Background Notes: Portugal

PA/PC Source: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs Date: May 15, 19905/15/90 Category: Country Data Region: Europe Country: Portugal Subject: Cultural Exchange, Resource Management, Military Affairs, History, Trade/Economics, International Organizations, Development/Relief Aid [TEXT] Official Name: Republic of Portugal


Area: 94,276 sq. km. (36,390 sq. mi.), including the Azores and Madeira Islands; about the size of Indiana. Cities: Capital-Lisbon (pop. 2.1 million in the metropolitan district). Other city-Oporto (1.7 million in metropolitan district). Terrain: Mountainous in the north; rolling in central south. Climate: Maritime temperate.
Nationality: Noun and adjective-Portuguese (sing. and pl.) Population (1989): 10.3 million. Annual growth rate (1989): 3%. Ethnic groups: Homogeneous Mediterranean stock with small black African minority. Religion: Roman Catholic 97%. Language: Portuguese. Education: Years compulsory- 6. Attendance-60%.. Literacy (1985)-83.3%. Health: Infant mortality rate (1987)- 14.2/1,000. Life expectancy (1985)-73 yrs. Work force (4.7 million, 1989): Agriculture-19%. Industry-35%. Government, commerce, and services-46%.
Type: Parliamentary democracy. Constitution: Entered into effect April 25, 1976; revised October 30, 1982 and June 1, 1989. Branches: Executive-president (chief of state), Council of State (presidential advisory body), prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers. Legislative-unicameral Assembly of the Republic (between 230 and 235 deputies). Judicial- Supreme Court, district courts, appeals courts, Constitutional Tribunal. Major political parties: Social Democratic Party (PSD), Socialist Party (PS), Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), Center Social Democratic Party (CDS), Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Popular Monarchist Party (PPM). Suffrage: Universal over 18. Subdivisions: 18 districts, 2 autonomous regions, and 1 dependency. Central government budget (1990): $23.2 billion (expenditures). Defense (1990): 2.2% of GDP. Flag: A vertically divided field-one-third green along the staff, two-thirds red; centered on the dividing line is the Portuguese coat of arms encircled in gold.
GDP (1989): $45 billion. Annual growth rate (1989): 5. 4%. Per capita GDP (1989): $4,363. Avg. inflation rate (1989): 12.6%. Natural resources: Fish, cork, tungsten, iron, copper, tin and uranium ores. Production (percentages of 1988 total gross value added): Agriculture, forestry, fisheries (7%). Industry (44% of GDP): Types-textiles, clothing, footwear (9%); construction (7%); food, beverages, tobacco (6%). Services (49%): Main branches-commerce (20%), government and nonmarketable services (15%), housing and other marketable services (10%), banking and finance (8%). Trade (1989): Exports- $12.7 billion: clothing, footware, electrical machinery and appliances, automobiles. Imports-$18.9 billion: electrical and nonelectrical machinery, automobiles, fuel, apppliances. Partners-European Community, US, European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Official exchange rate (May 1990): 149 escudos=US$1.
Membership in International Organizations
UN and its specialized agencies, Council of Europe, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), European Community (EC), Western European Union (WEU), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), International Energy Agency (IEA), INTELSAT, African Development Bank (ADB), African Development Fund (ADF), Coordinating Committee for Multi-Lateral Export Controls (COCOM).


Portugal is made up of the mainland and the Azores and Madeira Islands. Mainland Portugal is divided into two distinct topographical and climatic regions by the Tagus River, which flows into the Atlantic at Lisbon. North of the Tagus, Portugal is mountainous, with a rainy, moderately cool climate; the south has rolling plains, less rainfall, and a warm climate, particularly in the interior. The Azores consist of nine rugged, mountainous islands (2,300 sq. km.-888 sq. mi.) of volcanic origin lying 1,300 kilometers (about 800 mi.) west of Lisbon. Their climate is moist and moderate. The regional capital is Ponta Delgada (pop. 35,000) on Sao Miguel Island. The Madeira Islands, located about 560 kilometers (350 mi.) west of Morocco, are more rugged than the Azores. The archipelago consists of two main islands and many uninhabited islets (790 sq. km.-305 sq. mi.). Mild year-round temperatures attract many tourists.Macau, on the southern coast of China, is an autonomous entity under Portuguese administration. In April 1987, Portugal and China signed an accord to return Macau to Chinese administration in 1999. The former overseas territory of Goa, on the west coast of the Indian subcontinent, was annexed by India in December 1961. The former colony of Portuguese Timor, the eastern half of Timor Island in the Indian Ocean north of Australia, was annexed by Indonesia in July 1976. Portugal's former overseas territories in Africa-including Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and Sao Tome and Principe-achieved independence between 1974 and 1975.


Portugal's earliest recorded inhabitants-members of an Ibero- Celtic tribe known to Imperial Rome as the Lusitani and first mentioned in the second century B.C.-have mixed with Germanic, Celtic, Roman, Arabic, and African peoples to form today's relatively homogeneous Portuguese population. Portuguese citizens of black African descent, who emigrated to Portugal after decolonization of Portugal's African territories, make up the country's only significant and distinct minority group but probably number fewer than 100,000. Portuguese Culture Luis Vaz de Camoes (1524-80) is the most famous poet to have written in Portuguese and is a Portuguese national hero. His best-known work, The Lusiads, is an epic poem in 10 cantos about Vasco da Gama's discovery of a sea route to India in 1497-98. The Portuguese concept of saudade-nostalgia mixed with a melancholy acceptance of fate-finds its clearest expression in the songs of fado, heard most often in restaurants in Lisbon's older districts, such as the Alfama. Portugal has many ancient and medieval monuments and buildings, that include the Pena and Sintra palaces; the ex-royal residence of Queluz; the walled city of Obidos; the cathedrals at Batalha and Alcobaca; the castle of Sao Jorge in Lisbon; Roman temple ruins in Evora; and the castle of Afonso Henriques in Guimaraes, near Oporto, where the Portuguese nation was founded.


Portugal is one of the oldest states in Europe. It traces its modern history to A.D. 1140 when, following a 9-year rebellion against the King of Leon-Castile, Afonso Henriques, the Count of Portugal, became the country's first king, Afonso I. Afonso and his successors expanded their territory southward, capturing Lisbon from the Moors in 1147. The approximate present-day boundaries were secured in 1249 by Afonso III. By 1337, Portuguese explorers had reached the Canary Islands. Inspired by Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), explorers such as Vasco da Gama, Bartolomeu Dias, and Pedro Alvares Cabral made explorations from Brazil to India and Japan. Portugal eventually became a massive colonial empire with vast territories in Africa and Latin America (Brazil) and outposts in the Far East (East Timor, Macau, Goa). Dynastic disputes led in 1580 to the succession of Philip II of Spain to the Portuguese throne. A revolt ended Spanish hegemony in 1640, and the House of Braganca was established as Portugal's ruling family, lasting until the establishment of the Portuguese Republic in 1910. During the next 16 years, intense political rivalries and economic instability undermined newly established democratic institutions. Responding to pressing economic problems, a military government, which had taken power in 1926, named a prominent university economist, Dr. Antonio Salazar finance minister in 1928, and prime minister in 1932. For the next 42 years, Salazar and his successor, Marcelo Caetano, appointed prime minister in 1968, ruled Portugal as an authoritarian "corporate" state. Unlike most other European countries, Portugal did not play a combatant role in World War II. It was a charter member of NATO, joining in 1949. In the early 1960s, wars with independence movements in Portugal's African territories began to drain labor and wealth from Portugal. Professional dissatisfaction within the military, coupled with a growing sense of the futility of the African conflicts, led to the formation of the clandestine "Armed Forces Movement" in 1973. The downfall of the Portuguese corporate state came on April 25, 1974, when the Armed Forces Movement seized power in a nearly bloodless coup and established a provisional military government. Gen. Antonio de Spinola was installed as president after the coup but resigned in September 1974 to protest the growing power exercised by communist and leftist forces. He was replaced by another general, Francisco da Costa Gomes, who retained a procommunist, Gen. Vasco dos Santos Goncalves, as prime minister. On March 11, 1975, a rebellion by rightist military officers failed, and former President Spinola fled the country. On April 25 (now Portugal's national day), the first anniversary of the 1974 coup, Portuguese voters chose a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution. The vote gave an overwhelming majority of 72% to candidates of three democratic political parties: the Socialists (PS), Popular Democrats (which later changed its name to Social Democrats-PSD), and Center Social Democrats (CDS). The communists and their allies in the Armed Forces Movement attempted to play down their relative lack of popular support (the Communist Party won only 12.5% of the vote) by tightening their hold on the provisional government and by seeking to diminish sharply the role of political parties. Goncalves resigned under mounting civilian and military pressure, and a new provisional government (the sixth since April 1974) took office in September 1975, led by Adm. Jose Pinheiro de Azevedo. The political tug-of-war continued until November 25, when left-wing military elements seized control of several strategic military bases, only to surrender peacefully the next day after a determined show of force by loyal units under the direction of Lt. Col. Antonio Ramalho Eanes. Portugal's new constitution took effect on April 25, 1976, when elections for a parliamentary Assembly of the Republic also were held. In June, Eanes was elected president with 62% of the vote after gaining the support of the three major democratic parties. He chose Mario Soares, whose Socialist Party had won a plurality in the parliamentary elections, to serve as prime minister of Portugal's first democratic government since the 1920s. Soares' minority socialist government fell in December 1977 and was followed by a succession of short-lived coalition and minority governments. In the July 1987 parliamentary elections, PSD leader Cavaco Silva led his party to a stunning victory, resulting in the first absolute majority for a single party. The PSD received a slight majority (just over 50%) of the popular vote but won 148 of the then-250 seats in parliament. Mario Soares, who had been elected president in February 1986, consequently invited Prime Minister Cavaco Silva to form a government, the first that appeared likely to complete its 4-year term since the 1974 revolution. Since entering office, the Cavaco Silva government has implemented economic and social reforms intended to put Portugal on a more competitive footing with its European partners. The government and the Socialist Party also cooperated in the assembly to eliminate Marxist rhetoric from the constitution and to pave the way for full privatization of public sector enterprises. In the June 18, 1989, European Parliamentary elections, the ruling Social Democratic Party won 32.5% of the vote (vice 37% in 1987). The socialists increased their vote to 28.5%. Nearly half of the registered voters stayed away from the polls.


The April 25, 1976, constitution defined Portugal as a "Republic....engaged in the formation of a classless society." The 1976 constitution was revised in 1982, and again in 1989. The 1982 revision placed the military under strict civilian control, trimmed the powers of the president, and abolished the Revolutionary Council (a non-elected committee with legislative veto powers). The 1989 revision eliminated much of the remaining Marxist rhetoric of the original document, abolished the communist-inspired "agrarian reform," and laid the groundwork for further privatization of nationalized firms and government-owned communications media. The four main organs of national government are the presidency, the prime minister and Council of Ministers (the government), the Assembly of the Republic (parliament), and the courts. The president, elected to a 5-year term by direct, universal suffrage, also is commander in chief of the armed forces. Presidential powers include appointing the prime minister and Council of Ministers (in which the president must be guided by the assembly election results), dismissal of the prime minister, dissolution of the assembly to call early elections, veto over legislation (which may be overridden by the assembly), and the declaration of states of war or siege. The Council of State, an advisory body to the president, is composed of the incumbents of six senior civilian offices, any former presidents elected under the 1976 constitution, five members chosen by the assembly, and five chosen by the president himself. The government is headed by the presidentially appointed prime minister, who names the Council of Ministers, subject to presidential approval. A new government is required to define the broad outline of its policy in a program and present it to the assembly for a mandatory period of debate. Failure of the assembly to reject the program by a majority of deputies confirms the government in office. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body, composed of between 230 and 235 deputies elected by direct universal suffrage according to a system of proportional representation. The term of office for deputies is 4 years, unless the president dissolves the assembly and calls for new elections. The constitution provides for district and appeals courts. The national Supreme Court is the court of last instance. Military, administrative, and fiscal courts are designated as separate court categories. The constitution also provides for a nine-member Constitutional Tribunal to review the constitutionality of legislation. The constitution gives substantial autonomy to the locally elected governments of the Azores and Madeira Islands. A regional autonomy statute for the Azores, establishing the Government of the Autonomous Region of the Azores, was promulgated July 25, 1980, and amended in 1987. The Government of the Autonomous Region of Madeira operates under a provisional autonomy statute in effect since 1976. Finally, the constitution provides for the progressive decentralization of administration, calling for future reorganization on a regional basis. Apart from the Azores and Madeira, the country is currently divided into 18 districts, each headed by a governor appointed by the Minister of Internal Administration.
Principal Government Officials
President of the Portuguese Republic-Mario Soares Prime Minister-Anibal Cavaco Silva Ministers: Defense Minister and the Presidency of the Council of State-Fernando Nogueira Minister of Foreign Affairs-Joao de Deus Pinheiro Minister of Interior-Manuel Pereira Minister of Justice- Laborinho Lucio Minister of Finance-Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral Armed Forces Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces- Gen. Antonio da Silva Osorio Soares Carneiro Service Chiefs of Staff-Gen. Mario Firmino Miguel (Army), Adm. Manuel da Cunha Esteves de Andrade e Silva (Navy), Gen. Tomas George Conceicao Silva (Air Force) Ambassador to the United States-Joao Pereira Bastos Portugal maintains an embassy in the United States at 2125 Kalorama Road NW., Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-328-8610); Consulates General in New York City, Boston, and San Francisco; Consulates in Providence, RI; Newark, NJ; and New Bedford, Mass.; and Honorary Consulates in Honolulu, Los Angeles, Houston, New Orleans, Chicago, Philadelphia, Miami, Puerto Rico, and Waterbury, Conn. The Portuguese National Tourist Office in the United States is located at 548 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10036 (tel: 212-354- 4403).


The Portuguese economy has made impressive economic gains both since the tumultous post-1974 revolutionary period and since the recessionary period of 1983-84. In 1989, GDP grew by 4.5% (over 1988), exports by 14%, gross investment by 28%, and unemployment fell to 6.7%. Foreign investment in Portugal has grown at an annual rate of 50% since 1984, reaching $1.2 billion in 1989. This occurred because the majority government has pursued a comprehensive plan of structural economic reform with objectives to: -- Promote investment-led growth; -- Modernize industry and agriculture; -- Privatize most state-owned enterprises; -- Reduce the public sector deficit; and, -- Hold down inflation. The most ambitious element of the plan has been to privatize firms that were nationalized in 1974-75. In 1988, the government began the partial privatization (49% of the shares) of two enterprises, the country's largest brewery and a mid-sized bank. Both share offerings were several times oversubscribed. Future partial privatizations, including another brewery, a cement company, and other financial and insurance institutions, including the country's largest commercial bank, are planned. The major obstacle to majority privatization of state enterprises was overcome by the June 1989 revision of the constitution that removed restrictions on private ownership in industry. Portuguese economic structure has changed dramatically since the 1974 revolution. Finance and commercial relations with the former colonies are less important, and the large industrial- financial groups that once controlled much of the economy have been dismantled. Since 1960, the proportion of the labor force engaged in agriculture has dropped from 42% to 19%. Agricultural production now contributes only 7% of the country's GDP. Portugal imports a substantial share of its food and animal feed. Industrial employment has risen from 21% to 35% of the labor force since 1960. Industry contributes 44% of the GDP. Major products are textiles, clothing, cork products, electronic equipment, machinery, steel, woodpulp and paper, cement, tomato paste, canned seafood, olive oil, assembled automobiles, and refined petroleum and chemical products. Portugal also has large shipbuilding and repair yards. Tourism has expanded and now accounts for more than 5% of GDP. The volume of foreign trade has increased from $873 million in 1960 to $31.6 billion in 1989, with imports of $18.9 billion and exports of $12.7 billion. Portugal's main trading partners are Western Europe (EC countries now account for nearly 70% of all Portuguese trade) and the United States. Since 1979, Portuguese governments have sought to expand the scope for private investment in the economy. The 1982 constitutional revision modified many of the socialist features of the 1976 constitution and set the stage for legislation that opened up several sectors, including banking, to private enterprise. In 1984, six foreign banks (including three from the United States) and four Portuguese private banks began operations. Portugal's foreign investment legislation, liberalized considerably in 1986, streamlined the approval process. Investment proposals from EC countries and, in practice, those from other countries, generally are approved on a pro-forma basis by the Portuguese Government's Office of Foreign Investment Services of the Foreign Trade Institute. Inflation continued to rise in 1988-89, forcing the government to raise its inflation target for 1989. A plan to restrict consumer credit, increase bank reserves, and reduce credit ceilings was imposed in March 1989 to deal with the inflation problem. Nevertheless, inflation by the end of 1989 reached 12%. The Portuguese current account balance has gone from a modest surplus of $200 million in 1987 to a deficit of $650 million. The March 1989 plan to curb inflation may have a mitigating effect on the current account imbalance since consumer purchases have accounted for most of Portugal's imports: up 15% in 1989. The imbalance is partially offset by substantial capital inflows that should lead to greater productivity in coming years. The public sector deficit has fallen from 12% of GDP in 1985 to 7% in 1989. The government continues efforts to pare employment roles and streamline programs. Further reductions may prove more difficult, but the government expects the sale of shares in state enterprises to reduce the debt service on behalf of these ailing businesses and to generate revenues sufficient to retire government debt. Portugal joined the European Community (EC) in January 1986. Transition periods to bring Portuguese agricultural prices and tariffs in line with those of other EC countries and to liberalize capital movements generally will continue through the mid-1990s. EC structural adjustment assistance- about $650 million, net of Portuguese contributions in 1988-and future flows will help the Portuguese Government modernize its industry and agriculture. Portugal's entry into the EC and the concomitant obligations to open its markets and compete freely with its EC partners by the 1992 Single Market have been the primary stimulus for many of the recent reforms and will continue to influence much of Portuguese economic policy and business strategy. Labor unions-before the revolution mainly instruments of government policy-have become active, independent agents. Two major labor confederations have emerged. The oldest, the General Confederation of Portuguese Workers (CGTP-Intersindical), is communist controlled. In January 1979, the General Union of Workers (UGT) was formed as the democratic alternative. The UGT has become a major force in the Portuguese labor movement and has gained international respect.


Portugal's foreign policy reflects the country's geographic, cultural, and historic roots in the Western community and the determination of the post-1974 elected governments to reinforce those bonds and the democratic values they help sustain. The government took a major step in that direction by formally entering the European Community in January 1986. A charter member of NATO, Portugal seeks to modernize its armed forces to play an enhanced role in alliance defense. Five proud centuries of exploration have bequeathed to Portugal a significant legacy of ties with Africa, the Western Hemisphere, and Asia. Since granting independence to the former overseas territories of Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, Guinea- Bissau, and Sao Tome and Principe, the Portuguese Government has made major efforts to maintain and strengthen diplomatic, economic, and assistance relationships with those nations. In recent years, Portugal also has sought to broaden diplomatic contacts with moderate Arab states in order to lay the basis for expanded economic and commercial relations. Portugal maintains relations with Israel at the ambassadorial level. Following the 1974 revolution, Portugal opened relations with the Soviet Union and East European communist regimes. Trade and cultural exchanges, however, remain at a low level. As a NATO and EC member, Portugal approaches East-West issues in the framework of its own strong political, economic, and military ties to Western Europe. Portugal continues to administer the overseas territory of Macau, near Hong Kong. Portugal and China concluded an agreement on April 13, 1987, to return the territory to Chinese rule in 1999. Portugal and Indonesia broke relations on December 7, 1975, because of a dispute over the status of Portuguese East Timor. Indonesia then annexed East Timor in July 1976. Portugal does not recognize the annexation as an act of self-determination by the East Timorese and has contested the Indonesian action in international forums. In 1982, the UN General Assembly asked the UN Secretary General to consult with both governments in an effort to resolve the issue; both countries subsequently have held discussions under the auspices of the Secretary General. More than 2 million Portuguese reside in Europe, Africa, and the Western Hemisphere as permanent emigrants or-particularly in the case of Western Europe-as temporary workers. Through cultural and educational programs as well as diplomatic efforts, Portugal seeks to maintain ties to these emigrant communities and to support efforts by emigrant workers to secure adequate social benefits from their host countries.


Bilateral ties date from the earliest years of the United States. On February 21, 1791, President George Washington opened formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, naming Col. David Humphreys as US Minister. Portugal's history of looking toward the Atlantic, rather than toward continental Europe, and the US position as an Atlantic power, have long brought the two nations into close contact. Emigration has furthered this relationship, and sizable Portuguese communities in the United States represent a strong cultural bond. The United States encourages a stable and democratic Portugal that is closely associated with the industrial democracies of Western Europe and NATO. Portugal's nearly bloodless transition from authoritarian rule to constitutional democracy during 1974- 76, the exclusion of communists from its parliamentary governments, and its excellent human rights record demonstrate the commitment of the Portuguese to democratic values. The United States has supported Portugal's successful entry into the West European economic and defense mainstream.
US Economic and Developmental Aid
Since 1975, US economic assistance to Portugal managed by the Agency for International Development (AID) has totaled $1.2 billion, including refugee and disaster assistance, agriculture, schools and rural education, health, low income housing and Housing Guaranties, basic sanitation, consultants and training, balance of payments loans, PL 480 loans and Economic Support Funds (ESF) cash transfers. In fiscal year 1989, the program included disbursement of $50 million in ESF and $25 million in previously authorized low-income Housing Guaranty loans, as well as authorization of an additional $25 million in new Housing Guaranties. In addition, the USAID/Lisbon manages grants funded in previous years for technical consultants and training and supports trilateral cooperation with Portugal on assistance to some African countries. The last of the project activities directly managed by USAID/Lisbon will be completed in December 1989. The Government of Portugal has used ESF support, in part, to build the endowment of the Luso-American Development Foundation to promote and support enduring professional and institutional linkages with the United States in education, science and technology, private sector development, culture, public administration, and regional development. Since 1985, the foundation has received $110 million and through 1988 had made grants, loans, and equity investments in nearly 600 development projects.


US-Portuguese defense cooperation traditionally has been excellent. Under the 1951 bilateral defense agreement and subsequent technical agreements, US Armed Forces enjoy access to the Portuguese Air Base at Lajes in the Azores. The United States, together with other NATO allies, also provides security assistance to Portugal. This includes modern equipment and training to support increased Portuguese participation in NATO defense. In addition to US use of facilities at Lajes Air Base, Portugal also has agreed in principle to accept a US satellite observation station in southern Portugal.
Principal US Officials
Ambassador-Everett E. Briggs Deputy Chief of Mission-John W. Penfold Political Affairs-Jeffrey Millington Economic Affairs-David Norman Miller Consular Affairs-Arturo Macias Administrative Affairs-Thomas Widenhouse Public Affairs (USIS)-Gail Gulliksen Commercial Affairs-Carlos F. Poza Agricultural Affairs-Daniel Berman Agency for International Development- David C. Leibson Military Attaches Defense and Air-Col.Van C. Sanders Army- Col. Robert G. Hasty Navy-Capt. Richard J. Burns Military Advisory Assistance Group (MAAG) Chief-Col. Robert A. Young Consuls Oporto- Herbert Yarvin Ponta Delgada-Mahlon Henderson The US Embassy is located at Avenida Forcas Armadas, Lisbon 1600 (tel. 7266600). The Oporto consulate is located at Rua Julio Dinis 826, 3d Floor, Oporto 4000 (tel. 63094). The Ponta Delgada Consulate is at Avenida Infante D. Henrique, Ponta Delgada, Sao Miguel, Azores 9502 (tel. 22216). The consular agent in Funchal, Madeira is Antonio Drummond Borges (tel. 47429).


Entry requirements: A visa is not required of US citizens for stays of up to 60 days, but a valid passport is necessary. Immunizations are not mandatory. Travelers may import or export foreign currency in any amount, provided it is for "touristic purposes." No more than 5,000 Portuguese escudos per traveler may be imported into Portugal, although up to 25,000 escudos may be exported. Climate and clothing: Wear summer clothing during the temperate sunny days and cool nights May-September. Fall-weight clothing and a topcoat or warm raincoat are appropriate for winter. A rainhat or umbrella is recommended. Health: Health and sanitation standards generally are good. Tapwater is potable year round in large cities and in outlying areas during rainy seasons. Bottled spring water is available. Telecommunications: Telephone and telegraph circuits are available to Western Europe and to almost all other points worldwide. Lisbon is five time zones ahead of eastern standard time. AT∧T card services are available through Marconi Operators. AT∧T cards can only be used for calls to the United States. Transportation: Direct flights are available from the United States, and worldwide connections are good. Domestic air services fly to Oporto in the north, Faro in the Algarve, and to several other provincial cities. Railroads and buses serve the entire country. Lisbon has good, inexpensive taxi, bus, streetcar, and subway service. National holidays: The US Embassy and Consulates are closed on the following holidays: January l (New Year's), February 7 (Carnival), March 24 (Good Friday), April 25 (Liberty Day), May l (Labor Day), May 25 (Corpus Christi), June l0 (Portugal Day), June l3 (St. Anthony's Day-only in Lisbon), August l5 (Assumption Day), October 5 (Portuguese Republic), November l (All Saint's Day), December l (Portuguese Independence), December 8 (Immaculate Conception), December 25 (Christmas Day).
Further Information
These titles are provided as a general indication of the material published on this country. The Department of State does not endorse unofficial publications. Buneau, Thomas C. Politics and Nationhood: Post- Revolutionary Portugal. New York: Praeger, 1984. de Macedo, Jorge, and Simon Sarfaty, eds. Portugal Since The Revolution: Economic and Political Perspectives. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1981. Gallagher, Tom. Portugal: A Twentieth-Century Interpretation. Dover, N.H.: Manchester University Press, 1982. Graham, Lawrence F., and Harry M. Makler, eds. Contemporary Portugal: The Revolution and its Antecedents. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979. Graham, Lawrence F., and Douglas L. Wheeler, eds. In Search of Modern Portugal: The Revolution and its Consequences. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983. Kay, Hugh. Salazar and Modern Portugal. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1970. Marques, A. H. de Oliveira. History of Portugal. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972. Payne, Stanley G. A History of Spain and Portugal. 2 vols. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1972. Porch, Douglas. The Portuguese Armed Forces and the Revolution. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1977. Robinson, Richard Allen H. Contemporary Portugal. Boston: Allen and Unwin, Inc., 1979. Available from the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402: US Department of Labor. Foreign Labor Trends. US Department of State. Key Officers of Foreign Service Posts. Published by the United States Department of State -- Bureau of Public Affairs -- Office of Public Communication -- Washington, DC -- May 1990 -- Editor: Juanita Adams. Department of State Publication 8074--Background Notes Series -- This material is in the public domain and may be reprinted without permission; citation of this source is appreciated.For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.(###)