U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Ukraine, April 1995
Bureau of Public Affairs
Official Name: Ukraine
Area: 233,000 sq. mi..
Capital: Kiev (pop. 2.6 million); other cities: Kharkiv (1.6
million), Lviv (800,000).
Terrain: A vast plan bounded by the Carpathian mountains in the
southwest and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov in the South.
Climate: Continental temperate.
Population (est.): 52 million.
Nationality: Noun--Ukrainian(s); adjective--Ukrainian.
Ethnic groups: Ukrainian, Russian, Jews, Belarussian, Moldovans,
Bulgarians, Poles, Hungarians, Romanians.
Languages: Ukrainian, Russian.
Health: Infant mortality rate--21/1,000. Life expectancy--65 yrs.
males, 75 yrs. females.
Work force: 24 million. Industry and construction--33%. Agriculture
and forestry--21%. Health, education, and culture--16%. Transport and
Independence: August 24, 1991.
Constitution: Using the 1977 Soviet constitution; a 40-member
constitutional commission is working on a new draft.
Branches: Executive--president, prime minister, cabinet. Legislative--
450-member parliament, the Supreme Rada (members elected to five-year
terms). Judicial--people's courts, provincial courts, Supreme Court.
Political parties: Congress of National Democratic Forces, New Ukraine,
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Administrative subdivisions: 24 provinces and 1 autonomous republic.
GDP (est): $204 billion.
Annual growth rate: -14.2%.
Per capita income: $3,900.
Natural resources: Vast fertile lands, coal, natural gas, various large
mineral deposits, timber.
Agriculture: Products--Grain, sugar.
Industry: Types--Ferrous metals and products, coke, fertilizer,
metallurgical equipment, diesel locomotives, tractors.
Trade: Exports--$12.7 billion: coal, electric power, ferrous and non-
ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, and transport equipment. Imports-
-$15.3 billion: Machinery and parts, transportation equipment,
The population of Ukraine is about 52 million, which represents about
18% of the population of the former Soviet Union. Ukrainians make up
about 73% of the total; ethnic Russians number about 20%. The
industrial regions in the east and southeast are the most heavily
populated, and the urban population makes up about 70% of the
population. Ukrainian and Russian are the principal languages, but
about 88% of the population consider Ukrainian their native language.
The dominant religions are the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and the
Ukrainian Orthodox Church, which retains its links to the Russian
Orthodox Church. The Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church is
nationalist oriented and independent of Moscow.
The birth rate of Ukraine is diminishing. About 70% of adult Ukrainians
have a secondary or higher education. Ukraine has about 150 colleges
and universities, of which the most important are at Kiev, Lviv, and
Kharkiv. About 70,000 scholars in 80 research institutes make Ukraine a
leader in science and technology.
The first identifiable groups to populate what is now Ukraine were
Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, and Goths, among other nomadic
peoples who arrived throughout the first millennium B.C. These people
were well known to colonists and traders in the ancient world, including
Greeks and Romans, who established trading outposts which eventually
became city states. Slavic tribes occupied eastern Ukraine in the sixth
century A.D. and established Kiev. Situated on lucrative trade routes,
Kiev quickly prospered as the center of a powerful state, Rus. In the
11th century, Kievan Rus was, geographically, the largest state in
A Christian missionary, Cyril, converted the Kievan nobility in 988.
Conflict among the feudal lords led to decline in the 12th century.
Kiev was razed by Mongol raiders in the 12th century.
The territory was annexed by Poland and Lithuania in the 14th century,
but during that time, the Ukrainian people began to conceive of
themselves as a distinct people, a feeling which survived subsequent
partitioning by greater powers over the next centuries. In addition,
Ukrainian peasants who fled the Polish effort to force them into
servitude came to be known as Cossacks and earned a reputation for their
fierce martial spirit.
In 1667, Ukraine was partitioned between Poland and Russia. In 1793, it
was reunited as part of the Russian Empire.
The 19th century found the region largely agricultural, with a few
cities and centers of trade and learning. The region was under the
control of the Austrians in the west and the Russians in the east.
Ukrainian writers and intellectuals were inspired by the nationalistic
spirit stirring other European peoples existing under other imperial
governments and were determined to revive Ukrainian linguistic and
cultural traditions and re-establish a Ukrainian nation-state. The
Russians in particular imposed strict limits on attempts to elevate
Ukrainian language and culture.
When World War I and the Bolshevik revolution in Russia shattered the
Hapsburg and Russian empires, Ukrainians declared independent statehood.
In 1917 and 1918, three separate Ukrainian republics declared
independence. However, by 1921, the western part of the traditional
territory had been incorporated into Poland, and the larger, eastern
part became part of the Soviet Union.
Ukrainian nationalism continued during the interwar years, and Soviet
reaction was severe, particularly under Stalin, who imposed terror
campaigns, which ravaged the intellectual class. He also created
artificial famines as part of his forced collectivization policies,
which killed millions of previously independent peasants and others
throughout the country. Estimates of deaths from the 1932-33 famine
alone range from 3 million to 7 million.
After the German and Soviet invasions of Poland in 1939, the western
regions of the former Ukrainian state were incorporated into the Soviet
Union. When the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, many
Ukrainians welcomed them. German brutality was directed principally
against Ukraine's Jews (of whom 1 million were killed) but also against
many other Ukrainians. Kiev and other parts of the country were heavily
damaged. Ukrainians soon resisted the Germans as well as the Soviets.
Resistance against Soviet Government forces continued as late as 1953,
when the death of Stalin brought some relaxation of repression.
Little changed for Ukraine over the next decades. During periods of
relative liberalization--as under Nikita Khrushchev from 1955 to 1964--
Ukrainian communists pursued national objectives. In the years of
perestroika, under U.S.S.R. President Mikhail Gorbachev, national goals
were again advanced by Ukrainian officials.
Ukraine became an independent state on August 24, 1991, following the
dissolution of the Soviet Union, and was a founding member of the
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
Ukraine is a parliamentary democracy with separate executive, judicial,
and legislative branches. The president nominates the prime minister
and members of the cabinet, who must be confirmed by the parliament.
The 450-member parliament (Supreme Rada) initiates legislation, ratifies
international agreements, and approves the budget. Its members were
elected to five-year terms in 1994. Following free elections held on
December 1, 1991, Leonid M. Kravchuk, former Chairman of the Ukrainian
Supreme Soviet, was elected president for a five-year term. At the same
time, a referendum on independence was approved by more than 90% of the
Political groupings in Ukraine include former communists, Rukh
nationalists, the Congress of National Democratic Forces, "New Ukraine"
(combining economic reformers and environmentalists), and the Civic
Congress, which supports a federated structure and closer ties to Russia
within the CIS.
Since becoming independent, Ukraine has named a parliamentary commission
to prepare a new constitution, has adopted a multi-party system, and has
adopted legislative guarantees of civil and political rights for
national minorities. New parliamentary elections were scheduled to take
place following ratification of the new constitution, but criticism of
the draft constitution's allocation of presidential authority resulted
in its being referred to the parliament's constitutional committee. A
coalition of parties, including the Rukh and New Ukraine parties, failed
to obtain sufficient support for a referendum to force parliamentary
elections in early 1993.
In 1992, the parliament granted extraordinary powers to the executive
branch to manage economic and administrative reforms.
Freedom of speech and press are not legally protected. Most newspapers
receive state subsidies and are reluctant to publish information
critical of government policies. State radio and television tend to be
censored, and there are regulations concerning the kind of material
which can be broadcast.
Legislation governing public assembly stipulates that organizations must
apply to the respective local administration 10 days before a planned
demonstration. A 1992 law prohibits the state from financing political
parties and other public organizations and restricts members of the
police, armed forces, and executive branch officials from joining
Freedom of religion is guaranteed by law, although religious
organizations are required to register with local authorities and with
the government's Council of Religious Affairs. Minority rights are
respected in accordance with a 1991 law guaranteeing ethnic minorities
the right to schools and cultural facilities and the use of national
languages in conducting personal business. In Crimea and eastern
Ukraine--areas with significant Russian minorities--Russian is permitted
as a language of official correspondence. It is also recognized as an
official language in Crimea.
Ethnic tensions in Crimea during 1992 prompted a number of pro-Russian
political organizations to advocate secession of Crimea and annexation
to Russia. Crimea was ceded to Ukraine in 1954, as a gift from
Khrushchev to mark the 300th anniversary of Ukrainian union with Russia.
In July 1992, the Crimean and Ukrainian parliaments determined that in
return for political, cultural, and economic autonomy, Crimea would
remain under Ukrainian jurisdiction.
Crimea held its first presidential elections in January 1994, electing
Yuriy Meshkov, a Republican Party of Crimea member advocating closer
ties to Russia. The results of a non-binding poll on March 27, 1994,
demonstrated voters' overwhelming support for greater powers for
Meshkov, dual Russian-Ukrainian citizenship for Crimeans, and a treaty
to govern relations between Crimea and Ukraine on a more equal basis.
However, on March 17, 1995, the Rada abolished the 1992 Crimean
constitution and dissolved the post of president of Crimea held by
The court system follows the Soviet model with local or people's courts,
provincial courts, and a Supreme Court. Parliament currently is
reviewing the division of roles between the Supreme Court and the
Official trade unions have been grouped under the Federation of Trade
Unions. A number of independent unions, which emerged during 1992, have
formed the Consultative Council of Free Trade Unions. While the right
to strike is legally guaranteed, strikes based solely on political
demands are prohibited. A National Mediation and Reconciliation Service
exists to regulate disputes between management and labor which cannot be
resolved at the enterprise level. A new law on trade unions is under
Security forces are controlled by the president, although they are
subject to investigation by a permanent parliamentary commission.
Surveillance is permitted for reasons of national security.
Ukraine has established its own military forces of about 500,000 from
the troops and equipment inherited from the former Soviet Union. It
aims to reduce the force to between 250,000-300,000 by the end of the
Principal Government Officials
Acting Prime Minister--Yevhen Marchuk
Foreign Minister--Hennadiy Udovenko
Ukraine maintains an embassy at 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
Ukraine has many of the components of a major European economy--rich
farmlands, a well-developed industrial base, highly trained labor, and a
good education system. Significant difficulties lie ahead, however. At
present, the economy is in poor condition. Price increases for energy
supplies from Russia and irresponsible credit policies by the previous
government have led to hyperinflation. Production continues to drop,
with overall GDP falling by 20% in 1993. The financial system is in
disarray. The Ukrainian coupon exchange rate--900 to the dollar in
February 1993--dropped to less than 85,000 to the dollar in 1994.
Most Ukrainian trade is with countries of the former Soviet Union,
principally Russia. Demand for Ukraine's non-agricultural exports--
ferrous metals, steel pipe, machinery, and transport equipment--
continues to fall. Forced to pay high prices for fuel, Ukraine
continues to run large, unsustainable trade deficits. Ukraine's trade
deficit with Russia was more than $1.5 billion in 1993.
Ukraine's dependence on Russian fuel supplies has crippled its economy.
Ukraine imports 90% of its oil and most of its natural gas from Russia.
During 1993, Russia raised fuel prices (although still significantly
below world market prices) and reduced deliveries to one-half of the
1992 level. Ukrainian authorities have been forced to cut supplies to
industrial enterprises by 40%, reduce transport services by one-third,
and use rolling brownouts in major cities to maintain service.
In early 1995, the government began to implement an ambitious
privatization program which should transfer ownership of 8,000 medium
and large-scale enterprises to private hands. The International
Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a $1.5-billion stand-by arrangement with
the Government of Ukraine which should serve as the basis for continuing
comprehensive economic reform.
Ukraine encourages foreign trade and investment. The parliament has
approved a foreign investment law allowing Westerners to purchase
businesses and property, to repatriate revenue and profits, and to
receive compensation in the event that property is nationalized by a
Ukraine is rich in natural resources. It has a major ferrous metal
industry, producing cast iron, steel, and steel pipe, and its chemical
industry produces coke, mineral fertilizers, and sulfuric acid.
Manufactured goods include metallurgical equipment, diesel locomotives,
It also is a major producer of grain and sugar and possesses a broad
industrial base, including much of the former U.S.S.R.'s space industry.
Although oil reserves are largely exhausted, it has important energy
sources, such as coal and natural gas, and large mineral deposits.
In 1992, Ukraine became a member of the International Monetary Fund and
the World Bank. It is a member of the European Bank for Reconstruction
and Development but not a member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade/World Trade Organization.
Ukraine is interested in cooperating on regional environmental issues.
Conservation of natural resources is a high priority. It established
its first nature preserve, Askanyia-Nova, in 1921 and has a program to
breed endangered species.
However, the country has significant environmental problems resulting
from the Chornobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986 and from
industrial pollution. Ukraine has announced that the Chornobyl Atomic
Energy Station will be phased out and shut down by the year 2000; it has
asked for financial help to achieve this goal and to provide alternative
sources of energy for its population.
Ukraine also has established a Ministry of Environment and has
introduced a pollution fee system that levies taxes on air and water
emissions and solid waste disposal. The resulting revenues are
channeled to environmental protection activities, but enforcement of
this pollution fee system is lax.
Through contacts with the countries of the West, Ukraine seeks to
increase consultation and cooperation in areas such as defense planning;
the conversion of defense production to civilian purposes; and
scientific, economic, and environmental issues.
Despite a November 1990 agreement to respect one another's sovereignty
and territorial integrity, Ukraine's relations with Russia have been
strained due to its concern over Russia's intentions. Although Ukraine
became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on
December 8, 1991, it refused in January 1993 to endorse a draft charter
strengthening political, economic, and defense ties among CIS members.
On January 31, 1992, Ukraine joined the then-Conference on Security and
Cooperation in Europe (now the Organization for Security and Cooperation
in Europe--OSCE), and on March 10, 1992, it became a member of the North
Atlantic Cooperation Council. Ukraine also is a member of Partnership
Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original members
following a compromise with the former Soviet Union, which had asked for
seats for all 15 republics. Ukraine consistently has supported
peaceful, negotiated settlements to disputes. It has participated in
the quadripartite talks on the conflict in Moldova and has sent a
battalion to serve with UN peace-keeping forces in the former
The dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991 brought an end to
the Cold War and created the opportunity to build bilateral relations
with the New Independent States (NIS) as they began a political and
economic transformation. On December 25, 1991, the United States
officially recognized the independence of Ukraine. It upgraded its
consulate in the capital, Kiev, to embassy status on January 21, 1992.
The U.S. ambassador to Ukraine is William Miller, sworn in on October
The United States attaches great importance to the success of Ukraine's
transition to a democratic state with a flourishing market economy.
Following a period of economic decline characterized by high inflation
and a continued reliance on state controls, the Ukrainian Government
under the leadership of newly elected President Leonid Kuchma began
taking steps in the fall of 1994 to reinvigorate economic reform and
achieve macro- economic stabilization. The Ukrainian Government's new
determination to implement comprehensive economic reform is a welcome
development, and the U.S. is committed to strengthening its support for
Ukraine as it embarks on this difficult path.
In January 1992, the U.S. initiated the Coordinating Conference on
Assistance to the New Independent States in response to the humanitarian
emergencies facing these states. The resulting Operation Provide Hope
supplied desperately needed food, fuel, medicine, and shelter.
A cornerstone for the continuing U.S. partnership with Ukraine and the
other NIS has been the Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian
Democracies and Open Markets (FREEDOM) Support Act, enacted in October
1992. In September 1993, a new $2.45-billion assistance package for the
NIS, funded with a combination of fiscal year (FY) 1993 and 1994
supplemental appropriations, was passed by Congress and signed into law
by President Clinton. The legislation continues to address political
and economic transformation and humanitarian needs.
The U.S. has consistently encouraged Ukraine's transition to a free,
democratic society with a prosperous market economy. Over the past
three years, the U.S. and Ukraine have signed a series of bilateral
agreements designed to enhance economic, technical, environmental, and
cultural cooperation. During the visit of former Ukrainian President
Leonid M. Kravchuk to Washington on March 3-5, 1994, he and President
Clinton reached agreement on an expanded economic assistance package
that will provide up to $700 million to Ukraine: $350 million in
technical and humanitarian assistance in FY 1994 funds; and $350 million
in Nunn-Lugar funds (FY 1992-95 funds) to assist with nuclear
dismantlement, non-proliferation programs, and industrial partnerships.
From 1992 through September 1994, the U.S. had obligated about $196
million in humanitarian assistance and $201 million in technical
assistance to Ukraine, not including nuclear weapons dismantlement
President Leonid Kuchma made a state visit to Washington, DC, November
21-23, 1994. In response to President Kuchma's commitment to work with
the International Monetary Fund and World Bank in implementing
comprehensive economic reforms, the U.S. is spearheading an effort to
mobilize international financial assistance for Ukraine. In this
context, the U.S. made an exceptional decision to provide $100 million
to help Ukraine meet its financial obligations in the first phase of the
reform program, with $72 million of that total to be structured as an
energy sector grant for the purchase of natural gas for Ukraine's winter
heating and electricity needs. Ukraine has agreed to undertake energy
sector reforms as a condition for receiving the grant.
Assistance To Support the Transition to a Market Economy. U.S.
technical assistance to support the transition to a market economy has
focused primarily on economic restructuring, development of the private
sector, and energy sector reform. Recently, the U.S. Agency for
International Development (USAID) completed the printing of millions of
certificates to support Ukraine's plan for the mass privatization of
state enterprises. U.S. advisers have provided technical assistance in
financial sector reform, tax policy and administration, bankers'
training, land legislation, small-scale and municipal services
privatization, agricultural development and agribusiness,
corporatization of the electric power sector, energy pricing and
efficiency, and public education concerning the environment. The
Western NIS Enterprise Fund, announced by President Clinton in January
1994 to promote private sector business development in Ukraine, Moldova,
and Belarus, has recently started up operations in Kiev.
The U.S. also has played a leading role in mobilizing international
support to help Ukraine cover its external financing gaps as it
implements rigorous reform under IMF programs. The U.S. contribution of
$100 million in late 1994 and pledge of $250 million in March 1995
helped leverage nearly $5 billion in IMF and other bilateral financing
and debt relief.
U.S. exchanges and training programs have enabled Ukrainians to
participate in a broad range of programs in the U.S. These include coal
mine safety, nuclear reactor safety, private land ownership and real
estate markets, local government finance, banking, tax accounting, labor
statistics, telecommunications, labor-management relations, promotion of
agricultural development, security and defense conversion, international
trade and investment, entrepreneurship and small business development,
and public health and hospital management and finance. Three medical
partnerships have been established between U.S. and Ukrainian medical
institutions. Peace Corps volunteers are working in Ukraine with a
focus on small business development and English teaching.
Funding also has been provided for studies in air traffic control and
airport construction, establishment of an agricultural center to provide
training on U.S. agricultural equipment, and the conversion of a coal-
fired power plant to gas. The U.S. has also provided grain storage
Assistance To Support the Transition to Democracy. The U.S. is
promoting Ukraine's democratic transition by supporting programs on
participatory political systems, independent media, rule of law, local
governance, and civil society, as well as a wide range of exchanges and
USAID has provided Ukraine with technical assistance related to
elections, the development of political parties and grass-roots civic
organizations, and the development of independent media. A USAID-funded
rule-of-law consortium has been working with Ukrainian officials and
non-profit organizations to create a legal system supportive of a
democratic government and a market-based economy. The rule-of-law
project has been further expanded to promote cooperation between U.S.
law enforcement agencies and their Ukrainian counterparts to reform the
criminal justice system.
As of April 1995, the U.S. Information Agency (USIA) has brought nearly
800 Ukrainians to the U.S. on academic exchanges. About 90 Ukrainian
business people, journalists, local government officials, and other
professionals have participated in other exchanges. USIA visitor
program participants included then-presidential candidate Leonid Kuchma
in April 1994. USIA visitor programs have highlighted such subjects as
economic and education reform, rule of law, and public administration.
The Department of Commerce's Special American Business Internship
Training (SABIT) program and the Department of Agriculture's (USDA)
Cochran Fellowship Program have brought nearly 100 business executives,
scientists, and agriculturalists to the U.S. for internships and
Support for the Social Sector. The U.S. is assisting Ukraine's efforts
to maximize equity in reform and to sustain social welfare and stability
during and beyond the transition. Toward this end, USAID is providing
assistance to local governments in redefining the roles of the public
and private sectors in providing social services to allow government to
focus limited resources on key social sectors. Training and technical
assistance is being provided to Ukrainian institutions and government
agencies on reforms of health care financing and delivery of medical
services. A number of medical partnerships between U.S. and Ukrainian
health care institutions have been established to improve both patient
care and institutional management. Also, USAID is providing training
and technical assistance on ways to improve reproductive health,
focusing on providing family planning services and reducing the use of
Humanitarian Assistance. Through the first half of FY 1995, the U.S.
has coordinated and funded the delivery of
$33 million in food, medical supplies, and clothing to Ukraine. This
includes a $16-million surplus Department of Defense hospital recently
delivered to Donetsk. Previously, the U.S. provided $25,000 in response
to the January 1994 flood disaster in Ukraine's Zakarpatska oblast. In
October 1993, $25,000 was provided in international disaster funding for
the drilling of water wells in the flood-stricken area of Rivne.
Operation Provide Hope has delivered food worth about $46,000 and
medicines and medical supplies worth $16 million. A large portion of
these supplies were designated for hospitals treating victims of the
Chornobyl nuclear accident. Under the Medical Assistance Initiative,
Project HOPE, a private voluntary organization, has shipped more than
$26 million worth of pharmaceutical and medical supplies to Ukraine.
In response to an epidemic of diphtheria, the U.S. sent two assessment
advisers from the Centers for Disease Control and vaccines, syringes,
and needles with a value of $1.3 million under the Emergency Medicines
Initiative. Under the Emergency Immunization Program, through Project
HOPE, measles vaccine was provided, allowing for the vaccination of all
Ukrainian children up to two years of age during 1993. In response to a
1994 request from the Ukrainian Government, the U.S. provided diphtheria
vaccines for adults and children to help Ukraine eradicate this deadly
disease. In FY 1994, USDA provided Ukraine with more than 70,000 metric
tons of food aid--valued at about $24 million--and, in FY 1995, it
will provide $25 million in PL 480 assistance.
Bilateral Trade Issues
The U.S.-Ukraine Trade Agreement, effective June 22, 1992, provides
reciprocal most-favored-nation tariff treatment to the products of each
country. Since January 1994, the Overseas Private Investment
Corporation (OPIC) has approved investment insurance totaling more than
$23 million for three projects in Ukraine. OPIC also has sponsored
conferences and exchanges to encourage joint ventures between U.S. and
Ukrainian companies. U.S. Export-Import Bank programs are currently
closed in Ukraine, but the bank is continuing to reassess Ukraine's
creditworthiness in light of recent government economic reforms with a
view to reopening lending activities as soon as possible. In March
1994, Presidents Clinton and Kravchuk signed treaties on bilateral
investment and double taxation.
In Lisbon on May 23, 1992, the United States signed a protocol to the
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) with Ukraine, Russia, Belarus,
and Kazakhstan (those states on whose territory strategic nuclear
weapons of the former Soviet Union are located). The protocol makes
each state a party to the START Treaty and commits all signatories to
reductions in strategic nuclear weapons within the seven-year period
provided for in the treaty. Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan also
agreed to join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as non-nuclear
weapons states. The treaty entered into force on December 5, 1994, the
same day Ukraine acceded to the NPT.
The U.S. has pledged to provide about $300 million to Ukraine under the
Nunn-Lugar program to assist in the dismantlement of strategic offensive
arms ($205 million), defense conversion ($40 million), and nuclear
material protection ($12.5 million). The U.S. also has pledged $10
million to assist in the establishment of a Science and Technology
Center designed to provide peaceful employment opportunities to
scientists and engineers formerly involved with weapons of mass
destruction and their delivery systems.
Principal U.S. Embassy Officials
Ambassador--William Green Miller
Deputy Chief of Mission--James Schumaker
Political Counselor--Bruce Connuck
Economic Counselor--Natalie Jaresko
Commercial Officer--Stephen Wasylko
Consular Officer--Jill Byrnes
Administrative Officer--David Wick
Public Affairs Officer--John Brown
The U.S. embassy in Kiev is at 10 Yuria Kotsyubinskovo, 25203 (tel. 
Published by the United States Department of State -- Bureau of Public
Affairs -- Office of Public Communication -- Washington, DC --
Managing Editor, Background Notes Series: Peter A. Knecht -- Editor,
April 1995 Ukraine: Marilyn J. Bremner -- This material is in the
public domain and can be reproduced without consent; citation of this
source is appreciated.
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