U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Ukraine, June 1997

Official Name: Ukraine



Area: 233,000 sq. mi.. 
Cities: Capital-- Kiev (pop. 2.6 million). Other cities--Kharkiv, 
Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Odesa, Lviv. 
Terrain: A vast plan bounded by the Carpathian mountains in the 
southwest and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Oziv in the South.
Climate: Continental temperate. 


Population (est.): 52 million.
Nationality: Noun--Ukrainian(s); adjective--Ukrainian.
 Ethnic groups: Ukrainians, Russians, Jews, Belarusians, Moldovans, 
Bulgarians, Poles, Hungarians, Romanians, Crimean Tatars.
Religions: Ukrainian Orthodoxy, Ukrainian Greek Catholicism, Judaism, 
Roman Catholicism, Islam
Languages: Ukrainian, Russian, others.
Education: Literacy--100%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--21/1,000. Life expectancy--65 yrs. males, 
75 yrs. females. 
Work force: 24 million. Industry and construction--33%. Agriculture and 
forestry--21%. Health, education, and culture--16%. Transport and 


Type: presidential-parliamentary. 
Independence: August 24, 1991.
Constitution: First post-Soviet constitution adopted June 28, 1996. 
Branches: Executive--president, prime minister, cabinet. Legislative--
450-member parliament, the Supreme Rada (members elected to four-year 
terms). Judicial--people's courts, regional courts, Supreme Court, and 
Constitutional Court.
Political parties: wide range of active political parties, from leftist 
(communist and socialist) to center and center-right (Liberal, 
Democratic, Rukh, and Republican) to ultra-nationalist (UNA and OUN).
Suffrage: Universal at 18. 
Administrative subdivisions: 24 provinces and 1 autonomous republic.


GDP (est): $204 billion.
Annual growth rate: -14.2%.
Per capita income: $3,900.
Natural resources: Vast fertile lands, coal, natural gas, various large 
mineral deposits, timber. Agriculture: Products--Grain, sugar. Industry: 
Types--Ferrous metals and products, coke, fertilizer, metallurgical 
equipment, diesel locomotives, tractors.
Trade: Exports--$12.7 billion: coal, electric power, ferrous and non-
ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, and transport equipment. Imports--
$15.3 billion: Machinery and parts, transportation equipment, chemicals, 

The population of Ukraine is about 52 million, which represents about 
18% of the population of the former Soviet Union. Ukrainians make up 
about 73% of the total; ethnic Russians number about 20%. The industrial 
regions in the east and southeast are the most heavily populated, and 
the urban population makes up about 70% of the population. Ukrainian and 
Russian are the principal languages, but about 88% of the population 
consider Ukrainian their native language. The dominant religions are the 
Ukrainian Orthodox Church, much of which retains its links to the 
Russian Orthodox Church, and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. The 
Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Kiev Patriarchate) is independent of Moscow. 

The birth rate of Ukraine is diminishing. About 70% of adult Ukrainians 
have a secondary or higher education. Ukraine has about 150 colleges and 
universities, of which the most important are at Kiev, Lviv, and 
Kharkiv. About 70,000 scholars in 80 research institutes make Ukraine a 
leader in science and technology.


The first identifiable groups to populate what is now Ukraine were 
Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, and Goths, among other nomadic 
peoples who arrived throughout the first millennium B.C. These people 
were well known to colonists and traders in the ancient world, including 
Greeks and Romans, who established trading outposts which eventually 
became city states. Slavic tribes occupied central and eastern Ukraine 
in the sixth century A.D. and played an important role in the 
establishment of Kiev. Situated on lucrative trade routes, Kiev quickly 
prospered as the center of a powerful state of Kievan Rus. In the 11th 
century, Kievan Rus was, geographically, the largest state in Europe.

A Christian missionary, Cyril, converted the Kievan nobility and most of 
the population in 988. Conflict among the feudal lords led to decline in 
the 12th century. Kiev was razed by Mongol raiders in the 12th century.

Most of the territory was annexed by Poland and Lithuania in the 14th 
century, but during that time, the Ukrainian people began to conceive of 
themselves as a distinct people, a feeling which survived subsequent 
partitioning by greater powers over the next centuries. In addition, 
Ukrainian peasants who fled the Polish effort to force them into 
servitude came to be known as Cossacks and earned a reputation for their 
fierce martial spirit. 

In 1667, Ukraine was partitioned between Poland and Russia. In 1793, it 
was reunited as part of the Russian Empire. 

The 19th century found the region largely agricultural, with a few 
cities and centers of trade and learning. The region was under the 
control of the Austrians in the extreme west and of the Russians 
elsewhere. Ukrainian writers and intellectuals were inspired by the 
nationalistic spirit stirring other European peoples existing under 
other imperial governments and were determined to revive Ukrainian 
linguistic and cultural traditions and re-establish a Ukrainian nation-
state. The Russians in particular imposed strict limits on attempts to 
elevate Ukrainian language and culture, even banning its use and study.

When World War I and the Bolshevik revolution in Russia shattered the 
Hapsburg and Russian empires, Ukrainians declared independent statehood. 
In 1917 and 1918, three separate Ukrainian republics declared 
independence. However, by 1921, the western part of the traditional 
territory had been incorporated into Poland, and the larger, central and 
eastern part became part of the Soviet Union.

The Ukrainian national idea persevered during the inter-war years, and 
Soviet reaction was severe, particularly under Stalin, who imposed 
terror campaigns, which ravaged the intellectual class. He also created 
artificial famines as part of his forced collectivization policies, 
which killed millions of previously independent peasants and others 
throughout the country. Estimates of deaths from the 1932-33 famine 
alone range from 3 million to 7 million.

After the German and Soviet invasions of Poland in 1939, the western 
Ukrainian regions were incorporated into the Soviet Union. When the 
Germans invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, many Ukrainians, particularly 
in the west, welcomed them, but this did not last. German brutality was 
directed principally against Ukraine's Jews (of whom 1 million were 
killed) but also against many other Ukrainians. Kiev and other parts of 
the country were heavily damaged. Some Ukrainians began to resist the 
Germans as well as the Soviets. Resistance against Soviet Government 
forces continued as late as the 1950s.

Little changed for Ukraine over the next decades. During periods of 
relative liberalization--as under Nikita Khrushchev from 1955 to 1964--
Ukrainian communists pursued national objectives. In the years of 
perestroika, under U.S.S.R. President Mikhail Gorbachev, national goals 
were again advanced by Ukrainian officials. 

Ukraine became an independent state on August 24, 1991, following the 
dissolution of the Soviet Union, and was a founding member of the 
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).


Ukraine is a parliamentary democracy with separate executive, judicial, 
and legislative branches. The president nominates the prime minister, 
who must be confirmed by the parliament. The 450-member parliament 
(Supreme Rada) initiates legislation, ratifies international agreements, 
and approves the budget. Its members were elected to four-year terms in 
1994. Following free elections held on December 1, 1991, Leonid M. 
Kravchuk, former Chairman of the Ukrainian Supreme Soviet, was elected 
president for a five-year term. At the same time, a referendum on 
independence was approved by more than 90% of the voters. 

Political groupings in Ukraine include former communists, socialists, 
agrarians, nationalists and various centrist and independent forces.

Shortly after becoming independent, Ukraine named a parliamentary 
commission to prepare a new constitution, adopted a multi-party system, 
and adopted legislative guarantees of civil and political rights for 
national minorities. A new, democratic constitution was adopted on June 
28, 1996, which mandates a pluralistic political system with protection 
of basic human rights and liberties. 

Freedom of religion is guaranteed by law, although religious 
organizations are required to register with local authorities and with 
the central government. Minority rights are respected in accordance with 
a 1991 law guaranteeing ethnic minorities the right to schools and 
cultural facilities and the use of national languages in conducting 
personal business. In Crimea and eastern Ukraine--areas with significant 
Russian minorities--Russian is permitted as a language of official 
correspondence. It is also recognized as an official language in Crimea.

Ethnic tensions in Crimea during 1992 prompted a number of pro-Russian 
political organizations to advocate secession of Crimea and annexation 
to Russia. (Crimea was ceded to Ukraine in 1954, as a gift from 
Khrushchev to mark the 300th anniversary of Ukrainian union with 
Russia.) In July 1992, the Crimean and Ukrainian parliaments determined 
that Crimea would remain under Ukrainian jurisdiction while retaining 
significant cultural and economic autonomy.

Crimea held its first presidential elections in January 1994, electing 
Yuriy Meshkov, a Republican Party of Crimea member advocating closer 
ties to Russia. The results of a non-binding poll on March 27, 1994, 
demonstrated voters' overwhelming support for greater powers for 
Meshkov, dual Russian-Ukrainian citizenship for Crimeans, and a treaty 
to govern relations between Crimea and Ukraine on a more equal basis. 
However, on March 17, 1995, the Rada abolished the 1992 Crimean 
constitution and dissolved the local presidency.

Official trade unions have been grouped under the Federation of Trade 
Unions. A number of independent unions, which emerged during 1992, have 
formed the Consultative Council of Free Trade Unions. While the right to 
strike is legally guaranteed, strikes based solely on political demands 
are prohibited. A National Mediation and Reconciliation Service exists 
to regulate disputes between management and labor which cannot be 
resolved at the enterprise level. A new law on trade unions is under 

In July 1994, Leonid Kuchma was elected as Ukraine's second president in 
free and fair elections. Earlier, in March 1994, Ukraine elected its 
first post-independence parliament. The next elections are scheduled for 
March 1998 (parliamentary) and October 1999 (presidential).

Security forces are controlled by the president, although they are 
subject to investigation by a permanent parliamentary commission. 
Surveillance is permitted for reasons of national security.

Ukraine has established its own military forces of about 500,000 from 
the troops and equipment inherited from the former Soviet Union. It aims 
to reduce the force to between 250,000-300,000 by the end of the decade; 
considerable downsizing already has taken place.

Principal Government Officials

President--Leonid Kuchma 
Acting Prime Minister--Vasyl Durdynets 
Foreign Minister--Hennadiy Udovenko

Ukraine maintains an embassy at 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007 
(tel. 202-333-0606)


Ukraine has many of the components of a major European economy--rich 
farmlands, a well-developed industrial base, highly trained labor, and a 
good education system. Significant difficulties lie ahead, however. At 
present, the economy is in poor condition. While hyperinflation has been 
tamed, production continues to drop, and the standard of living for most 
citizens has declined more than 50% since the early 1990s. The new 
Ukrainian currency, the Hryvnia, was introduced in September 1996, and 
remained fairly stable. 

Most Ukrainian trade is still with countries of the former Soviet Union, 
principally Russia. Demand for Ukraine's non-agricultural exports-- 
ferrous metals, steel pipe, machinery, and transport equipment-- 
continues to fall. Forced to pay high prices for fuel, Ukraine continues 
to run large trade deficits.

Ukraine imports 90% of its oil and most of its natural gas from Russia, 
though it is trying to find alternative sources. The Ukrainian 
authorities have been introducing market-price payment requirements for 
energy supplies to industry and homes in an effort to establish a real 
cost system of energy supply and payment.

In early 1995, the government began to implement an ambitious 
privatization program which should transfer ownership of 8,000 medium 
and large-scale enterprises to private hands. The International Monetary 
Fund (IMF) approved a $1.5-billion stand-by arrangement with the 
Government of Ukraine which should serve as the basis for continuing 
comprehensive economic reform.

Ukraine encourages foreign trade and investment. The parliament has 
approved a foreign investment law allowing Westerners to purchase 
businesses and property, to repatriate revenue and profits, and to 
receive compensation in the event that property is nationalized by a 
future government. 

Ukraine is rich in natural resources. It has a major ferrous metal 
industry, producing cast iron, steel, and steel pipe, and its chemical 
industry produces coke, mineral fertilizers, and sulfuric acid. 
Manufactured goods include metallurgical equipment, diesel locomotives, 
and tractors. 

It also is a major producer of grain and sugar and possesses a broad 
industrial base, including much of the former U.S.S.R.'s space industry. 
Although oil reserves are largely exhausted, it has important energy 
sources, such as coal and natural gas, and large mineral deposits.

In 1992, Ukraine became a member of the International Monetary Fund and 
the World Bank. It is a member of the European Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development but not a member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade/World Trade Organization. 

Environmental Issues

Ukraine is interested in cooperating on regional environmental issues. 
Conservation of natural resources is a high priority. It established its 
first nature preserve, Askanyia-Nova, in 1921 and has a program to breed 
endangered species.

However, the country has significant environmental problems resulting 
from the Chornobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986 and from 
industrial pollution. Ukraine has announced that the Chornobyl Atomic 
Energy Station will be phased out and shut down by the year 2000; it has 
asked for financial help to achieve this goal and to provide alternative 
sources of energy for its population.

Ukraine also has established a Ministry of Environment and has 
introduced a pollution fee system that levies taxes on air and water 
emissions and solid waste disposal. The resulting revenues are channeled 
to environmental protection activities, but enforcement of this 
pollution fee system is lax. 


Through contacts with the countries of the West, Ukraine seeks to 
increase consultation and cooperation in areas such as defense planning; 
the conversion of defense production to civilian purposes; and 
scientific, economic, and environmental issues.

Despite a November 1990 agreement to respect one anothers' sovereignty 
and territorial integrity, Ukraine's relations with Russia have been 
strained due to its concern over Russia's intentions. Although Ukraine 
became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on 
December 8, 1991, it refused in January 1993 to endorse a draft charter 
strengthening political, economic, and defense ties among CIS members. 
Relations with Russia have improved somewhat with the late May signing 
of the bilateral Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. Also, the two 
sides have signed a series of agreements on the final division and 
disposition of the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet.

On January 31, 1992, Ukraine joined the then-Conference on Security and 
Cooperation in Europe (now the Organization for Security and Cooperation 
in Europe--OSCE), and on March 10, 1992, it became a member of the North 
Atlantic Cooperation Council. Ukraine also is an active member of 
Partnership for Peace. A document on distinct relations between NATO and 
Ukraine is to be signed this July in Madrid.

Soviet Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original 
members following a Western compromise with the former Soviet Union, 
which had asked for seats for all 15 of its union republics. Ukraine 
consistently has supported peaceful, negotiated settlements to disputes. 
It has participated in the quadripartite talks on the conflict in 
Moldova and has sent a battalion to serve with UN peace-keeping forces 
in the former Yugoslavia. 


The dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991 brought an end to 
the Cold War and created the opportunity to build bilateral relations 
with the New Independent States (NIS) as they began a political and 
economic transformation. On December 25, 1991, the United States 
officially recognized the independence of Ukraine. It upgraded its 
consulate in the capital, Kiev, to embassy status on January 21, 1992. 
The U.S. ambassador to Ukraine is William Green Miller, sworn in on 
October 13, 1993.

The United States attaches great importance to the success of Ukraine's 
transition to a democratic state with a flourishing market economy. 
Following a period of economic decline characterized by high inflation 
and a continued reliance on state controls, the Ukrainian Government 
under the leadership of then newly elected President Leonid Kuchma began 
taking steps in the fall of 1994 to reinvigorate economic reform and 
achieve macro- economic stabilization. The Ukrainian Government's new 
determination to implement comprehensive economic reform is a welcome 
development, and the U.S. is committed to strengthening its support for 
Ukraine as it embarks on this difficult path. 

In January 1992, the U.S. initiated the Coordinating Conference on 
Assistance to the New Independent States in response to the humanitarian 
emergencies facing these states. The resulting Operation Provide Hope 
supplied desperately needed food, fuel, medicine, and shelter. 

A cornerstone for the continuing U.S. partnership with Ukraine and the 
other NIS has been the Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian 
Democracies and Open Markets (FREEDOM) Support Act, enacted in October 
1992. In September 1993, a new $2.45-billion assistance package for the 
NIS, funded with a combination of fiscal year (FY) 1993 and 1994 
supplemental appropriations, was passed by Congress and signed into law 
by President Clinton. The legislation continues to address political and 
economic transformation and humanitarian needs.

The U.S. has consistently encouraged Ukraine's transition to a free, 
democratic society with a prosperous market economy. The U.S. and 
Ukraine have signed a series of bilateral agreements designed to enhance 
economic, technical, environmental, and cultural cooperation. During the 
visit of former Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk to Washington on 
March 3-5, 1994, he and President Clinton reached agreement on an 
expanded economic assistance package that will provide up to $700 
million to Ukraine: $350 million in technical and humanitarian 
assistance in FY 1994 funds; and $350 million in Nunn-Lugar funds (FY 
1992-95 funds) to assist with nuclear dismantlement, non-proliferation 
programs, and industrial partnerships. Since 1994, Ukraine has become 
one of the largest recipients in the world of U.S. assistance.

Assistance To Support the Transition to a Market Economy. U.S. technical 
assistance to support the transition to a market economy has focused 
primarily on economic restructuring, development of the private sector, 
and energy sector reform. The U.S. Agency for International Development 
(USAID) printed millions of certificates to support Ukraine's plan for 
the mass privatization of state enterprises. U.S. advisers have provided 
technical assistance in financial sector reform, tax policy and 
administration, bankers' training, land legislation, small-scale and 
municipal services privatization, agricultural development and 
agribusiness, corporatization of the electric power sector, energy 
pricing and efficiency, and public education concerning the environment. 
The Western NIS Enterprise Fund, announced by President Clinton in 
January 1994 to promote private sector business development in Ukraine, 
Moldova, and Belarus, has begun operations in Kiev.

The U.S. also has played a leading role in mobilizing international 
support to help Ukraine cover its external financing gaps as it 
implements rigorous reform under IMF programs. The U.S. contribution of 
$100 million in late 1994 and pledge of $250 million in March 1995 
helped leverage nearly $5 billion in IMF and other bilateral financing 
and debt relief.

U.S. exchanges and training programs have enabled Ukrainians to 
participate in a broad range of programs in the U.S. These include coal 
mine safety, nuclear reactor safety, private land ownership and real 
estate markets, local government finance, banking, tax accounting, labor 
statistics, telecommunications, labor-management relations, promotion of 
agricultural development, security and defense conversion, international 
trade and investment, entrepreneurship and small business development, 
and public health and hospital management and finance. Three medical 
partnerships have been established between U.S. and Ukrainian medical 
institutions. Peace Corps volunteers are working in Ukraine with a focus 
on small business development and English teaching.

Funding also has been provided for studies in air traffic control and 
airport construction, establishment of an agricultural center to provide 
training on U.S. agricultural equipment, and the conversion of a coal- 
fired power plant to gas. The U.S. has also provided grain storage 

Assistance To Support the Transition to Democracy. The U.S. is promoting 
Ukraine's democratic transition by supporting programs on participatory 
political systems, independent media, rule of law, local governance, and 
civil society, as well as a wide range of exchanges and training.

USAID has provided Ukraine with technical assistance related to 
elections, the development of political parties and grass-roots civic 
organizations, and the development of independent media. A USAID-funded 
rule-of-law consortium has been working with Ukrainian officials and 
non-profit organizations to create a legal system supportive of a 
democratic government and a market-based economy. The rule-of-law 
project has been further expanded to promote cooperation between U.S. 
law enforcement agencies and their Ukrainian counterparts to reform the 
criminal justice system.

As of April 1995, the U.S. Information Agency (USIA) has brought nearly 
800 Ukrainians to the U.S. on academic exchanges. About 90 Ukrainian 
business people, journalists, local government officials, and other 
professionals have participated in other exchanges. USIA visitor program 
participants included then-presidential candidate Leonid Kuchma in April 
1994. USIA visitor programs have highlighted such subjects as economic 
and education reform, rule of law, and public administration.

The Department of Commerce's Special American Business Internship 
Training (SABIT) program and the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 
Cochran Fellowship Program have brought nearly 100 business executives, 
scientists, and agriculturists to the U.S. for internships and training 

Support for the Social Sector. The U.S. is assisting Ukraine's efforts 
to maximize equity in reform and to sustain social welfare and stability 
during and beyond the transition. Toward this end, USAID is providing 
assistance to local governments in redefining the roles of the public 
and private sectors in providing social services to allow government to 
focus limited resources on key social sectors. Training and technical 
assistance is being provided to Ukrainian institutions and government 
agencies on reforms of health care financing and delivery of medical 
services. A number of medical partnerships between U.S. and Ukrainian 
health care institutions have been established to improve both patient 
care and institutional management. Also, USAID is providing training and 
technical assistance on ways to improve reproductive health, focusing on 
providing family planning services and reducing the use of abortion.

Humanitarian Assistance. Through the first half of FY 1995, the U.S. has 
coordinated and funded the delivery of $33 million in food, medical 
supplies, and clothing to Ukraine. This includes a $16-million surplus 
Department of Defense hospital recently delivered to Donetsk. 
Previously, the U.S. provided $25,000 in response to the January 1994 
flood disaster in Ukraine's Zakarpatska oblast. In October 1993, $25,000 
was provided in international disaster funding for the drilling of water 
wells in the flood-stricken area of Rivne.

Operation Provide Hope has delivered food worth about $46,000 and 
medicines and medical supplies worth $16 million. A large portion of 
these supplies were designated for hospitals treating victims of the 
Chornobyl nuclear accident. Under the Medical Assistance Initiative, 
Project HOPE, a private voluntary organization, has shipped more than 
$26 million worth of pharmaceutical and medical supplies to Ukraine.

In response to an epidemic of diphtheria, the U.S. sent two assessment 
advisers from the Centers for Disease Control and vaccines, syringes, 
and needles with a value of $1.3 million under the Emergency Medicines 
Initiative. Under the Emergency Immunization Program, through Project 
HOPE, measles vaccine was provided, allowing for the vaccination of all 
Ukrainian children up to two years of age during 1993. In response to a 
1994 request from the Ukrainian Government, the U.S. provided diphtheria 
vaccines for adults and children to help Ukraine eradicate this deadly 
disease. In FY 1994, USDA provided Ukraine with more than 70,000 metric 
tons of food aid--valued at about $24 million--and, in FY 1995, it will 
provide $25 million in PL 480 assistance.

Bilateral Trade Issues 

The U.S.-Ukraine Trade Agreement, effective June 22, 1992, provides 
reciprocal most-favored-nation tariff treatment to the products of each 
country. Since January 1994, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation 
(OPIC) has approved investment insurance totaling more than $23 million 
for three projects in Ukraine. OPIC also has sponsored conferences and 
exchanges to encourage joint ventures between U.S. and Ukrainian 
companies. U.S. Export-Import Bank programs are currently closed in 
Ukraine, but the bank is continuing to reassess Ukraine's 
creditworthiness in light of recent government economic reforms with a 
view to reopening lending activities as soon as possible. In March 1994, 
Presidents Clinton and Kravchuk signed treaties on bilateral investment 
and double taxation.

Security Issues

In Lisbon on May 23, 1992, the United States signed a protocol to the 
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) with Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, 
and Kazakstan (those states on whose territory strategic nuclear weapons 
of the former Soviet Union are located). The protocol makes each state a 
party to the START Treaty and commits all signatories to reductions in 
strategic nuclear weapons within the seven-year period provided for in 
the treaty. Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakstan also agreed to join the 
nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as non-nuclear weapons states. 
The treaty entered into force on December 5, 1994, the same day Ukraine 
acceded to the NPT.

The U.S. has pledged to provide about $300 million to Ukraine under the 
Nunn-Lugar program to assist in the dismantlement of strategic offensive 
arms ($205 million), defense conversion ($40 million), and nuclear 
material protection ($12.5 million). The U.S. also has pledged $10 
million to assist in the establishment of a Science and Technology 
Center designed to provide peaceful employment opportunities to 
scientists and engineers formerly involved with weapons of mass 
destruction and their delivery systems.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Ambassador - William Green Miller 
Deputy Chief of Mission - James Schumaker 
Political Counselor - Vacant 
Economic Counselor - Robert Boehme 
Commercial Officer - Andriy Bihun 
Consular Officer - Walter Davenport 
Administrative Officer - Gary Bagley 
Public Affairs Officer - Robert Heath 
USAID - Gregory Huger

The U.S. embassy in Kiev is at 10 Yuriya Kotsyubinskoho, 25203 (tel. 
[380] (044) 244-7345).


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