bangladesh is the fifth-largest supplier of cotton apparel to 
the United States and has begun to diversify its garment exports away 
from the North American market to the West European market. On July 4, 
1995, the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, 
International Labor Organization, and UNICEF signed a memorandum of 
understanding on the elimination of child labor in the garment sector. 
Implementation of this pioneering agreement began in the fall of 1995.

The labor-intensive process of shipbreaking for scrap has developed to 
the point where it now meets most of Bangladesh's domestic steel needs. 
Other industries include sugar, tea, leather goods, newsprint, 
pharmaceutical, and fertilizer production.

The Ershad government (1982-90) sought to increase industrial growth by 
removing barriers to private sector participation in economic 
development, providing incentives to domestic and foreign private 
investors, and denationalizing public sector industrial units and banks. 
Key to this change in policy was the denationalization of about half of 
the public sector's jute looms, one-third of its cotton textile looms, a 
number of other industrial units, and several banks. In addition, 
several new private sector banks were established. The Khaleda Zia 
government continued down the path of reform, though progress on 
privatization of public sector enterprises has been very slow.

The Bangladesh Government continues to court foreign investment. In 
1989, it established a board of investment to simplify approval and 
start-up procedures for foreign investors; the same year it signed a 
bilateral investment treaty with the United States. Bangladesh also has 
established export processing zones in Chittagong and Dhaka and plans to 
create additional zones elsewhere in the country.


The president, while chief of state, holds a largely ceremonial post; 
the real power is held by the prime minister, who is head of government. 
The president is elected by the legislature (parliament) every five 

The president's normally circumscribed powers are substantially expanded 
during the tenure of a caretaker government. (Under the Thirteenth 
Amendment, which the parliament passed in March 1996, a caretaker 
government assumes power temporarily to oversee general elections after 
dissolution of the parliament.) In the caretaker government, the 
president has control over the Ministry of Defense, the authority to 
declare a state of emergency, and the power to dismiss the Chief Advisor 
and other members of the caretaker government. Once elections have been 
held and a new government and parliament are in place, the president's 
powers and position revert to their habitually ceremonial role.

The prime minister is appointed by the president; the prime minister 
must be a Member of Parliament (MP) who the president feels commands the 
confidence of the majority of other MPs. The cabinet is composed of 
ministers selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president. 
Ninety percent of the ministers must be MPs. The other 10% may be non-MP 
experts or "technocrats" who are not otherwise disqualified from being 
elected MPs. According to the constitution, the president can dissolve 
parliament upon the written request of the prime minister.

The legislature is a unicameral, 330-seat body. Three hundred of its 
members are elected by universal suffrage every five years. The 
remaining 30 seats are reserved for women MPs elected by the parliament.

Bangladesh's judiciary is a civil court system based on the British 
model; the highest court of appeal is the Appellate Court of the Supreme 

At the local government level, the country is divided into divisions, 
districts, subdistricts, unions, and villages. Local officials are 
elected at the union level. All larger administrative units are run by 
members of the civil service.


The Bangladesh army, navy, and air force are composed of regular 
military members. Many of the senior officers and non-commissioned 
officers served in the Pakistan military before the 1971 independence 
war. Senior officers include "repatriates" who were interned in Pakistan 
during the war and "freedom fighters" who fought against Pakistan.

The 100,000-member, six-division army is modeled and organized along 
British lines, similar to other armies on the Indian subcontinent. It is 
supported by artillery, armored, and combat units. In addition to 
traditional defense roles, the military has been called on to provide 
support to civil authorities for disaster relief and internal security. 
The Bangladesh air force and navy, with about 7,000 personnel each, 
perform traditional military missions. A coast guard has been recently 
formed under the Home Ministry to assume some functions currently 
performed by the navy.

Recognition of economic and fiscal constraints has led to the 
establishment of several paramilitary and auxiliary forces, including 
the 40,000-member Bangladesh Rifles; the Ansars and Village Defense 
Parties Organization, which claims 64 members in every village in the 
country; and a 5,000-member specialized police unit known as the Armed 
Police. Bangladesh Rifles, under the authority of the Home Ministry, are 
commanded by army officers who are seconded to the organization.

In addition to in-country military training, some advanced and technical 
training is done abroad, including grant aid training in the United 
States. China, Pakistan, and Eastern Europe are major defense suppliers 
to Bangladesh. In 1995, the Bangladesh air force made its largest 
purchase from the U.S. to date--12 jet trainers. A 2,300-member 
Bangladesh army contingent served with coalition forces during the 1991 
Gulf War. In 1995, over 7,000 Bangladesh forces were serving abroad 
under the United Nations flag and under contractual arrangements.


The provisional government of the new nation of Bangladesh was formed in 
Dhaka with Justice Abu Sayeed Choudhury as President and Sheikh Mujibur 
Rahman ("Mujib")--who was released from Pakistani prison in early 1972--
as Prime Minister.

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, 1972-75

Mujib came to office with immense personal popularity but had difficulty 
transforming this popular support into the political strength needed to 
function as head of government. The new constitution, which came into 
force in December 1972, created a strong executive prime minister, a 
largely ceremonial presidency, an independent judiciary, and a 
unicameral legislature on a modified Westminster model. The 1972 
constitution adopted as state policy the Awami League's (AL) four basic 
principles of nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy.

The first parliamentary elections held under the 1972 constitution were 
in March 1973, with the Awami League winning a massive majority. No 
other political party in Bangladesh's early years was able to duplicate 
or challenge the League's broad-based appeal, membership, or 
organizational strength.

Relying heavily on experienced civil servants and members of the Awami 
League, the new Bangladesh Government focused on relief, rehabilitation, 
and reconstruction of the economy and society. Economic conditions 
remained precarious, however. In December 1974, Mujib decided that 
continuing economic deterioration and mounting civil disorder required 
strong measures. After proclaiming a state of emergency, Mujib used his 
parliamentary majority to win a constitutional amendment limiting the 
powers of the legislative and judicial branches, establishing an 
executive presidency, and instituting a one-party system, the Bangladesh 
Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL), which all members of parliament 
were obliged to join.

Despite some improvement in the economic situation during the first half 
of 1975, implementation of promised political reforms was slow, and 
criticism of government policies became increasingly centered on Mujib. 
In August 1975, Mujib and most of his family were assassinated by mid-
level army officers. His daughter, Sheikh Hasina, happened to be out of 
the country. A new government, headed by former Mujib associate 
Khandakar Moshtaque, was formed.

Ziaur Rahman, 1975-81

Successive military coups resulted in the emergence of Army Chief of 
Staff Gen. Ziaur Rahman ("Zia") as strongman. He pledged the army's 
support to the civilian government headed by President Chief Justice 
Sayem. Acting at Zia's behest, Sayem dissolved parliament, promising 
fresh elections in 1977, and instituted martial law.

Acting behind the scenes of the Martial Law Administration, (MLA), Zia 
sought to invigorate government policy and administration. While 
continuing the ban on political parties, he sought to revitalize the 
demoralized bureaucracy, to begin new economic development programs, and 
to emphasize family planning. In November 1976, Zia became Chief Martial 
Law Administrator (CMLA) and assumed the presidency upon Sayem's 
retirement five months later, promising national elections in 1978.

As President, Zia announced a 19-point program of economic reform and 
began dismantling the MLA. Keeping his promise to hold elections, Zia 
won a five-year term in June 1978 elections with 76% of the vote. In 
November 1978, his government removed the remaining restrictions on 
political party activities in time for parliamentary elections in 
February 1979. These elections, which were contested by more than 30 
parties, marked the culmination of Zia's transformation of Bangladesh's 
government from the MLA to a democratically elected, constitutional one. 
The AL and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), founded by Zia, 
emerged as the two major parties. The constitution was again amended to 
provide for an executive prime minister appointed by the president and 
responsible to a parliamentary majority.

In May 1981, Zia was assassinated in Chittagong by dissident elements of 
the military. The attempted coup never spread beyond that city, and the 
major conspirators were either taken into custody or killed. In 
accordance with the constitution, Vice President Justice Abdus Sattar 
was sworn in as acting president. He declared a new national emergency 
and called for election of a new president within six months--an 
election Sattar won as the BNP's candidate. President Sattar sought to 
follow the policies of his predecessor and retained essentially the same 
cabinet, but the army stepped in once again.

Hussain Mohammed Ershad, 1982-90

Army Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. H.M. Ershad assumed power in a bloodless 
coup in March 1982. Like his predecessors, Ershad suspended the 
constitution and--citing pervasive corruption, ineffectual government, 
and economic mismanagement--declared martial law. The following year, 
Ershad assumed the presidency, retaining his positions as army chief and 
CMLA. During most of 1984, Ershad sought the opposition parties' 
participation in local elections under martial law. The opposition's 
refusal to participate, however, forced Ershad to abandon these plans.

Ershad sought public support for his regime in a national referendum on 
his leadership in March 1985. He won overwhelmingly, although turnout 
was small. Two months later, Ershad held elections for local council 
chairmen. Pro-government candidates won a majority of the posts, setting 
in motion the President's ambitious decentralization program.

Political life was further liberalized in early 1986, and additional 
political rights, including the right to hold large public rallies, were 
restored. At the same time, the Jatiyo (People's) Party, designed as 
Ershad's political vehicle for the transition from martial law, was 

Despite a boycott by the BNP, led by President Zia's widow, Begum 
Khaleda Zia, parliamentary elections were held on schedule in May 1986. 
The Jatiyo Party won a modest majority of the 300 elected seats in the 
national assembly. The participation of the Awami League--led by the 
late Prime Minister Mujib's daughter, Sheikh Hasina Wajed--lent the 
elections some credibility, despite widespread charges of voting 

Ershad resigned as Army Chief of Staff and retired from military service 
in preparation for the presidential elections scheduled for October. 
Protesting that martial law was still in effect, both the BNP and the AL 
refused to put up opposing candidates. Ershad easily outdistanced the 
remaining candidates, taking 84% of the vote. Although Ershad's 
government claimed a turnout of more than 50%, opposition leaders and 
much of the foreign press estimated a far lower percentage and alleged 
voting irregularities.

Ershad, continued his stated commitment to lift martial law. In November 
1986, his government mustered the necessary two-thirds majority in the 
national assembly to amend the constitution and confirm the previous 
actions of the martial law regime. The President then lifted martial 
law, and the opposition parties took their elected seats in the national 

In July 1987, however, after the government hastily pushed through a 
controversial legislative bill to include military representation on 
local administrative councils, the opposition walked out of parliament. 
Passage of the bill helped spark an opposition movement that quickly 
gathered momentum, uniting Bangladesh's opposition parties for the first 
time. The government began to arrest scores of opposition activists 
under the country's Special Powers Act of 1974. Despite these arrests, 
opposition parties continued to organize protest marches and nationwide 
strikes. After declaring a state of emergency, Ershad dissolved 
parliament and scheduled fresh elections for March 1988.

All major opposition parties refused government overtures to participate 
in these polls, maintaining that the government was incapable of holding 
free and fair elections. Despite the opposition boycott, the government 
proceeded. The ruling Jatiyo Party won 251 of the 300 seats. The 
parliament, while still regarded by the opposition as an illegitimate 
body, held its sessions as scheduled and passed a large number of bills, 
including, in June 1988, a controversial constitutional amendment making 
Islam Bangladesh's state religion.

By 1989, the domestic political situation in the country seemed to have 
quieted. The local council elections were generally considered by 
international observers to have been less violent and more free and fair 
than previous elections. However, opposition to Ershad's rule began to 
regain momentum, escalating by the end of 1990 in frequent general 
strikes, increased campus protests, public rallies, and a general 
disintegration of law and order.

On December 6, 1990, Ershad offered his resignation. On February 27, 
1991, after two months of widespread civil unrest, an interim government 
oversaw what most observers believed to be the nation's most free and 
fair elections to date.

Khaleda Zia, 1991-96

The center-right BNP won a plurality of seats and formed a coalition 
government with the Islamic fundamentalist party Jamaat-I-Islami, with 
Khaleda Zia, widow of Ziaur Rahman, obtaining the post of Prime 

Only four parties had more than 10 members elected to the 1991 
parliament: The BNP, led by Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia; the AL, 
led by Sheikh Hasina Wajed; the Jamaat-I-Islami (JI), led by Golam Azam; 
and the Jatiyo Party (JP), led by acting chairman Mizanur Rahman 
Choudhury while its founder, former President Ershad, served out a 
prison sentence on corruption charges.

The electorate approved still more changes to the constitution, formally 
re-creating a parliamentary system and returning governing power to the 
office of the prime minister, as in Bangladesh's original 1972 
constitution. In October 1991, members of parliament elected a new head 
of state, President Abdur Rahman Biswas.

In March 1994, controversy over a parliamentary by-election, which the 
opposition claimed the government had rigged, led to an indefinite 
boycott of parliament by the entire opposition. The opposition also 
began a program of repeated general strikes to press its demand that 
Khaleda Zia's government resign and a caretaker government supervise a 
general election.

Efforts to mediate the dispute under the auspices of the Commonwealth 
Secretariat failed. After another attempt at a negotiated settlement 
failed narrowly in late December 1994, the opposition resigned en masse 
from parliament. The opposition then continued a campaign of marches, 
demonstrations, and strikes in an effort to force the government to 
resign. The opposition--including the Awami League's Sheikh Hasina 
Wajed--pledged to boycott national elections scheduled for February 15, 

In February, Khaleda Zia was re-elected by a landslide in voting 
boycotted and denounced as unfair by the three main opposition parties. 
In March 1996, following escalating political turmoil, the sitting 
parliament enacted a constitutional amendment to allow a neutral 
caretaker government to assume power and conduct new parliamentary 
elections; Former Chief Justice Mohammed Habibur Rahman was named Chief 
Advisor (a position equivalent to Prime Minister) in the interim 
government. New parliamentary elections were held in June 1996 and were 
won by the Awami League; party leader Sheikh Hasina became Prime 

Sheikh Hasina Wajed, 1996-

Sheikh Hasina formed what she called a "Government of National 
Consensus" in June 1996, which included one minister from the Jatiya 
Party and another from the Jatiyo Samajtantric Dal, a very small leftist 
party. The Jatiya Party never entered into a formal coalition 
arrangement, and party president H.M. Ershad withdrew his support from 
the government in September 1997.

Only three parties had more than 10 members elected to the 1996 
parliment: The Awami League, BNP, and Jatiya Party. Jatiya Party 
president, Ershad, was released from prison on bail in January 1997.

Although international and domestic election observers found the June 
1996 election free and fair, the BNP protested alleged vote rigging by 
the Awami League. Ultimately, the Party decided to join the new 
parliament. The BNP soon charged that police and Awami League activists 
were engaged in large-scale harassment and jailing of opposition 
activists. At the end of 1996, the BNP staged a parliamentary walkout 
over this and other grievances but returned in January 1997 under a 
four-point agreement with the ruling party. The BNP asserted that this 
agreement was never implemented and later staged another walkout in 
August 1997. Subsequently, the BNP called two nationwide general 
strikes, and a road and rail blockage between August and October 1997. 
Pitched street battles were fought on several occasions during these 
months as police, sometimes joined by ruling party activists, enforced a 
new ban on political rallies on public streets in the capital.

Principal Officials

President--Shahabuddin Ahmed (term ends October 2001) 
Prime Minister--Sheikh Hasina 
Foreign Minister--Abdus Samad Azad 
Ambassador to the U.S.--Humayun Kabir
Ambassador to the UN--Reaz Rahman

Bangladesh's embassy in the United States is at 2201 Wisconsin Avenue, 
NW, Washington, DC 20007; tel: 202-342-8372; fax: 202-333-4971.

A consulate general is at the Bangladesh mission to the United Nations, 
821 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017. The telephone number for the UN 
mission is 212-867-3434, fax 212-972-4038. The telephone number for the 
consulate general in New York is 212-599-6767, fax 212-682-9211.


Bangladesh pursues a moderate foreign policy that places heavy reliance 
on multinational diplomacy, especially at the United Nations.

Participation in Multilateral Organizations

Bangladesh was admitted to the United Nations in 1974 and was elected to 
a Security Council term in 1978. Then-Foreign Minister Choudhury served 
as president of the 41st UN General Assembly in 1986. The government has 
participated in numerous international conferences, especially those 
dealing with population, food, development, and women's issues. In 1982-
83, Bangladesh played a constructive role as Chairman of the "Group of 
77," an informal association encompassing most of the world's developing 
nations. In 1983, Bangla-desh hosted the foreign ministers meeting of 
the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). It has taken a leading 
role in the "Group of 48" developing countries.

Since 1975, Bangladesh has sought close relations with other Islamic 
states and a prominent role among moderate members of the OIC. The 
government also pursued the expansion of cooperation among the nations 
of South Asia, bringing the process--an initiative of former President 
Ziaur Rahman--through its earliest, most tentative stages to the formal 
inauguration of the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation 
(SAARC) at a summit gathering of South Asian leaders in Dhaka in 
December 1985. Bangladesh has served in the chairmanship of SAARC and 
has participated in a wide range of ongoing SAARC regional activities.

In recent years, Bangladesh has played a significant role in 
international peacekeeping activities. Several thousand Bangladeshi 
military personnel are deployed overseas on peacekeeping operations. 
Under UN auspices, Bangladeshi troops have served or are serving in 
Somalia, Rwanda, Mozambique, Kuwait, Bosnia, and Haiti. Bangladesh 
responded quickly to President Clinton's 1994 request for troops and 
police for the multinational force for Haiti and provided the largest 
non-U.S. contingent.

Bilateral Relations with Other Nations

Bangladesh is bordered on the west, north, and east by a 2,400-kilometer 
land frontier with India and on the southeast by a land and water 
frontier (193 kilometers long) with Burma.

India. India is Bangladesh's most important neighbor. Geographic, 
cultural, historic, and commercial ties are strong, and both countries 
recognize the importance of good relations. During and immediately after 
Bangladesh's struggle for independence from Pakistan in 1971, India 
assisted refugees from East Pakistan, intervened militarily to help 
bring about the independence of Bangladesh, and furnished relief and 
reconstruction aid.

Indo-Bangladesh relations have not been without strains. Flooding in 
Bangladesh, a phenomenon which is believed by many Bangladeshis to 
originate largely in India, has aggravated bilateral tensions. Bilateral 
relations warmed in 1996 due to a softer Indian foreign policy and the 
new Awami League Government. A 30-year watersharing agreement for the 
Ganges was signed in December 1996. An earlier bilateral water-sharing 
agreement for the Ganges River lapsed in 1988, and efforts are being 
undertaken to rework the agreement. Both nations have also cooperated on 
the issue of flood warning and preparedness. Discussions on the return 
to Bangladesh of tribal refugees--who fled into India beginning in 1986 
to escape violence caused by an insurgency in their homeland in the 
Chittagong Hill Tracts--continue as well, and some refugees have 
returned to Bangladesh.

Pakistan. Bangladesh enjoys warm relations with Pakistan, despite the 
strained early days of their relationship. Landmarks in their 
reconciliation are:

--An August 1973 agreement between Bangladesh and Pakistan on the 
repatriation of numerous individuals, including 90,000 Pakistani 
prisoners of war stranded in Bangladesh as a result of the 1971 

--A February 1974 accord by Bangladesh and Pakistan on mutual 
recognition, followed more than two years later by establishment of 
formal diplomatic relations; 

--The organization by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) of 
an airlift that moved almost 250,000 Bengalis from Pakistan to 
Bangladesh and non-Bengalis from Bangladesh to Pakistan; and 

--Exchanges of high-level visits, including a visit by Prime Minister 
Benazir Bhutto to Bangladesh in 1989 and visits by Prime Minister Zia to 
Pakistan in 1992 and in 1995.

Still to be resolved are the division of assets from the pre-1971 period 
and the status of more than 250,000 non-Bengali Muslims (known as 
"Biharis") remaining in Bangladesh but seeking resettlement in Pakistan.

Burma. Bilateral ties with Burma are good, despite occasional border 
strains and an influx of more than 270,000 Muslim refugees (known as 
"Rohingya") from predominantly Buddhist Burma. As a result of bilateral 
discussions and with the cooperation and assistance of the UNHCR, most 
of the Rohingya refugees have now returned to Burma. As of mid-1995, 
about 50,000 refugees remained in camps in southern Bangladesh.

Former Soviet Union. The former Soviet Union supported India's actions 
during the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war and was among the first to recognize 
Bangladesh. The U.S.S.R. initially contributed considerable relief and 
rehabilitation aid to the new nation. After Sheikh Mujib was 
assassinated in 1975 and replaced by military regimes, however, Soviet-
Bangladesh relations cooled.

In 1989, the U.S.S.R. ranked 14th among aid donors to Bangladesh. The 
Soviets focused on the development of electrical power, natural gas, and 
oil and maintained active cultural relations with Bangladesh. They 
financed a showcase project, the Ghorasal thermal power station--the 
largest in Bangladesh. Bangladesh began to open diplomatic relations 
with the newly independent Central Asian states in 1992.

China. China traditionally has been more important to Bangladesh than 
the former U.S.S.R., even though China supported Pakistan in 1971. As 
Bangladesh's relations with the Soviet Union and India cooled in the 
mid-1970s and as Bangladesh and Pakistan became reconciled, China's 
relations with Bangladesh grew warmer. An exchange of diplomatic 
missions in February 1976 followed an accord on recognition in late 

Since that time, relations have grown stronger, centering on trade, 
cultural activities, military and civilian aid, and exchanges of high-
level visits, beginning in January 1977 with President Zia's trip to 
Beijing. The largest and most visible symbol of bilateral amity is the 
Bangladesh-China "Friendship Bridge" completed in 1989 near Dhaka.

Other Countries. Bangladesh maintains friendly relations with Bhutan, 
Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, and strongly opposed the Soviet invasion 
of Afghanistan.


The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program provides 
Travel Warnings and Consular Information Sheets. Travel Warnings are 
issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel 
to a certain country. Consular Information Sheets exist for all 
countries and include information on immigration practices, currency 
regulations, health conditions, areas of instability, crime and 
security, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. posts in 
the country. Public Announcements are issued as a means to disseminate 
information quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively short-
term conditions overseas which pose significant risks to the security of 
American travelers. Free copies of this information are available by 
calling the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202-647-5225 or via the fax-
on-demand system: 202-647-3000. Travel Warnings and Consular Information 
Sheets also are available on the Consular Affairs Internet home page: 
http://travel.state.gov and the Consular Affairs Bulletin Board (CABB). 
To access CABB, dial the modem number: (301-946-4400 (it will 
accommodate up to 33,600 bps), set terminal communications program to N-
8-1 (no parity, 8 bits, 1 stop bit); and terminal emulation to VT100. 
The login is travel and the password is info (Note: Lower case is 
required). The CABB also carries international security information from 
the Overseas Security Advisory Council and Department's Bureau of 
Diplomatic Security. Consular Affairs Trips for Travelers publication 
series, which contain information on obtaining passports and planning a 
safe trip abroad, can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-
7954; telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250. 

Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be 
obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-
5225. For after-hours emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-

Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-hour, 7-
day a week automated system ($.35 per minute) or live operators 8 a.m. 
to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday ($1.05 per minute). The number is 1-900-
225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778). Major credit card users (for a flat rate 
of $4.95) may call 1-888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648)

Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers 
for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at 
(404) 332-4559 gives the most recent health advisories, immunization 
recommendations or requirements, and advice on food and drinking water 
safety for regions and countries. A booklet entitled Health Information 
for International Travel (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280) is 
available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 
20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.
Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and 
customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to 
travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a country's 
embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see "Principal 
Government Officials" listing in this publication). 

U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous areas 
are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country 
(see "Principal U.S. Embassy Officials" listing in this publication). 
This may help family members contact you in case of an emergency. 

Further Electronic Information:

Department of State Foreign Affairs Network. Available on the Internet, 
DOSFAN provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign policy 
information. Updated daily, DOSFAN includes Background Notes; Dispatch, 
the official magazine of U.S. foreign policy; daily press briefings; 
Country Commercial Guides; directories of key officers of foreign 
service posts; etc. DOSFAN's World Wide Web site is at .

U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published on a semi-annual basis 
by the U.S. Department of State, USFAC archives information on the 
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network, and includes an array of 
official foreign policy information from 1990 to the present. Contact 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. 
Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. To order, call (202) 512-1800 or 
fax (202) 512-2250.

National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department of 
Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related information. It is 
available on the Internet () and on CD-ROM. Call the NTDB Help-Line at 
(202) 482-1986 for more information. 

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