U.S. Department of State 
Background Notes:  Ukraine, April 1995 
Bureau of Public Affairs 
April 1995 
Official Name:  Ukraine 
Area:  233,000 sq. mi..   
Capital:   Kiev (pop. 2.6 million); other cities:  Kharkiv (1.6 
million), Lviv (800,000).     
Terrain:  A vast plan bounded by the Carpathian mountains in the 
southwest and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov in the South. 
Climate:  Continental temperate. 
Population (est.):  52 million. 
Nationality:  Noun--Ukrainian(s); adjective--Ukrainian. 
Ethnic groups:  Ukrainian, Russian, Jews, Belarussian, Moldovans, 
Bulgarians, Poles, Hungarians, Romanians. 
Languages:  Ukrainian, Russian. 
Education:  Literacy--100%. 
Health:  Infant mortality rate--21/1,000.  Life expectancy--65 yrs. 
males, 75 yrs. females.  
Work force:  24 million.  Industry and construction--33%.  Agriculture 
and forestry--21%.  Health, education, and culture--16%.  Transport and 
Type:  Parliamentary. 
Independence:  August 24, 1991. 
Constitution:  Using the 1977 Soviet constitution; a 40-member 
constitutional commission is working on a new draft.  
Branches:  Executive--president, prime minister, cabinet.  Legislative--
450-member parliament, the Supreme Rada (members elected to five-year 
terms).  Judicial--people's courts, provincial courts, Supreme Court. 
Political parties:  Congress of National Democratic Forces, New Ukraine, 
Civic Congress. 
Suffrage:  Universal at 18.  
Administrative subdivisions:  24 provinces and 1 autonomous republic. 
GDP (est):  $204 billion. 
Annual growth rate:  -14.2%. 
Per capita income:  $3,900. 
Natural resources:  Vast fertile lands, coal, natural gas, various large 
mineral deposits, timber. 
Agriculture:  Products--Grain, sugar. 
Industry:  Types--Ferrous metals and products, coke, fertilizer, 
metallurgical equipment, diesel locomotives, tractors. 
Trade:  Exports--$12.7 billion:  coal, electric power, ferrous and non-
ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, and transport equipment.  Imports-
-$15.3 billion:  Machinery and parts, transportation equipment, 
chemicals, textiles. 
The population of Ukraine is about 52 million, which represents about 
18% of the population of the former Soviet Union.  Ukrainians make up 
about 73% of the total; ethnic Russians number about 20%.  The 
industrial regions in the east and southeast are the most heavily 
populated, and the urban population makes up about 70% of the 
population.  Ukrainian and Russian are the principal languages, but 
about 88% of the population consider Ukrainian their native language.  
The dominant religions are the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and the 
Ukrainian Orthodox Church, which retains its links to the Russian 
Orthodox Church.  The Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church is 
nationalist oriented and independent of Moscow.   
The birth rate of Ukraine is diminishing.  About 70% of adult Ukrainians 
have a secondary or higher education.  Ukraine has about 150 colleges 
and universities, of which the most important are at Kiev, Lviv, and 
Kharkiv.  About 70,000 scholars in 80 research institutes make Ukraine a 
leader in science and technology. 
The first identifiable groups to populate what is now Ukraine were 
Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, and Goths, among other nomadic 
peoples who arrived throughout the first millennium B.C.  These people 
were well known to colonists and traders in the ancient world, including 
Greeks and Romans, who established trading outposts which eventually 
became city states.  Slavic tribes occupied eastern Ukraine in the sixth 
century A.D. and established Kiev.  Situated on lucrative trade routes, 
Kiev quickly prospered as the center of a powerful state, Rus.  In the 
11th century, Kievan Rus was, geographically, the largest state in 
A Christian missionary, Cyril, converted the Kievan nobility in 988.  
Conflict among the feudal lords led to decline in the 12th century.  
Kiev was razed by Mongol raiders in the 12th century. 
The territory was annexed by Poland and Lithuania in the 14th century, 
but during that time, the Ukrainian people began to conceive of 
themselves as a distinct people, a feeling which survived subsequent 
partitioning by greater powers over the next centuries.  In addition, 
Ukrainian peasants who fled the Polish effort to force them into 
servitude came to be known as Cossacks and earned a reputation for their 
fierce martial spirit.   
In 1667, Ukraine was partitioned between Poland and Russia.  In 1793, it 
was reunited as part of the Russian Empire.   
The 19th century found the region largely agricultural, with a few 
cities and centers of trade and learning.  The region was under the 
control of the Austrians in the west and the Russians in the east.  
Ukrainian writers and intellectuals were inspired by the nationalistic 
spirit stirring other European peoples existing under other imperial 
governments and were determined to revive Ukrainian linguistic and 
cultural traditions and re-establish a Ukrainian nation-state.  The 
Russians in particular imposed strict limits on attempts to elevate 
Ukrainian language and culture. 
When World War I and the Bolshevik revolution in Russia shattered the 
Hapsburg and Russian empires, Ukrainians declared independent statehood.  
In 1917 and 1918, three separate Ukrainian republics declared 
independence.  However, by 1921, the western part of the traditional 
territory had been incorporated into Poland, and the larger, eastern 
part became part of the Soviet Union. 
Ukrainian nationalism continued during the interwar years, and Soviet 
reaction was severe, particularly under Stalin, who imposed terror 
campaigns, which ravaged the intellectual class.  He also created 
artificial famines as part of his forced collectivization policies, 
which killed millions of previously independent peasants and others 
throughout the country.  Estimates of deaths from the 1932-33 famine 
alone range from 3 million to 7 million. 
After the German and Soviet invasions of Poland in 1939, the western 
regions of the former Ukrainian state were incorporated into the Soviet 
Union.  When the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, many 
Ukrainians welcomed them.  German brutality was directed principally 
against Ukraine's Jews (of whom 1 million were killed) but also against 
many other Ukrainians.  Kiev and other parts of the country were heavily 
damaged.  Ukrainians soon resisted the Germans as well as the Soviets.  
Resistance against Soviet Government forces continued as late as 1953, 
when the death of Stalin brought some relaxation of repression. 
Little changed for Ukraine over the next decades.  During periods of 
relative liberalization--as under Nikita Khrushchev from 1955 to 1964--
Ukrainian communists pursued national objectives.  In the years of 
perestroika, under U.S.S.R. President Mikhail Gorbachev, national goals 
were again advanced by Ukrainian officials.   
Ukraine became an independent state on August 24, 1991, following the 
dissolution of the Soviet Union, and was a founding member of the 
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). 
Ukraine is a parliamentary democracy with separate executive, judicial, 
and legislative branches.  The president nominates the prime minister 
and members of the cabinet, who must be confirmed by the parliament.  
The 450-member parliament (Supreme Rada) initiates legislation, ratifies 
international agreements, and approves the budget.  Its members were 
elected to five-year terms in 1994.  Following free elections held on 
December 1, 1991, Leonid M. Kravchuk, former Chairman of the Ukrainian 
Supreme Soviet, was elected president for a five-year term.  At the same 
time, a referendum on independence was approved by more than 90% of the 
Political groupings in Ukraine include former communists, Rukh 
nationalists, the Congress of National Democratic  Forces, "New Ukraine" 
(combining economic reformers and environmentalists), and the Civic 
Congress, which supports a federated structure and closer ties to Russia 
within the CIS.   
Since becoming independent, Ukraine has named a parliamentary commission 
to prepare a new constitution, has adopted a multi-party system, and has 
adopted legislative guarantees of civil and political rights for 
national minorities.  New parliamentary elections were scheduled to take 
place following ratification of the new constitution, but criticism of 
the draft constitution's allocation of presidential authority resulted 
in its being referred to the parliament's constitutional committee.  A 
coalition of parties, including the Rukh and New Ukraine parties, failed 
to obtain sufficient support for a referendum to force parliamentary 
elections in early 1993. 
In 1992, the parliament granted extraordinary powers to the executive 
branch to manage economic and administrative reforms. 
Freedom of speech and press are not legally protected.  Most newspapers 
receive state subsidies and are reluctant to publish information 
critical of government policies.  State radio and television tend to be 
censored, and there are regulations concerning the kind of material 
which can be broadcast.   
Legislation governing public assembly stipulates that organizations must 
apply to the respective local administration 10 days before a planned 
demonstration.  A 1992 law prohibits the state from financing  political 
parties and other public organizations and restricts members of the 
police,  armed forces, and executive branch officials from joining 
political parties.  
Freedom of religion is guaranteed by law, although religious 
organizations are required to register with local authorities and with 
the government's Council of Religious Affairs.  Minority rights are 
respected in accordance with a 1991 law guaranteeing ethnic minorities 
the right to schools and cultural facilities and the use of national 
languages in conducting personal business.  In Crimea and eastern 
Ukraine--areas with significant Russian minorities--Russian is permitted 
as a language of official correspondence.  It is also recognized as an 
official language in Crimea. 
Ethnic tensions in Crimea during 1992 prompted a number of pro-Russian 
political organizations to advocate secession of Crimea and annexation 
to Russia.  Crimea was ceded to Ukraine in 1954, as a gift from 
Khrushchev to mark the 300th anniversary of Ukrainian union with Russia.  
In July 1992, the Crimean and Ukrainian parliaments determined that in 
return for political, cultural, and economic autonomy, Crimea would 
remain under Ukrainian jurisdiction. 
Crimea held its first presidential elections in January 1994, electing 
Yuriy Meshkov, a Republican Party of Crimea member advocating closer 
ties to Russia.  The results of a non-binding poll on March 27, 1994, 
demonstrated voters' overwhelming support for greater powers for 
Meshkov, dual Russian-Ukrainian citizenship for Crimeans, and a treaty 
to govern relations between Crimea and Ukraine on a more equal basis.  
However, on March 17, 1995, the Rada abolished the 1992 Crimean 
constitution and dissolved the post of president of Crimea held by 
The court system follows the Soviet model with local or people's courts, 
provincial courts, and a Supreme Court.  Parliament currently is 
reviewing the division of roles between the Supreme Court and the 
Constitutional Court.  
Official trade unions have been grouped under the Federation of Trade 
Unions.  A number of independent unions, which emerged during 1992, have 
formed the Consultative Council of Free Trade Unions.  While the right 
to strike is legally guaranteed, strikes based solely on political 
demands are prohibited.  A National Mediation and Reconciliation Service 
exists to regulate disputes between management and labor which cannot be 
resolved at the enterprise level.  A new law on trade unions is under 
Security forces are controlled by the president, although they are 
subject to investigation by a permanent parliamentary commission.  
Surveillance is permitted for reasons of national security. 
Ukraine has established its own  military forces of about 500,000 from 
the troops and equipment inherited from the former Soviet Union.  It 
aims to reduce the force to between 250,000-300,000 by the end of the 
Principal Government Officials 
President--Leonid Kuchma 
Acting Prime Minister--Yevhen Marchuk 
Foreign Minister--Hennadiy Udovenko 
Ukraine maintains an embassy at 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007 
(tel. 202-333-0606) 
Ukraine has many of the components of a major European economy--rich 
farmlands, a well-developed industrial base, highly trained labor, and a 
good education system.  Significant difficulties lie ahead, however.  At 
present, the economy is in poor condition.  Price increases for energy 
supplies from Russia and irresponsible credit policies by the previous 
government have led to hyperinflation.  Production continues to drop, 
with overall GDP falling by 20% in 1993.  The financial system is in 
disarray.  The Ukrainian coupon exchange rate--900 to the dollar in 
February 1993--dropped to less than 85,000 to the dollar in 1994.   
Most Ukrainian trade is with countries of the former Soviet Union, 
principally  Russia.  Demand for Ukraine's non-agricultural exports--
ferrous metals, steel pipe, machinery, and transport equipment--
continues to fall.  Forced to pay high prices for fuel, Ukraine 
continues to run large, unsustainable trade deficits.  Ukraine's trade 
deficit with Russia was more than $1.5 billion in 1993. 
Ukraine's dependence on Russian fuel supplies has crippled its economy.  
Ukraine imports 90% of its oil and most of its natural gas from Russia.  
During 1993, Russia raised fuel prices (although still significantly 
below world market prices) and reduced deliveries to one-half of the 
1992 level.  Ukrainian authorities have been forced to cut supplies to 
industrial enterprises by 40%, reduce transport services by one-third, 
and use rolling brownouts in major cities to maintain service. 
In early 1995, the government began to implement an ambitious 
privatization program which should transfer ownership of 8,000 medium 
and large-scale enterprises to private hands.  The International 
Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a $1.5-billion stand-by arrangement with 
the Government of Ukraine which should serve as the basis for continuing 
comprehensive economic reform. 
 Ukraine encourages foreign trade and investment.  The parliament has 
approved a foreign investment law allowing Westerners to purchase 
businesses and property, to repatriate revenue and profits, and to 
receive compensation in the event that property is nationalized by a 
future government.  
Ukraine is rich in natural resources.  It has a major ferrous metal 
industry, producing cast iron, steel, and steel pipe, and its chemical 
industry produces coke, mineral fertilizers, and sulfuric acid.  
Manufactured goods include metallurgical equipment, diesel locomotives, 
and tractors.   
It also is a major producer of grain and sugar and possesses a broad 
industrial base, including much of the former U.S.S.R.'s space industry.  
Although oil reserves are largely exhausted, it has important energy 
sources, such as coal and natural gas, and large mineral deposits. 
In 1992, Ukraine became a member of the International Monetary Fund and 
the World Bank.  It is a member of the European Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development but not a member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade/World Trade Organization.  
Environmental Issues 
Ukraine is interested in cooperating on regional environmental issues.  
Conservation of natural resources is a high priority.  It established 
its first nature preserve, Askanyia-Nova, in 1921 and has a program to 
breed endangered species. 
However, the country has significant environmental problems resulting 
from the Chornobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986 and from 
industrial pollution.  Ukraine has announced that the Chornobyl Atomic 
Energy Station will be phased out and shut down by the year 2000; it has 
asked for financial help to achieve this goal and to provide alternative 
sources of energy for its population. 
Ukraine also has established a Ministry of Environment and has 
introduced a pollution fee system that levies taxes on air and water 
emissions and solid waste disposal.  The resulting revenues are 
channeled to environmental protection activities, but enforcement of 
this pollution fee system is lax.   
Through contacts with the countries of the West, Ukraine seeks to 
increase consultation and cooperation in areas such as defense planning; 
the conversion of defense production to civilian purposes; and 
scientific, economic, and environmental issues. 
Despite a November 1990 agreement to respect one another's sovereignty 
and territorial integrity, Ukraine's relations with Russia have been 
strained due to its  concern over Russia's intentions.  Although Ukraine 
became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on 
December 8, 1991, it refused in January 1993 to endorse a draft charter 
strengthening political, economic, and defense ties among CIS members. 
On January 31, 1992, Ukraine joined the then-Conference on Security and 
Cooperation in Europe (now the Organization for Security and Cooperation 
in Europe--OSCE), and on March 10, 1992, it became a member of the North 
Atlantic Cooperation Council.  Ukraine also is a member of Partnership 
for Peace. 
Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original members 
following a compromise with the former Soviet Union, which had asked for 
seats for all 15 republics.  Ukraine consistently has supported 
peaceful, negotiated settlements to disputes.  It has participated in 
the quadripartite talks on the conflict in Moldova and has sent a 
battalion to serve with UN peace-keeping forces in the former 
The dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991 brought an end to 
the Cold War and created the opportunity to build bilateral relations 
with the New Independent States (NIS) as they began a political and 
economic transformation.  On December 25, 1991, the United States 
officially recognized the independence of Ukraine.  It upgraded its 
consulate in the capital, Kiev, to embassy status on January 21, 1992.  
The U.S. ambassador to Ukraine is William Miller, sworn in on October 
13, 1993. 
The United States attaches great importance to the success of Ukraine's 
transition to a democratic state with a flourishing market economy.  
Following a period of economic decline characterized by high inflation 
and a continued reliance on state controls, the Ukrainian Government 
under the leadership of newly elected President Leonid Kuchma began 
taking steps in the fall of 1994 to reinvigorate economic reform and 
achieve macro- economic stabilization.  The Ukrainian Government's new 
determination to implement comprehensive economic reform is a welcome 
development, and the U.S. is committed to strengthening its support for 
Ukraine as it embarks on this difficult path.  
In January 1992, the U.S. initiated the Coordinating Conference on 
Assistance to the New Independent States in response to the humanitarian 
emergencies facing these states.  The resulting Operation Provide Hope 
supplied desperately needed food, fuel, medicine, and shelter.  
A cornerstone for the continuing U.S. partnership with Ukraine and the 
other NIS has been the Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian 
Democracies and Open Markets (FREEDOM) Support Act, enacted in October 
1992.  In September 1993, a new $2.45-billion assistance package for the 
NIS, funded with a combination of fiscal year (FY) 1993 and 1994 
supplemental appropriations, was passed by Congress and signed into law 
by President Clinton.  The legislation continues to address political 
and economic transformation and humanitarian needs. 
The U.S. has consistently encouraged Ukraine's transition to a free, 
democratic society with a prosperous market economy.  Over the past 
three years, the U.S. and Ukraine have signed a series of bilateral 
agreements designed to enhance economic, technical, environmental, and 
cultural cooperation.  During the visit of former Ukrainian President 
Leonid M. Kravchuk to Washington on March 3-5, 1994, he and President 
Clinton reached agreement on an expanded economic assistance package 
that will provide up to $700 million to Ukraine:  $350 million in 
technical and humanitarian assistance in FY 1994 funds; and $350 million 
in Nunn-Lugar funds (FY 1992-95 funds) to assist with nuclear 
dismantlement, non-proliferation programs, and industrial partnerships.  
From 1992 through September 1994, the U.S. had obligated about $196 
million in humanitarian assistance and $201 million in technical 
assistance to Ukraine, not including nuclear weapons dismantlement 
President Leonid Kuchma made a state visit to Washington, DC, November 
21-23, 1994.  In response to President Kuchma's commitment to work with 
the International Monetary Fund and World Bank in implementing 
comprehensive economic reforms, the U.S. is spearheading an effort to 
mobilize international financial assistance for Ukraine.  In this 
context, the U.S. made an exceptional decision to provide $100 million 
to help Ukraine meet its financial obligations in the first phase of the 
reform program, with $72 million of that total to be structured as an 
energy sector grant for the purchase of natural gas for Ukraine's winter 
heating and electricity needs.  Ukraine has agreed to undertake energy 
sector reforms as a condition for receiving the grant. 
Assistance To Support the Transition to a Market Economy.  U.S. 
technical assistance to support the transition to a market economy has 
focused primarily on economic restructuring, development of the private 
sector, and energy sector reform.  Recently, the U.S. Agency for 
International Development (USAID) completed the printing of millions of 
certificates to support Ukraine's plan for the mass privatization of 
state enterprises.  U.S. advisers have provided technical assistance in 
financial sector reform, tax policy and administration, bankers' 
training, land legislation, small-scale and municipal services 
privatization, agricultural development and agribusiness, 
corporatization of the electric power sector, energy pricing and 
efficiency, and public education concerning the environment.  The 
Western NIS Enterprise Fund, announced by President Clinton in January 
1994 to promote private sector business development in Ukraine, Moldova, 
and Belarus, has recently started up operations in Kiev. 
The U.S. also has played a leading role in mobilizing international 
support to help Ukraine cover its external financing gaps as it 
implements rigorous reform under IMF programs.  The U.S. contribution of 
$100 million in late 1994 and pledge of  $250 million in March 1995 
helped leverage nearly $5 billion in IMF and other bilateral financing 
and debt relief. 
U.S. exchanges and training programs have enabled Ukrainians to 
participate in a broad range of programs in the U.S.  These include coal 
mine safety, nuclear reactor safety, private land ownership and real 
estate markets, local government finance, banking, tax accounting, labor 
statistics, telecommunications, labor-management relations, promotion of 
agricultural development, security and defense conversion, international 
trade and investment, entrepreneurship and small business development, 
and public health and hospital management and finance.  Three medical 
partnerships have been established between U.S. and Ukrainian medical 
institutions.  Peace Corps volunteers are working in Ukraine with a 
focus on small business development and English teaching. 
Funding also has been provided for studies in air traffic control and 
airport construction, establishment of an agricultural center to provide 
training on U.S. agricultural equipment, and the conversion of a coal-
fired power plant to gas.  The U.S. has also provided grain storage 
Assistance To Support the Transition to Democracy.  The U.S. is 
promoting Ukraine's democratic transition by supporting programs on 
participatory  political systems, independent media, rule of law, local 
governance, and civil society, as well as a wide range of exchanges and 
USAID has provided Ukraine with technical assistance related to 
elections, the development of political parties and grass-roots civic 
organizations, and the development of independent media.  A USAID-funded 
rule-of-law consortium has been working with Ukrainian officials and 
non-profit organizations to create a legal system supportive of a 
democratic government and a market-based economy.  The rule-of-law 
project has been further expanded to promote cooperation between U.S. 
law enforcement agencies and their Ukrainian counterparts to reform the 
criminal justice system. 
As of April 1995, the U.S. Information Agency (USIA) has brought nearly 
800 Ukrainians to the U.S. on academic exchanges.  About 90 Ukrainian 
business people, journalists, local government officials, and other 
professionals have participated in other exchanges.  USIA visitor 
program participants included then-presidential candidate Leonid Kuchma 
in April 1994.  USIA visitor programs have highlighted such subjects as 
economic and education reform, rule of law, and public administration. 
The Department of Commerce's Special American Business Internship 
Training (SABIT) program and the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 
Cochran Fellowship Program have brought nearly 100 business executives, 
scientists, and agriculturalists to the U.S. for internships and 
training programs. 
Support for the Social Sector.  The U.S. is assisting Ukraine's efforts 
to maximize equity in reform and to sustain social welfare and stability 
during and beyond the transition.  Toward this end, USAID is providing 
assistance to local governments in redefining the roles of the public 
and private sectors in providing social services to allow government to 
focus limited resources on key social sectors.  Training and technical 
assistance is being provided to Ukrainian institutions and government 
agencies on reforms of health care financing and delivery of medical 
services.  A number of medical partnerships between U.S. and Ukrainian 
health care institutions have been established to improve both patient 
care and institutional management.  Also, USAID is providing training 
and technical assistance on ways to improve reproductive health, 
focusing on providing family planning services and reducing the use of 
Humanitarian Assistance.  Through the first half of FY 1995, the U.S. 
has coordinated and funded the delivery of  
$33 million in food, medical supplies, and clothing to Ukraine.  This 
includes a $16-million surplus Department of Defense hospital recently 
delivered to Donetsk.  Previously, the U.S. provided $25,000 in response 
to the January 1994 flood disaster in Ukraine's Zakarpatska oblast.  In 
October 1993, $25,000 was provided in international disaster funding for 
the drilling of water wells in the flood-stricken area of Rivne. 
Operation Provide Hope has delivered food worth about $46,000 and 
medicines and medical supplies worth $16 million.  A large portion of 
these supplies were designated for hospitals treating victims of the 
Chornobyl nuclear accident.  Under the Medical Assistance Initiative, 
Project HOPE, a private voluntary organization, has shipped more than 
$26 million worth of pharmaceutical and medical supplies to Ukraine. 
In response to an epidemic of diphtheria, the U.S. sent two assessment 
advisers from the Centers for Disease Control and vaccines, syringes, 
and needles with a value of $1.3 million under the Emergency Medicines 
Initiative.  Under the Emergency Immunization Program, through Project 
HOPE, measles vaccine was provided, allowing for the vaccination of all 
Ukrainian children up to two years of age during 1993.  In response to a 
1994 request from the Ukrainian Government, the U.S. provided diphtheria 
vaccines for adults and children to help Ukraine eradicate this deadly 
disease.  In FY 1994, USDA provided Ukraine with more than 70,000 metric 
tons of food aid--valued at about   $24 million--and, in FY 1995, it 
will provide $25 million in PL 480 assistance. 
Bilateral Trade Issues  
The U.S.-Ukraine Trade Agreement, effective June 22, 1992, provides 
reciprocal most-favored-nation tariff treatment to the products of each 
country.  Since January 1994, the Overseas Private Investment 
Corporation (OPIC) has approved investment insurance totaling more than 
$23 million for three projects in Ukraine.  OPIC also has sponsored 
conferences and exchanges to encourage joint ventures between U.S. and 
Ukrainian companies.  U.S. Export-Import Bank programs are currently 
closed in Ukraine, but the bank is continuing to reassess Ukraine's 
creditworthiness in light of recent government economic reforms with a 
view to reopening lending activities as soon as possible.  In March 
1994, Presidents Clinton and Kravchuk signed treaties on bilateral 
investment and double taxation. 
Security Issues 
In  Lisbon on May 23, 1992, the United States signed a protocol to the 
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) with Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, 
and Kazakhstan (those states on whose territory strategic nuclear 
weapons of the former Soviet Union are located).  The protocol makes 
each state a party to the START Treaty and commits all signatories to 
reductions in strategic nuclear weapons within the seven-year period 
provided for in the treaty.  Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan also 
agreed to join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as non-nuclear 
weapons states.  The treaty entered into force on December 5, 1994, the 
same day Ukraine acceded to the NPT. 
The U.S. has pledged to provide about $300 million to Ukraine under the 
Nunn-Lugar program to assist in the dismantlement of strategic offensive 
arms ($205 million), defense conversion ($40 million), and nuclear 
material protection ($12.5 million).  The U.S. also has pledged $10 
million to assist in the establishment of a Science and Technology 
Center designed to provide peaceful employment opportunities to 
scientists and engineers formerly involved with weapons of mass 
destruction and their delivery systems.  
Principal U.S. Embassy Officials 
Ambassador--William Green Miller 
Deputy Chief of Mission--James Schumaker 
Political Counselor--Bruce Connuck 
Economic Counselor--Natalie Jaresko 
Commercial Officer--Stephen Wasylko 
Consular Officer--Jill Byrnes 
Administrative Officer--David Wick 
Public Affairs Officer--John Brown 
USAID--Terrence McMahon 
The U.S. embassy in Kiev is at 10 Yuria Kotsyubinskovo, 25203 (tel. [7] 
(044) 244-7349). 
Published by the United States Department of State  --  Bureau of Public 
Affairs  --  Office of Public Communication  --  Washington, DC  --  
Managing Editor, Background Notes Series:  Peter A. Knecht  --  Editor, 
April 1995 Ukraine:  Marilyn J. Bremner  --  This material is in the 
public domain and can be reproduced without consent; citation of this 
source is appreciated.  
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