Background Notes:  Turkey, February 1999 

Released by the Bureau of European Affairs,
U.S. Department of State


Official Name: Republic of Turkey

PROFILE 

Geography 

Area:  766,640 sq. km. (296,000 sq. mi.); slightly larger than Texas.
Cities: Capital-Ankara (pop. 3.69 million).  Other cities -- Istanbul 
(6.82 million), Izmir (2.61 million), Adana (1.93 million).
Terrain: Narrow coastal plain surrounds Anatolia; an inland plateau 
becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.  Turkey includes 
one of the more earthquake-prone areas of the world.
Climate:  Moderate in coastal areas, harsher temperatures inland. 

People

Nationality:  Noun -- Turk(s).  Adjective -- Turkish.
Population (1996): 64 million.
Annual growth rate: 5%.
Ethnic groups: Turkish, Kurdish, other.
Religions:  Muslim 98%, Christian, and Jewish.  Languages:  Turkish 
(official), Kurdish, and Arabic.
Education:  Years compulsory -- 8.  Attendance -- 95%.  Literacy -- 
82%.
Health:  Infant mortality rate -- 40.7/1,000.  Life expectancy -- 72 
yrs.
Work force (22.7 million): Agriculture -- 40%.  Industry and commerce-
16%.  Services -- 38%.

Government

Type:  Republic.  

Independence:  1923.

Constitution:  November 7, 1982.  

Branches:  Executive -- President (chief of state), Prime Minister, 
Council of Ministers (cabinet).  Legislative -- Grand National Assembly 
(550 members) chosen by national elections at least every 5 years. 
Judicial -- Constitutional Court, Court of Cassation, Council of State, 
and other courts.
Political parties: Motherland Party (ANAP), Virtue (Fazilet) Party, 
True Path Party (DYP), Democratic Left Party (DSP), Republican Peoples 
Party (CHP) several smaller parties.

Suffrage:  Universal, 21 and older.





National holiday: Republic Day, October 29.

Flag:  White crescent and star on a red field. 

Economy

GNP (1998 est.):  $208 billion.
Annual growth rate (1998): 4.5%.

GNP per capita:  $3200. 

Average annual inflation rate (1998): 75%. 

Natural resources: Coal, chromite, copper, boron, oil.

Agriculture (13% of GNP): Major cash crops -- cotton, sugar beets, 
hazelnuts, wheat, barley, and tobacco.  Provides more than 47% of jobs, 
12% of exports.

Industry (29% of GNP): Major growth sector.  Types -- Food processing, 
textiles, basic metals, chemicals, and petrochemicals. 

Trade (1997 est.): Exports -- $26.2 billion: textiles and apparel, iron 
and steel, electronics, tobacco, motor vehicles.  Imports -- $48.6 
billion: petroleum, machinery, motor vehicles, electronics, iron and 
steel, plastics. 
Major partners -- France, Germany, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, 
Netherlands, U.K., U.S., Russia. 






PEOPLE

Bridging Europe and Asia Minor, Turkey is a land of geographic, 
economic, and social contrasts.  Slightly larger than Texas, modern 
Turkey spans bustling cosmopolitan centers, pastoral farming villages, 
barren wastelands, peaceful Aegean coastlines, and steep mountain 
regions.  More than half of Turkey's population live in urban areas 
that juxtapose Western life-styles with traditional-style mosques and 
markets that ring the cities' edges.  Most Turks, however, work in 
agriculture.  Although Turkey is still a developing country,  recent 
improvements in services have resulted in the proliferation of 
electricity nationwide and telephone connections for all its 34,500 
villages. 

Although 98% of the population is Muslim, Turkey has been officially 
secular since the early 1920s.  Most Turkish Muslims belong to the 
Sunni branch of Islam.  The growing appeal of political Islam and the 
Kurdish insurgency continue to fuel public debate on several aspects of 
Turkish society including the role of religion, the necessity for human 
rights protections, and the expectation of security.  

Turks of Kurdish origin constitute an ethnic and linguistic group.  
Estimates of their population range up to 10 million.  Although an 
increasing number have migrated to the cities, the traditional home of 
the Kurds is in poor, remote areas of the east and southeast, where 
incomes are less than half the national average and all other economic 
and social indicators lag.


Turkish culture, rich in Ottoman and folkloric elements, is traditional 
and modern.  Turkish carpet weaving is one of the oldest crafts in the 
world.  Ceramics and other Ottoman-era crafts retain their varied 
regional character. 

Modern Turkish cultural life dates from the 1923 founding of the 
republic and early efforts to Westernize Turkish society.  As a result, 
the arts, literature, drama, and classical and contemporary music have 
flourished.  State support of cultural activities is extensive and 
encompasses a national network of theaters, orchestras, opera and 
ballet companies, university fine arts academies, and various 
conservatories.  Public funds also are used to provide partial support 
for private theater groups and for major art exhibits and festivals.

HISTORY

The legendary Mustafa Kemal, a Turkish World War I hero later known as 
"Ataturk" or "father of the Turks," founded the Republic of Turkey in 
1923 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman Empire.  The 
empire, which at its peak controlled vast stretches of northern Africa, 
southeastern Europe, and western Asia, had failed to keep pace with 
European social and technological developments.  The rise of 
nationalism impelled several ethnic groups to seek independence, 
leading to the empire's fragmentation.  This process culminated in the 
disastrous Ottoman participation in World War I as a German ally.  
Defeated, shorn of much of its former territory, and partly occupied by 
forces of the victorious European states, the Ottoman structure was 
repudiated by Turkish nationalists who rallied under Ataturk's 
leadership.  The nationalists expelled invading Greek forces from 
Anatolia after a bitter war.  The temporal and religious ruling 
institutions of the old empire (the sultanate and caliphate) were 
abolished.

The new republic concentrated on westernizing the empire's Turkish core 
-- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace.  Social, political, linguistic, 
and economic reforms and attitudes introduced by Ataturk before his 
death in 1938 continue to form the ideological base of modern Turkey.  
Referred to as "Kemalism," it comprises secularism, nationalism, and 
modernization and turns toward the West for inspiration and support.  
The continued validity and applicability of Kemalism are the subject of 
frequent discussion and debate in Turkey's political life.

Turkey entered World War II on the allied side shortly before the war 
ended and became a charter member of the United Nations.  Difficulties 
faced by Greece after World War II in quelling a Communist rebellion 
and demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish 
Straits caused the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 
1947.  The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the 
security of Turkey and Greece and resulted in large-scale U.S. military 
and economic aid.  After participating with United Nations forces in 
the Korean conflict, Turkey in 1952 joined the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization (NATO).

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary 
form of government with a strengthened presidency.  It provides for an 
independent judiciary and safeguards internationally recognized human 
rights.  These rights, including freedom of thought, expression, 
assembly, and travel, can be limited in times of emergency and cannot 
be used to violate the integrity of the state or to impose a system of 
government based on religion, ethnicity, or the domination of one 
social class.  The constitution prohibits torture or ill treatment.  
Labor rights, including the right to strike, are recognized in the 
constitution but can be restricted.  The President and the Council of 
Ministers led by the Prime Minister share executive powers.  The 
President, who has broad powers of appointment and supervision, is 
chosen by the GNA for a term of 7 years and cannot be reelected.  The 
Prime Minister administers the government.  The Prime Minister and the 
Council of Ministers are responsible to the GNA. 

The 550-member GNA carries out legislative functions.  Election is by 
proportional representation. To participate in the distribution of 
seats, a party must obtain at least 10% of the votes cast at the 
national level as well as a percentage of votes in  the contested 
district according to a complex formula.  This "double threshold" or 
"barrage" mechanism is intended to reduce the likelihood of coalition 
governments by reducing the number of smaller parties in parliament.

The President is to enact laws passed by the GNA within 15 days.  With 
the exception of budgetary laws, the President may return a law to the 
GNA for reconsideration.  If the GNA reenacts the law, it is binding.  
Constitutional amendments require a two-thirds majority for approval.  
They also may be submitted to popular referendum. 

The 1982 constitution preserves the judicial system previously in 
effect and provides for a system of State Security Courts to deal with 
offenses against the integrity of the state.  The high court system 
remains in place with its functional division, common in European 
states, including a Constitutional Court responsible for judicial 
review of legislation, a Court of Cassation (or supreme court of 
appeals), a Council of State serving as the high administrative and 
appeals court, a Court of Accounts, and a Military Court of Appeals.  
The High Council of Judges and Prosecutors, appointed by the President, 
supervises the judiciary. 


Modern Turkey has a democratic tradition marred by several periods of 
instability and authoritarian rule. One-party rule (Republican People's 
Party-CHP) established by Ataturk in 1923 lasted until elections in 
1950.  The Democrat Party then governed Turkey until 1960, when growing 
economic problems and internal political tensions culminated in a 
military coup.  A new constitution was written, and civilian government 
was reinstated with the convening of the Grand National Assembly (GNA) 
in 1961.  This constitution established a National Security Council 
(NSC) composed of the President, the Prime Minister, other key 
ministers, and the Chief of the Turkish General Staff and 
representatives of the army, air force, and navy.

Coalition governments, dominated by the CHP, ruled Turkey for the next 
5 years.  In 1965 and 1969, the Justice Party (JP), led by Suleyman 
Demirel, won sizable majorities of GNA seats and ruled alone.

Political agitation surfaced in 1968 and increased as left- and right-
wing extremists took to the streets.  In March 1971, senior military 
leaders grew dissatisfied with the JP's inability to cope with domestic 
violence. In a so-called "coup by memorandum," they called for the JP's 
replacement by a more effective government.

Demirel's government resigned and was replaced by a succession of 
"above party" governments, which ruled until the October 1973 general 
elections.  Those elections saw the CHP reemerge as the largest party 
and its chairman, Bulent Ecevit, become Prime Minister of a coalition 
government composed of the CHP and the conservative, religiously 
oriented, National Salvation Party.  In 1974, the coalition faltered.  
Ecevit resigned, early elections were called, and a prolonged 
government crisis ensued.

From 1975 to 1980, unstable coalition governments ruled, led 
alternately by Demirel and Ecevit.  By the end of 1979, an accelerating 
decline in the economy, coupled with mounting violence from the extreme 
left and right, led to increasing instability. Demirel's government 
began an economic stabilization program in early 1980, but by summer, 
political violence was claiming more than 20 victims daily. A severely 
divided GNA was unable to elect a new president or to pass other 
legislation to cope with the crisis. 

On September 12, 1980, the CNS ("Council of National Security"), led by 
General Kenan Evren, moved successfully to restore public order.  
Thousands of terrorists were captured, along with large caches of 
weapons and ammunition.  While political activity was banned and the 
former political parties dissolved, the CNS initiated steps to restore 
democratic civilian rule by 1983. These measures included a national 
referendum on November 7, 1982, which resulted in overwhelming public 
approval (91%) of a new constitution drawn up by the 160-member 
Consultative Assembly and modified by the CNS.  The referendum 
simultaneously approved General Evren as President for a 7-year term.  
A temporary article banning former political party leaders from 
politics for 10 years also went into effect.

New political parties were allowed to form in 1983 as long as founding 
members were not leaders or members of parliament attached to any pre-
1980 political parties.  Prior to the deadline for participation in the 
1983 national elections, three political parties -- the Nationalist 
Democracy Party, the Motherland Party and the Populist Party -- were 
authorized. 

In the 1983 elections, the Motherland Party (ANAP -- founded by Turgut 
Ozal, Deputy Prime Minister 1980-82 and architect of Turkey's 
successful economic austerity program under the military government) 
won an absolute majority in the then 400-member Grand National 
Assembly.  The Populist Party came in second and the Nationalist 
Democracy Party third.  The new government took office in December 
1983.  
The Ozal administration, the first civilian government since the early 
1970s to rule without coalition partners, made economic reform its 
priority.



In September 1987, a referendum lifting the 10-year ban on former 
politicians passed by a small margin. Ozal called immediately for 
national elections, the first since 1980 in which all legal parties 
were allowed to participate.  The elections were held in November, and 
Ozal won a second 5-year term and a comfortable majority in parliament 
(292 of then 450 seats based on a weighted proportional system).  The 
Social Democrat Populist Party won 99 seats and became the main 
opposition party.  Former Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel's True Path 
Party won 59 seats.  No other party reached the 10% level necessary to 
enter parliament.  The Democratic Left Party of former Prime Minister 
Bulent Ecevit won only 8% of the vote.   

In 1989, Turgut Ozal was elected President by the Parliament, but 
Ozal's Motherland Party suffered a setback in March 1989 municipal 
elections, receiving only 22% of the votes cast; down from 36% in 1987.  
In October 1991, Suleyman Demirel's True Path Party (DYP) won 179 seats 
in the parliamentary elections and formed a coalition government with 
the Social Democratic Populist Party, which had won 99 seats.  In 1993, 
Demirel was elected President after Turgut Ozal died, and Tansu Ciller 
became Turkey's first female Prime Minister.

In the March 1994 local elections, the Islamist Welfare Party (RP)  
(usually known by its Turkish name, "Refah") emerged as the big winner, 
capturing the mayorships of Ankara and Istanbul and most municipalities 
in Turkey's southeast, even though the DYP got the largest percentage 
of the vote.  Originally dismissed as a protest vote, the RP emerged as 
a real force, signaling further changes in Turkey's government system.

In the September 1995 party convention, Deniz Baykal was elected CHP 
party leader.  Baykal and Ciller failed to conclude an agreement to 
continue the coalition, forcing the government to resign on September 
20, which led to a 45-day parliamentary "crisis." President Demirel 
asked Ciller to try to form a new government.  Ciller established a 
DYP-only minority government in late September, but failed to win a 
vote of confidence.  Demirel gave Ciller a second chance to form a 
government, and she again turned to Baykal.  They formed a new DYP-CHP 
coalition that won a confidence vote on November 5.  The two parties 
cooperated in passing a new election law and set general elections for 
December.

In the December 1995 elections, three parties emerged with nearly 
identical electoral support of around 20% each: the Islamic-oriented 
Welfare Party of Necmettin Erbakan, the moderate center-right 
Motherland Party of Mesut Yilmaz, and Ciller's moderate center-right 
True Path Party.

The latter two parties represent the secular Turkish mainstream, but as 
a result of animosity between their two leaders, they were unable to 
successfully forge a lasting coalition that would have precluded a RP 
role in government; the ANAP-DYP coalition lasted only a few months.  
In July 1996, Ciller and Erbakan agreed to form a government in which 
Erbakan, because his party had garnered more votes, was the senior 
partner.

The Erbakan government tried to set some new policy directions by 
"reaching out" to a new group of international partners, challenging 
the military's political role, and seeking to chip away at secularism.  
As a result, the military, throughout the spring and late summer of 
1997 supported a growing popular movement of business, labor, and 
community groups to build pressure for the Erbakan government's 
resignation.  In June, Mesut Yilmaz formed a new minority government 
with Ecevit's Democratic Left Party (DSP) and Cindoruk's Democrat 
Turkey party.

These three parties governed with 223 of 550 seats in Parliament.  This 
was possible because the Republican People's Party (CHP) under Deniz 
Baykal supported the coalition without being a part of it. As a 
requirement of CHP's support, in June 1998 Yilmaz announced that he 
would resign at the end of the year and hand over power to an 
"election" government until new elections in April 1999. 

President Suleyman Demirel asked Ecevit on January 7 to form a 
government to succeed that of Prime Minister Yilmaz, which fell on 
November 25 in response to corruption allegations.  Ecevit's government 
won a vote of confidence on January 17 and is expected to rule until 
national elections are held on April 18, 1999.



Principal Government Officials

President of the Republic -- Suleyman Demirel

Prime Minister -- Bulent Ecevit

Minister of Foreign Affairs -- Ismail Cem

Ambassador to the United States -- Baki Ilkin

Ambassador to the United Nations -- Huseyin Celem

Turkey maintains an embassy in the United States at 1714 Massachusetts 
Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20036 (Tel. (202) 659-8200) and consulates 
general in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and Houston.

  
ECONOMY

Turkey is a free market economy oriented to Western markets.  The share 
of agriculture in the economy is decreasing as industry and services 
continue to expand rapidly. Turkey continues to examine ways to improve 
its investment climate through changes in its IPR legislation.  The 
Turkish privatization board continues to evaluate a series of 
significant privatizations including telecommunications, iron and 
steel, and banks.  


Turkey is a customs union partner with the European Union and a member 
of the WTO.  Turkey has a number of bilateral investment and tax 
treaties, including with the U.S., that guarantee free repatriation of 
capital in convertible currencies and eliminate double taxation.  
Nonetheless, foreign direct investment has totaled only $11 billion at 
the most since 1980, a paltry sum reflecting investor concerns about 
political uncertainty, inadequate regulations, stalled privatization, 
and troubling macroeconomic indicators.


Turkey has undertaken economic reforms over the past 15 years that have 
reduced the government's role in the economy and permitted the private 
sector to thrive.  Turkey has abandoned the insulated, state-directed 
economic policies put in place by Ataturk.   An export-led growth 
strategy and free-market principles catapulted Turkey into the ranks of 
the fastest growing economies in the OECD.

Turkey's leadership, however, failed to complete the reform program 
that was initiated in the early 1980's, exacerbating Turkey's economic 
problems.  Large public sector deficits and resulting high inflation 
continue to hamper the economy. 

Rapidly overcoming a government-caused financial crisis in 1994, 
Turkey's economy quickly resumed strong growth.  GNP in 1996 and 1997 
grew 7.4% and 8.0%, respectively.  Inflation also remained close to 
pre-1994 levels at around 80%.  In 1997, markets reacted well to the 
experienced politicians and managers named to key ministerial 
portfolios and senior bureaucratic positions in the Yilmaz government.  
However, the nature of the three-party coalition and the looming 
prospects for parliamentary elections severely constrain the 
government's ability to address the underlying structural problems of 
the economy.

The Turkish Government has had only partial success implementing 
structural reform measures.  Entrenched opposition has prevented a 
series of weak governments from achieving serious reform.  Steps such 
as improved efficiency of tax collection and streamlining of the social 
security system are essential to remove pressure on the state budget 
and promote stable and sustainable growth.  One area of success has 
been in privatization.  After a lackluster performance in 1997 ($465 
million in proceeds compared to a target of over $7 billion), Turkey 
sold more than $3.2 billion in public assets during the first half of 
1998 -- almost as much as had been raised during the entire 1986-97 
period.

Reforming social security and subsidy programs remains a contentious 
issue.  Turkey's three separate social security systems with their low 
retirement ages (the average age is 43) and inefficient operations are 
a substantial drain on the treasury.  Central government transfers to 
cover the deficits of social security institutions amounted to 2.7% of 
GDP in 1997 and were expected to reach 2.9% of GDP in 1998. 

The trade deficit, which had deteriorated sharply in 1996, stabilized 
in 1997, mostly due to a slowdown in imports following a 19% increase 
in 1996, the first year of the EU Customs Union.  The elimination of 
duties for most manufactured imports led to a 33% rise in imports from 
the EU, and the EU's share of imports increased from 47% to 53%.

Turkey's GNP has grown at an average annual rate of  5% since 1983 
ranking it at the top of the OECD countries, although the growth 
pattern has been uneven.  The recession in 1994, when GNP fell a record 
6%, brought to an end 13 years of positive growth.  The economy 
rebounded with 8.1% GNP growth in 1995, 7.4% in 1996, and 8.0% in 1997.  
Officially, gross domestic product (GDP) totaled $185 billion in 1997.   



Inflation, Wages, and Monetary Policy  Turkey's principal economic 
problem remains inflation, fueled primarily by large public sector 
deficits and ingrained inflation expectations.  Annual consumer price 
inflation has averaged 79% since prices began to escalate in 1988; 
wholesale price inflation has averaged 75% over the same period.  
Average annual inflation was 75% in 1998.  The government continues to 
regulate some prices to control the impact of inflation on low-income 
households.  The prices of bread, sugar, tea, energy, and public 
utilities are regulated.  The government also exerts large control over 
wage rates because of large public sector employment.  

Turkey's monetary authorities have successfully adopted policies to 
build up convertible currency reserves, maintain an even depreciation 
of the lira in line with inflation, and ensure smooth functioning of 
market clearing mechanisms.  The Central Bank and Treasury finalized an 
agreement in July 1997 to put strict limits on short-term Treasury 
borrowings and realized a slight primary surplus (the public sector 
balance excluding interest payments) instead of the projected 1% of GNP 
primary deficit for 1997.  The 1998 primary surplus exceeded 4% of GNP.



Principal Growth Sectors

Energy.  Electric energy demand in Turkey is growing by approximately 
10% a year.  By the year 2000 electrical energy demand is projected to 
reach 130 billion kWh.  Much of this increase will be met by natural 
gas fired plants.  Even if all the current hydroelectric potential (120 
billion kWh) can be used, total output will be far from sufficient to 
meet anticipated requirements by the year 2000.  Turkey requires 2000 - 
2500 megawatts of additional power generation capacity per year over 
the next 10-15 years.  The Turkish Government plans to meet this demand 
for electricity by encouraging Turkish and foreign private sector 
investments in the power generation and distribution sectors through 
build-operate, build-operate-transfer, and transfer of operating rights 
projects.  Once these privatizations are implemented, Turkey intends to 
have an electricity pool system regulated by an independent regulatory 
body.

Telecommunications.  Turkey currently has more than 17 million 
telephone lines with a density of 25%.  In order to meet its growing 
demand, Turkey needs to install 2 - 2.5 million additional lines per 
year.  Telephone density is expected to reach 40% by 2005.  Cellular 
density is currently 2.5% and is expected to increase to 3.8% by the 
spring of 1999.  Reforms of telecommunications regulations will 
continue until an independent regulatory body is established.  The 
government has initiated the process to enact new legislation regarding 
these reforms and is expected to set up a regulatory body in 1999.  
During 1998, the government sold two licenses for the provision of 
cellular service and plans to privatize 39% of Turk Telecom beginning 
in late 1998 and into 1999.

In 1993 Turkey had a telephone exchange main line capacity of 
approximately 12.7 million and telephone subscriber density of 21 lines 
per 100 persons.  By the year 2002, Turkey aims to increase its 
subscriber line capacity to 20 million, and increase the telephone line 
density to 25 per 100 persons.  The system is expected to be 80% 
digital by that point.

Environment.  With the establishment of a Ministry of Environment in 
1991, environmental issues have taken on increased prominence in the 
market.  New regulations regarding sewage, medical waste and power 
plant emissions will add growth to this sector.  All new plants, as a 
part of their approval process, must submit an Environmental Impact 
Assessment to the Ministry of the Environment and obtain approvals 
before starting construction.  Municipal governments nation-wide are 
also implementing environmental projects to better handle sewage and 
solid waste.

Transport.  The Turkish government gives a special priority to major 
infrastructure projects, especially in the transport sector.  The 
government is planning the construction of new airports, ports and 
highways.  The government will realize the majority of these projects 
by utilizing the build-operate-transfer (BOT) model.

Textiles. The textile sector is Turkey's largest manufacturing industry 
and its largest export sector.  Turkey's textile producers are 
generally very modern and highly competitive.  The removal of quotas to 
the EU -- part of the customs union -- has improved growth prospects.  
The global phase-out of textile quotas called for in the Uruguay Round 
also increases the sector's potential.

Other principal growth sectors are defense equipment, tourism 
infrastructure, building products, automobiles and electronics.


 

FOREIGN RELATIONS 

Turkey's primary political, economic, and security ties are with the 
West.  During the last several years, Turkey has continued to expand 
its relations with Western Europe, rejoining the Council of Europe 
after an absence of several years and applying for full membership in 
the EU.

Turkey entered NATO in 1952 and serves as the organization's vital 
eastern anchor, sharing a long sea and land border with Russia and 
several Caucasian states and controlling the straits leading from the 
Black Sea to the Mediterranean.  Two NATO headquarters are located in 
Izmir.  Besides its relationships with NATO and the European Union 
(EU), Turkey is a member of the OECD, the Council of Europe, and OSCE.  
Turkey is also a member of the UN and the Islamic Conference 
Organization (OIC).



Due to proximity and Turkic linguistic and ethnic ties, the Turkish 
Government and businesses continue to develop links with most of the 
Central Asian and Caucasian states.  The Turkish government has stated 
that it would like to see the establishment of joint ventures between 
Turkish and foreign firms to further tap the potential of the emerging 
Central Asian markets.  Turkey has established the Turkish 
International Cooperation Agency to foster such ventures.  Turkey also 
has continued to expand its trade relations with the Middle East and 
Russia.



Turkey and the EU formed a customs union beginning January 1, 1996.  
The agreement covers industrial and processed agricultural goods.  
Turkey has harmonized its laws and regulations with EU standards.

Turkey adopted the EU's Common External Tariff regime, effectively 
lowering Turkey's tariffs for third countries, including the United 
States.

Turkey is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO).  It signed a 
free trade agreement with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in 
1991; it is negotiating free trade agreements with several central 
European countries.  In 1992 Turkey and ten other regional nations 
formed the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Council to expand regional 
trade and economic cooperation.





U.S.-TURKEY RELATIONS 

Turkish-American friendship dates to the late 18th century and was 
officially sealed by a treaty in 1830.  The present close relationship 
began with the agreement of July 12, 1947, which implemented the Truman 
Doctrine.  As part of the cooperative effort to further Turkish 
economic and military self-reliance, the United States has loaned and 
granted Turkey more than $4 billion in economic aid and more than $14 
billion in military assistance.

U.S.-Turkish relations were severely tested in July 1974, when Turkey 
invoked a 1960 treaty of guarantee for Cyprus and sent troops there to 
protect the Turkish Cypriot community following the overthrow of the 
Cypriot Government by mainland Greek officers in the Cypriot national 
guard.  The ensuing fighting on Cyprus led to Turkish occupation of the 
northern part of the island, which remains in place today.  Turkey's 
use of American-supplied arms during the intervention caused the U.S. 
Congress to mandate an embargo in 1975 on military shipments to Turkey.  
Resentment of this action led to a Turkish decision in July 1975 to 
suspend important U.S. defense activities at joint installations and 
cancel the 1969 defense cooperation agreement.  The U.S. embargo was 
relaxed in October 1975, and in March 1976 a new defense agreement was 
signed, but not approved by the Congress.  In September 1978, the 
embargo ended and U.S.-Turkish relations improved markedly.  Turkey 
lifted restrictions on U.S. activities in late 1978.

The United States and Turkey signed a defense and economic cooperation 
agreement in March 1980 that established a new framework for U.S. 
military activities in Turkey and committed the United States to "best 
efforts" in providing defense support to the Turkish armed forces.  The 
two countries signed an exchange of letters in March 1987 to extend the 
agreement through December of 1990 and it continues to extend 
automatically on a year-to-year basis unless one of the two parties 
objects by  September 18 of any year.


Turkey temporarily imposed some restrictions on American military 
activities in early 1990 in response to the U.S. Senate's consideration 
of a resolution to declare a day of remembrance for what Armenians and 
others have described as genocide of Armenians by pre-republican 
Turkey. Turkey lifted the restrictions after the resolution failed to 
pass.  The unresolved Nagorno-Karabakh and Cyprus issues continue to 
disturb U.S.-Turkish relations.


The U.S. and Turkey have had a Joint Economic Commission since 1993.  
Turkey has been designated a Big Emerging Market (BEM) for U.S. exports 
and investment by the Department of Commerce.  In 1997, the U.S. trade 
surplus with Turkey was more than $2.0 billion. The U.S. is Turkey's 
third-largest export market.


Principal U.S. Officials
 Ambassador -- Mark Parris

Deputy Chief of Mission -- Francis Ricciardone

Counselors Political Affairs -- Gene Christy

Political-Military Affairs -- Bruce Thomas

Economic Affairs -- Scott Kilner

Administrative Affairs -- Art Salvaterra

Public Affairs Officer -- Helena Finn

Defense/Air Attache -- Col. James M. Carlin, USAF

Navy Attache -- Comdr. Ken Taylor, USN

Army Attache -- Lt. Col. Greg Pepin, USA

Consuls General Istanbul -- Carolyn Huggins

Consul Adana -- Stuart Jones

U.S. Mission Addresses 

The U.S. embassy is located at 110 Ataturk Blvd., Ankara.  The 
consulate general in Istanbul is at 104-108 Mesrutiyet Caddesi; the 
consular agent in Izmir at 92 Ataturk Caddesi, third floor; and the 
consulate in Adana, on Ataturk Caddesi.








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security, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. posts 
in the country. Public Announcements are issued as a means to 
disseminate information quickly about terrorist threats and other 
relatively short-term conditions overseas which pose significant risks 
to the security of American travelers. Free copies of this information 
are available by calling the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202-647-5225 
or via the fax-on-demand system: 202-647-3000. Travel Warnings and 
Consular Information Sheets also are available on the Consular Affairs 
Internet home page: http://travel.state.gov and the Consular Affairs 
Bulletin Board (CABB). To access CABB, dial the modem number: 301-946-
4400 (it will accommodate up to 33,600 bps), set terminal 
communications program to N-8-1(no parity, 8 bits, 1 stop bit); and 
terminal emulation to VT100. The login is travel and the password is 
info. (Note: Lower case is required). The CABB also carries 
international security information from the Overseas Security Advisory 
Council and Department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Consular 
Affairs Trips for Travelers publication series, which contain 
information on obtaining passports and planning a safe trip abroad, can 
be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954; telephone: 
202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250.
Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be 
obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-
5225. For after-hours emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-
4000.
Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-hour, 
7-day a week automated system ($.35 per minute) or live operators 8 
a.m. to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday ($1.05 per minute). The number is 1-
900-225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778). Major credit card users (for a flat 
rate of $4.95) may call 1-888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648).
Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers 
for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at 
877-FYI-TRIP (877-394-8747) and a web site at 
http://www.cdc.gov/travel/index.htm give the most recent health 
advisories, immunization recommendations or requirements, and advice on 
food and drinking water safety for regions and countries. A booklet 
entitled Health Information for International Travel (HHS publication 
number CDC-95-8280) is available from the U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, DC 20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.

Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and 
customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to 
travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a country's 
embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see 
"Principal Government Officials" listing in this 
publication).
U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous 
areas are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a 
country (see "Principal U.S. Embassy Officials" listing in 
this publication). This may help family members contact you in case of 
an emergency.
Further Electronic Information
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network. Available on the Internet, 
DOSFAN provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign policy 
information. Updated daily, DOSFAN includes Background Notes; Dispatch, 
the official magazine of U.S. foreign policy; daily press briefings; 
Country Commercial Guides; directories of key officers of foreign 
service posts; etc. DOSFAN's World Wide Web site is at 
http://www.state.gov.

U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published on an annual basis by 
the U.S. Department of State, USFAC archives information on the 
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network, and includes an array of 
official foreign policy information from 1990 to the present. Contact 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. 
Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. To order, call (202) 512-1800 or 
fax (202) 512-2250.

National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department of 
Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related information. It 
is available on the Internet (www.stat-usa.gov) and on CD-ROM. Call the 
NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-1986 for more information.


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