U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Denmark, June 1997
Released by the Bureau of European and Canadian Affairs.
Official Name: Kingdom of Denmark
Geography* Area: 43,094 sq. km. (16,640 sq. mi.); slightly smaller
than Vermont and New Hampshire combined.
Cities: Capital -- Copenhagen (pop. 1.4 million in Greater Copenhagen).
Other cities -- Aarhus (281,000), Odense (184,000), Aalborg (160,000).
Terrain: Low and flat or slightly rolling; highest elevation is 173 m.
Climate: Temperate. The terrain, location, and prevailing westerly winds
make the weather changeable.
People Nationality: Noun -- Dane(s). Adjective -- Danish.
Population (1996): 5.3 million.* Annual growth rate: 0.6%.
Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German.
Religion: Evangelical Lutheran (about 97%).
Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), some German.
English is the predominant second language.
Education: Years compulsory -- 9. Attendance -- 100%. Literacy -- 100%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (1996, est.) - 5.5/1,000. Life expectancy
-- men 72 yrs., women 78 yrs.
Work force (1996): 2.8 million. Industry and construction -- 25%.
Government -- 31%. Services -- 38%. Agriculture and fisheries -- 5%.
Other -- 1%.
Type: Constitutional monarchy.
Constitution: June 5, 1953.
Branches: Executive -- queen (chief of state), prime minister (head of
government), cabinet. Legislative -- unicameral parliament (Folketing).
Judicial -- appointed Supreme Court.
Political parties: Social Democratic, Venstre (Liberal), Konservative,
Socialist People's, Progress, Radikale, Unity List, Center Democratic,
Suffrage: Universal adult.
Administrative subdivisions: 14 counties and 275 municipalities.
GDP (1996): $174 billion.
Annual growth rate: 2.4%.
Per capita income: $30,000.
Agriculture (and related production, 4% of GDP): Products -- meat, dairy
Industry (20% of GDP): Types -- industrial and construction equipment,
electronics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, furniture, textiles, ships.
Natural resources: North Sea -- oil and gas, fish. Greenland -- fish,
zinc, lead, molybdenum, uranium, gold, platinum. The Faroe Islands --
Trade (1996): Exports -- $49 billion: machinery and instruments 25%;
meat and meat products 9%; chemical, medical, and pharmaceutical
products 11%; fish and fish products 4%; transport equipment 4%;
textiles and apparel 5%; furniture 4%. Imports -- $43 billion: machinery
and computers 24%; iron, steel, and metals 8%; transport equipment
(excluding ships) 8%; paper and paperboard 4%; fish and fish products
3%. Partners -- Germany 22%, Sweden 11%, U.K.
8%, U.S. 5%, Eastern European countries 5%.
Official exchange rate (1996 avg.): 5.79 kroner=U.S. $1.
*Excluding Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
PEOPLE AND HISTORY
The Danes, a homogenous Gothic-Germanic people, have inhabited Denmark
since prehistoric times. Danish is the principal language. A small
German-speaking minority lives in southern Jutland; a mostly Inuit
population inhabits Greenland; and the Faroe Islands have a Nordic
population with its own language. Education is compulsory from ages
seven to 16 and is free through the university level.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church is state supported and accounts for
about 97% of Denmark's religious affiliation. Denmark has religious
freedom, however, and several other Protestant denominations and other
During the Viking period (9th-11th centuries), Denmark was a great power
based on the Jutland Peninsula, the Island of Zealand, and the southern
part of what is now Sweden. In the early 11th century, King Canute
united Denmark and England for almost 30 years.
Viking raids brought Denmark into contact with Christianity, and in the
12th century, crown and church influence increased. By the late 13th
century, royal power had waned, and the nobility forced the king to
grant a charter, considered Denmark's first constitution. Although the
struggle between crown and nobility continued into the 14th century,
Queen Margrethe I succeeded in uniting Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland,
the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland under the Danish crown. Sweden
and Finland left the union in 1520; however, Norway remained until 1814.
Iceland, in a "personal union" under the king of Denmark after 1918,
became independent in 1944.
The Reformation was introduced in Denmark in 1536. Denmark's provinces
in today's southwestern Sweden were lost in 1658, and Norway was
transferred from the Danish to the Swedish crown in 1814, following the
defeat of Napoleon, with whom Denmark was allied.
The Danish liberal movement gained momentum in the 1830s, and in 1849
Denmark became a constitutional monarchy. After the war with Prussia and
Austria in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig-Holstein to
Prussia and adopt a policy of neutrality. Toward the end of the 19th
century, Denmark inaugurated important social and labor market reforms,
laying the basis for the present welfare state.
Denmark remained neutral during World War I. Despite its declaration of
neutrality at the beginning of World War II, it was invaded by the
Germans in 1940 and occupied until it was liberated by the Allied forces
in May 1945. Denmark became a charter member of the United Nations and
was one of the original signers of the North Atlantic Treaty.
Denmark's rich intellectual heritage contributes to the cultural
achievements of the modern world. The astronomical discoveries of Tycho
Brahe (1546-1601) and the brilliant contributions to atomic physics of
Niels Bohr (1885-1962) indicate the range of Danish scientific
achievement. The fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen (1805-75), the
philosophical essays of Soren Kierkegaard (1813-55), and the short
stories of Karen Blixen (penname Isak Dinesen, 1885-1962) have earned
international recognition, as have the symphonies of Carl Nielsen (1865-
1931). Danish applied art and industrial design have won awards for
excellence. The name of Georg Jensen (1866-1935) is known worldwide for
outstanding modern design in silver, and "Royal Copenhagen" is among the
Visitors to Denmark will discover a wealth of cultural activity. The
Royal Danish Ballet, an exceptional company, specializes in the work of
the great Danish choreographer August Bournonville (1805-79). Danes have
distinguished themselves as jazz musicians, and the Copenhagen Jazz
Festival has acquired an international reputation. International
collections of modern art enjoy unusually attractive settings at the
Louisiana Museum north of Copenhagen and at the North Jutland Art Museum
in Aalborg. The State Museum of Art and the Glyptotek, both in
Copenhagen, contain treasures of Danish and international art. The
Museum of Applied Art and Industrial Design in Copenhagen exhibits the
best in Danish design. The Royal Danish Porcelain Factory and Bing &
Grondahl, renowned for the quality of their porcelain and ceramics,
export their products worldwide. Ceramic designs by Bjorn Wiinblad also
are well known and popular.
Among today's Danish writers, probably the most well-known to American
readers is Peter Hoeg (Smilla's Sense of Snow; Borderliners), and the
most prolific is Klaus Rifbjerg -- poet, novelist, playwright, and
screenwriter. Benny Andersen writes poems, short stories, and music.
Poems by both writers have been translated into English by the Curbstone
Press. Kirsten Thorup's Baby, winner of the 1980 Pegasus Prize, is
printed in English by the University of Louisiana Press. The
psychological thrillers of Anders Bodelsen also appear in English.
Suzanne Brogger and Vita Andersen focus largely on the changing roles of
women in society. In music, Hans Abrahamsen and Per Norgaard are the two
most famous living composers. Hans Abrahamsen's works have been
performed by the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, DC.
The Ministry of Cultural Affairs was created in 1961. Cultural life and
meaningful leisure time were then and remain subjects of debate by
politicians and parliament as well as the general public. The
democratization of cultural life promoted by the government's 1960s
cultural policy recently has come to terms with the older "genteel"
culture; broader concepts of culture now generally accepted include
amateur and professional cultural, media, sports, and leisure-time
Denmark's cultural policy is characterized by decentralized funding,
program responsibility, and institutions. Danish cultural direction
differs from other countries with a Ministry of Culture and a stated
policy in that special laws govern each cultural field -- e.g., the New
Theater Act of 1990 and the Music Law of 1976.
The Ministry of Cultural Affairs includes among its responsibilities
international cultural relations; training of librarians and architects;
copyright legislation; and subsidies to archives, libraries, museums,
literature, music, arts and crafts, theater, and film production. During
1970-82, the Ministry also recognized protest movements and street
manifestations as cultural events, because social change was viewed as
an important goal of Danish cultural policy. The current government
exercises caution in moderating this policy and practice. Radio and
broadcasting also fall under the Ministry of Culture.
Government contributions to culture have increased steadily in recent
years, but viewed against the present government's firm objective to
limit public expenditures, contributions will stabilize in the future.
Municipal and county governments assume a relatively large share of the
costs for cultural activities in their respective districts. In 1996,
government expenditures for culture totaled about 1.0% of the budget.
Most support went to libraries and archives, theater, museums, arts and
crafts training, and films.
Denmark is a constitutional monarchy. Queen Margrethe II has largely
ceremonial functions; probably her most significant formal power lies in
her right to appoint the prime minister and cabinet ministers, who are
responsible for administration of the government. However, she must
consult with parliamentary leaders to determine the public's will, since
the cabinet may be dismissed by a vote of no confidence in the Folketing
(parliament). Cabinet members are occasionally recruited from outside
The 1953 constitution established a unicameral Folketing of not more
than 179 members, of whom two are elected from the Faroe Islands and two
from Greenland. Elections are held at least every four years, but the
prime minister can dissolve the Folketing at any time and call for new
elections. Folketing members are elected by a complicated system of
proportional representation; any party receiving at least 2% of the
total national vote receives representation. The result is a
multiplicity of parties (nine currently in parliament), none of which
holds a majority. Electorate participation normally is more than 85%.
The judicial branch consists of about 100 local courts, two high courts,
several special courts (e.g., arbitration and maritime), and a supreme
court of 15 judges appointed by the crown on the government's
Denmark is divided into 14 counties (Amter) and 275 municipalities
(Kommuner). The chief official of the Amt, the county mayor (Amtsborg-
mester), is elected by the county council from among its members,
according to the municipal reform of 1970. The cities of Copenhagen and
Frederiksborg function as both counties and municipalities.
The Faroe Islands and Greenland enjoy home rule, with the Danish
Government represented locally by high commissioners. These home-rule
governments are responsible for most domestic affairs, with foreign
relations, monetary affairs, and defense falling to the Danish
Although Denmark remained neutral during the First World War, its rapid
occupation by Nazi Germany in 1940 persuaded most Danes that neutrality
was no longer a reliable guarantee of Danish security. Danish security
policy is founded on its membership in NATO. Since 1988, Danish defense
budgets and security policy have been set by multi-year agreements
supported by a wide parliamentary majority including government and
opposition parties. However, public opposition to increases in defense
spending -- during a period when economic constraints require reduced
spending for social welfare -- has created differences among the
political parties regarding a broadly acceptable level of new defense
expenditure. Current resource plans are based on the 1995 defense
agreement covering the period 1995-1999. The average percentage of
Danish GDP absorbed by defense in 1996 was about 1.5%.
Principal Government Officials
Monarch -- Queen Margrethe II
Prime Minister -- Poul Nyrup Rasmussen
Food (including agriculture and fisheries) -- Mr. Henrik Dam Kristensen
Business and Industry -- Mr. Jan Trojborg
Culture -- Mr. Ebbe Lundgaard
Defense -- Mr. Hans Haekkerup
Development Cooperation -- Mr. Poul Nielson
Economic Affairs/Nordic Cooperation -- Ms. Marianne Jelved
Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs-- Mr. Ole Vig Jensen
Environment and Energy -- Mr. Svend Auken
Finance -- Mr. Mogens Lykketoft
Foreign Affairs -- Mr. Niels Helveg Petersen
Housing -- Mr. Ole Lovig Simonsen
Interior and Health -- Ms. Birte Weiss
Justice -- Mr. Frank Jensen
Labor -- Ms. Jytte Andersen
Research - Ms. Jytte Hilden
Social Affairs -- Ms. Karen Jespersen
Taxation -- Mr. Carsten Koch
Transport -- Mr. Bjorn Westh
Ambassador to the United States -- Knud-Erik Tygesen
Ambassador to the United Nations - vacant after death of Benny Kimberg
in June 1997
Denmark maintains an embassy at 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington,
DC 20008 (tel. 202-234-4300). Consulates general are in Chicago, Los
Angeles, and New York.
Political life in Denmark is orderly and democratic. Political changes
occur gradually through a process of consensus, and political methods
and attitudes are generally moderate.
The Social Democratic Party, Denmark's largest and closely identified
with a large, well-organized labor movement, has held power either alone
or in coalition for most of the postwar period except from 1982 to 1993.
Since the parliamentary elections in September 1994, Prime Minister Poul
Nyrup Rasmussen and his Social Democratic Party have led a minority
coalition government, which at first included the centrist Radikales and
the Center Democrats. The Center Democrats left the government in
December 1996; the present SDP-Radikales coalition controls 71 of 179
seats in the Folketing.
The vulnerability implicit in a minority coalition has been evidenced in
recent coalition failure to achieve consensus on issues such as
extensive labor, tax, and welfare reforms. Consensus decision-making is
the most prominent feature of Danish politics. It often allows the small
centrist parties to play a larger role than their size suggests.
Although the centrist Radikale party sometimes shows traces of its
pacifist past, particularly on defense spending, most major legislation
is passed by sizeable majorities.
Since the 1988 elections, which led to a domestic truce on North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and security questions, Denmark's
role in the European Union (EU) has come to be a key political issue.
Denmark emerged from two referendums (June 2, 1992, and May 18, 1993)
with four important exemptions (or "opt-outs") to the Maastricht Treaty
on the European Union: common defense, common currency, EU citizenship,
and certain aspects of legal cooperation, including law enforcement.
Fear of losing Denmark's identity in an integrating Europe runs deep in
the public. Prime Minister Nyrup Rasmussen has announced that the
Amsterdam Treaty resulting from the EU's Intergovernmental Conference on
Europe (IGC) will be submitted to the electorate in referendum form.
Denmark's industrialized market economy depends on imported raw
materials and foreign trade. Within the European Union, Denmark
advocates a liberal trade policy. Its standard of living is among the
highest in the world, and the Danes devote 1% of GDP to foreign aid.
Denmark is self-sufficient in energy. Its principal exports are
machinery, instruments, and food products. The U.S. is Denmark's largest
non-European trading partner, accounting for about 5% of total Danish
merchandise trade. Aircraft, computers, machinery, and instruments are
among the major U.S. exports to Denmark. There are some 250 U.S.-owned
companies in Denmark. Among major Danish exports to the U.S. are
industrial machinery, chemical products, furniture, pharmaceuticals, and
canned ham and pork.
From 1982, a center-right government corrected accumulated economic
pressures, mainly inflation and balance-of-payments deficits, but lost
power in 1993 to a Social Democratic coalition government led by Poul
Nyrup Rasmussen. The current government has had success in cutting
official unemployment, which peaked at 12.5% and is now 8%. Average
annual growth rates are now 2-3%.
Danes are proud of their highly developed welfare safety net, which
ensures that all Danes receive basic health care and need not fear real
poverty. Over the last 20 years, however, the number of Danes living on
transfer payments has grown to about 1 million working-age persons
(roughly 20% of the population), and the system is beginning to show
strains. Health care and care for the elderly particularly have
suffered, and the need for welfare reform is increasingly discussed.
More than one-quarter of the labor force is employed in the public
Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Greenland suffered negative economic growth in the early 1990s, but
since 1993 the economy has improved. A tight fiscal policy by the
Greenland Home Rule Government since the late 1980s helped create
surpluses in the public budget and a low inflation rate. Since 1990,
Greenland has registered a foreign trade deficit.
Following the closure of Greenland's last lead and zinc mine in 1989,
Greenland's economy is solely dependent on the fishing industry and
Danish grants. Despite resumption of several interesting hydrocarbon and
mineral exploration activities, it will take several years before
production may materialize. Greenland's shrimp fishery is by far the
largest income earner, since cod catches have dropped to historically
low levels. Tourism is the only sector offering any near-term potential,
and even this is limited due to the short season and high costs. The
public sector plays a dominant role in Greenland's economy. Grants from
mainland Denmark and EU fisheries payments make up about one-half of the
home-rule government's revenues.
The Faroe Islands also depend almost entirely on fisheries and related
exports. Without Danish Government bailouts in 1992 and 1993, the
Faroese economy would have gone bankrupt. The Faroese economy in 1995
and 1996 saw a noticeable upturn again, but remains extremely
vulnerable. Recent off-shore oil finds close to the Faroese area give
hope for Faroese deposits, too, which may lay the basis for an economic
rebound over the longer term.
Danish foreign policy is founded upon four cornerstones: the United
Nations, NATO, the EU, and Nordic cooperation. Denmark also is a member
of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; the World Trade
Organization (WTO); the Organization for Security and Cooperation in
Europe (OSCE); the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD); the Council of Europe; the Nordic Council; the Baltic Council;
and the Barents Council. Denmark emphasizes its relations with
developing nations and is one of the few countries to exceed the UN goal
of contributing 1% of GNP to development assistance.
In the wake of the Cold War, Denmark has been active in international
efforts to integrate the countries of Central and Eastern Europe into
the West. It has played a leadership role in coordinating Western
assistance to the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). The
country is a strong supporter of international peacekeeping. Danish
forces were heavily engaged in the former Yugoslavia in the UN
Protection Force (UNPROFOR), with IFOR, and now SFOR.
Denmark has been a member of NATO since its founding in 1949, and
membership in NATO remains highly popular. There were several serious
confrontations between the U.S. and Denmark on security policy in the
so-called "footnote era" (1982-88), when a hostile parliamentary
majority forced the government to adopt specific national positions on
nuclear and arms control issues. With the end of the Cold War, however,
Denmark has been supportive of U.S. policy objectives in the Alliance.
Denmark is not a member of the Western European Union but does hold
Danes have enjoyed a reputation as "reluctant" Europeans. When they
rejected ratification of the Maastricht Treaty on June 2, 1992, they put
the EC's plans for the European Union on hold. In December 1992, the
rest of the EC agreed to exempt Denmark from certain aspects of the
European Union, including a common defense, a common currency, EU
citizenship, and certain aspects of legal cooperation. On this revised
basis, a clear majority of Danes approved continued participation in the
EU in a second referendum on May 18, 1993. Denmark plans to submit the
recently concluded Amsterdam Treaty to the electorate in referendum
Denmark is a close NATO ally, and overall U.S.-Danish relations are
excellent. Active in Bosnia, OSCE Chairman-in-Office for 1997, and a
leader in the Baltic region, Denmark and the U.S. consult closely on
European political and security matters. Denmark shares U.S. views on
the positive ramifications of NATO enlargement. Danish and U.S. troops
serve side by side in Bosnia in an effort to bring peace to the region.
Denmark's active liberal trade policy in the EU, OECD, and WTO largely
coincides with U.S. interests; the U.S. is Denmark's largest non-
European trade partner with about 5% of Danish merchandise trade.
Denmark's role in European environmental and agricultural issues and its
strategic location at the entrance to the Baltic Sea have made
Copenhagen a center for U.S. agencies and the private sector dealing
with the Nordic/Baltic region.
American culture -- and particularly popular culture, from jazz, rock,
and rap to television shows and literature -- is very popular in
Denmark. Some 350,000 U.S. tourists visit the country annually.
The U.S. Air Force (USAF) base and early warning radar at Thule,
Greenland -- a Danish self-governing territory -- serve as a vital link
in Western defenses. The role of the USAF base in Greenland has sparked
a degree of domestic controversy vis-a-vis U.S.-Danish cooperation at
Thule. The U.S. and Denmark in 1994 agreed to allow use of the Thule Air
Base for limited tourist transit, to assist Greenland's economic
development. The U.S. and Denmark continue to cooperate closely on
matters related to the air base.
Principal U.S. Officials
Ambassador -- Edward E. Elson
Deputy Chief of Mission -- Jimmy J. Kolker
Political/Economic Counselor -- Patricia D. Hughes
Economic Officer -- Karen Milliken
Consul -- Suella Pipal
Administrative Officer - Bran Kelsey
Public Affairs Counselor -- Stephan Strain
Environment, Science, and Technology Counselor - Jon Grand (EPA)
Agricultural Attache -- Margaret Dowling
Commercial Attache -- R. Christian Reed
Defense and Naval Attache - Captain E. Carl Swanson, Jr.
Army Attache -- Lt. Col. Steven M. Czepica
Air Attache -- Lt. Col. Thomas Shubert
Chief, Office of Defense Cooperation -- Col. Lawrence Hagenauer,
USAF Labor Officer -- Pete K. Ito
The U.S. embassy is located at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100
Copenhagen O, Denmark (tel. 3555-31-44).
TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATION
The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program provides
Travel Warnings and Consular Information Sheets. Travel Warnings are
issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel
to a certain country. Consular Information Sheets exist for all
countries and include information on immigration practices, currency
regulations, health conditions, areas of instability, crime and
security, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. posts in
the country. Public Announcements are issued as a means to disseminate
information quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively short-
term conditions overseas which pose significant risks to the security of
American travelers. Free copies of this information are available by
calling the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202-647-5225 or via the fax-
on-demand system: 202-647-3000. Travel Warnings and Consular Information
Sheets also are available on the Consular Affairs Internet home page:
http://travel.state.gov and the Consular Affairs Bulletin Board (CABB).
To access CABB, dial the modem number: (301-946-4400 (it will
accommodate up to 33,600 bps), set terminal communications program to N-
8-1 (no parity, 8 bits, 1 stop bit); and terminal emulation to VT100.
The login is travel and the password is info (Note: Lower case is
required). The CABB also carries international security information from
the Overseas Security Advisory Council and Department's Bureau of
Diplomatic Security. Consular Affairs Trips for Travelers publication
series, which contain information on obtaining passports and planning a
safe trip abroad, can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-
7954; telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250.
Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be
obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-
5225. For after-hours emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-
Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-hour, 7-
day a week automated system ($.35 per minute) or live operators 8 a.m.
to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday ($1.05 per minute). The number is 1-900-
225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778). Major credit card users (for a flat rate
of $4.95) may call 1-888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648)
Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at
(404) 332-4559 gives the most recent health advisories, immunization
recommendations or requirements, and advice on food and drinking water
safety for regions and countries. A booklet entitled Health Information
for International Travel (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280) is
available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC
20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.
Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and
customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to
travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a country's
embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see "Principal
Government Officials" listing in this publication).
U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous areas
are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country
(see "Principal U.S. Embassy Officials" listing in this publication).
This may help family members contact you in case of an emergency.
Further Electronic Information:
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network. Available on the Internet,
DOSFAN provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign policy
information. Updated daily, DOSFAN includes Background Notes; Dispatch,
the official magazine of U.S. foreign policy; daily press briefings;
directories of key officers of foreign service posts; etc. DOSFAN's
World Wide Web site is at http://www.state.gov; this site has a link to
the DOSFAN Gopher Research Collection, which also is accessible at
U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published on a semi-annual basis
by the U.S. Department of State, USFAC archives information on the
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network, and includes an array of
official foreign policy information from 1990 to the present. Contact
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O.
Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. To order, call (202) 512-1800 or
fax (202) 512-2250.
National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department of
Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related information,
including Country Commercial Guides. It is available on the Internet
(www.stat-usa.gov) and on CD-ROM. Call the NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-
1986 for more information.
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