Background Notes: New Zealand, October 1998
Released by the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
U.S. Department of State
OFFICIAL NAME: New Zealand
Area: 270,534 sq. km. (104,440 sq. mi.); about the size of
Cities: (1997) Capital--Wellington (345,000). Other cities--
Auckland (1,057,000), Christchurch (337,000), Hamilton (164,000).
Terrain: Highly varied, from snow-capped mountains to lowland
Climate: Temperate to subtropical.
Nationality: Noun--New Zealander(s). Adjective--New Zealand.
Population (1997): est. 3.7 million.
Annual growth rate: (1997) 1.1%.
Ethnic groups: European 75%, Maori 14.5%, other Polynesian 5.6%.
Religions: Anglican 22%, Presbyterian 16%, Roman Catholic 15%.
Languages: English, Maori.
Education: Years compulsory--ages 6-16. Attendance--100%.
Health: (1996) Infant mortality rate--7.3/1,000. Life expectancy
(1996)--males 73 yrs., females 79 yrs.
Work force (1996) 1.6 million: Services and government--59%.
Industry and commerce--30.7%. Agriculture and mining--9.7%.
Constitution: No formal, written constitution.
Independence: Declared a dominion in 1907.
Branches: Executive--Queen Elizabeth II (chief of state,
represented by a governor general), prime minister (head of
government), cabinet. Legislative--unicameral House of
Representatives, commonly called parliament. Judicial--three-
level system: District Courts, the High Court, and the Court of
Appeals, with further appeal possible to the Judicial Committee
of the Privy Council. There are also specialized courts, such as
employment court, family courts, youth courts, and the Maori
Administrative subdivisions: 12 regions with directly elected
councils and 74 districts (15 of which are designated as cities)
with elected councils. There are also a number of community
boards and special-purpose bodies with partially elected,
partially appointed memberships.
Political parties: National, Labour, the Alliance, New Zealand
First, ACT, United New Zealand and several smaller parties not
represented in Parliament.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
GDP: (1997) U.S. $64.4 billion.
Real annual GDP growth rate: (1997) 2.3%.
Per capita income: (1997) U.S. $15,505.
Natural resources: Natural gas, iron sand, coal, timber.
Agriculture (9.7% of GDP): Products--wool, meat, dairy products,
Industry (46.1% of GDP): Types--food processing, textiles,
machinery, transport equipment, fish, forestry products.
Trade (1996): Exports--$12 billion: meat, dairy products,
manufactured products, forest products, fish, fruit and
vegetables, wool. Major markets--Australia, Japan, U.S., U.K.
Imports--$21.3 billion: machinery, manufactured goods,
transportation equipment, chemicals, mineral fuels. Major
suppliers--Australia, U.S., Japan, U.K.
Most of the 3.7 million New Zealanders are of British origin.
About 14% claim descent from the indigenous Maori population,
which is of Polynesian origin. Nearly 75% of the people,
including a large majority of the of the Maoris, live on the
North Island. In addition, 167,000 Pacific Islanders also live in
During the late 1870s, natural increase permanently replaced
immigration as the chief contributor to population growth and has
accounted for more than 75% of population growth in the 20th
century. Nearly 85% of New Zealand's population lives in urban
areas, where the service and manufacturing industries are growing
Archaeological evidence indicates that New Zealand was populated
by fishing and hunting people of East Polynesian ancestry perhaps
1,000 years before Europeans arrived. Known to some scholars as
the Moa-hunters, they may have merged with later waves of
Polynesians who, according to Maori tradition, arrived between
952 and 1150. Some of the Maoris called their new homeland
"Aotearoa," usually translated as "land of the long white cloud."
In 1642, Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator, made the first recorded
European sighting of New Zealand and sketched sections of the two
main islands' west coasts. English Captain James Cook thoroughly
explored the coastline during three South Pacific voyages
beginning in 1769. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries,
lumbering, seal hunting, and whaling attracted a few European
settlers to New Zealand. In 1840, the United Kingdom established
British sovereignty through the Treaty of Waitangi signed that
year with Maori chiefs.
In the same year, selected groups from the U.K. began the
colonization process. Expanding European settlement led to
conflict with Maoris, most notably in the Maori land wars of the
1860s. British and colonial forces eventually overcame determined
Maori resistance. During this period, many Maoris died from
disease and warfare, much of it intertribal.
Constitutional government began to develop in the 1850s. In 1867,
Maoris won the right to a certain number of reserved seats in
parliament. During this period, the livestock industry began to
expand, and the foundations of New Zealand's modern economy took
shape. By the end of the 19th century, improved transportation
facilities made possible a great overseas trade in wool, meat,
and dairy products.
By the 1890s, parliamentary government along democratic lines was
well established, and New Zealand's social institutions assumed
their present form. Women received the right to vote in national
elections in 1893. The turn of the century brought sweeping
social reforms that built the foundation for New Zealand's
version of the welfare state.
Maoris gradually recovered from population decline and, through
interaction and intermarriage with settlers and missionaries,
adopted much of European culture. In recent decades, Maoris have
become increasingly urbanized and have become more politically
active and culturally assertive.
New Zealand was declared a dominion by a royal proclamation in
1907. It achieved full internal and external autonomy by the
Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1947, although this merely
formalized a situation that had existed for many years.
New Zealand has a parliamentary system of government closely
patterned on that of the United Kingdom and is a fully
independent member of the Commonwealth. It has no written
Executive authority is vested in a cabinet led by the prime
minister, who is the leader of the political party or coalition
of parties holding the majority of seats in parliament. All
cabinet ministers must be members of parliament and are
collectively responsible to it.
The unicameral parliament (House of Representatives) has 120
seats, five of which currently are reserved for Maoris elected on
a separate Maori roll. However, Maoris also may run for, and have
been elected to, non-reserved seats. Parliaments are elected for
a maximum term of three years, although elections can be called
The judiciary consists of the Court of Appeals, the High Court,
and the District Courts. New Zealand law has three principal
sources--English common law, certain statutes of the U.K.
Parliament enacted before 1947, and statutes of the New Zealand
Parliament. In interpreting common law, the courts have been
concerned with preserving uniformity with common law as
interpreted in the United Kingdom. This uniformity is ensured
by the maintenance of the Privy Council in London as the final
court of appeal and by judges' practice of following British
decisions, even though, technically, they are not bound by them.
Local government in New Zealand has only the powers conferred
upon it by parliament. The country's 12 regional councils are
directly elected, set their own tax rates, and have a chairman
elected by their members. Regional council responsibilities
include environmental management, regional aspects of civil
defense, and transportation planning. The 74 "territorial
authorities"--15 city councils, 58 district councils in rural
areas, and one county council for the Chatham Islands--are
directly elected, raise local taxes at rates they themselves set,
and are headed by popularly elected mayors. The territorial
authorities may delegate powers to local community boards. These
boards, instituted at the behest either local citizens or
territorial authorities, advocate community views but cannot levy
taxes, appoint staff, or own property.
Principal Government Officials
Chief of State--Queen Elizabeth II
Governor General--His Excellency Sir Michael Hardie Boys
Prime Minister--Jenny Shipley
Ambassador to the United States--James Bolger
Ambassador to the United Nations--Michael Powles
New Zealand maintains an embassy in the United States at 37
Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-328-4800,
fax 202-667-5227). A consulate general is located in Los Angeles
(tel. 310-207-1605, fax 310-207-3605). Tourism information is
available through the New Zealand Tourism Board office in Santa
Monica, California (toll-free tel. 800-388-5494).
The conservative National Party and left-leaning Labour Party
have dominated New Zealand political life since a Labour
government came to power in 1935. During 14 years in office, the
Labour Party implemented a broad array of social and economic
legislation, including comprehensive social security, a large-
scale public works program, a 40-hour workweek, a minimum basic
wage, and compulsory unionism. The National Party won control of
the government in 1949 and adopted many welfare measures
instituted by the Labour Party. Except for two brief periods of
Labour governments in 1957-60 and 1972-75, National held power
until 1984. After regaining control in 1984, the Labor government
instituted a series of radical market-oriented reforms in
response to New Zealand's mounting external debt. It also
enacted anti-nuclear legislation that effectively brought about
New Zealand's suspension from the ANZUS security alliance with
the United States and Australia.
In October 1990, the National Party was again elected, capturing
67 of 97 parliamentary seats in a landslide victory. To the
disappointment of some supporters, National continued the
economic reforms introduced by Labor. National was narrowly
reelected in November 1993. Two seats each were won by two new
opposition parties, the Alliance and New Zealand First. In a
simultaneous referendum, New Zealanders changed their electoral
system to a form of proportional representation designed to give
smaller parties a larger voice in parliament. In the 1996
election, the first under the new "mixed-member-proportional"
(MMP) system, the National Party, at 34% (44 Parliament seats)
barely edged out Labour (28% - 37 seats) as the top party. New
Zealand First (13%) with its 17 seats opted to join National in a
The ongoing region-wide Asian financial crisis, which began in
1997, has created uncertainty and instability in the New Zealand
New Zealand enjoys a high level of prosperity based on exports
from its efficient agricultural system. Leading agricultural
exports include meat, forest products, fruit and vegetables,
fish, wool and dairy products. The country has substantial
hydroelectric power and sizable reserves of natural gas. Leading
manufacturing sectors are food processing, metal fabrication, and
wood and paper products.
New Zealand was a direct beneficiary of many of the reforms
achieved under the Uruguay Round. New Zealand agriculture, and
the dairy sector in particular, have enjoyed many new trade
opportunities. Since 1984, government subsidies have been
eliminated; import regulations have been liberalized; exchange
rates have been freely floated; controls on interest rates,
wages, and prices have been removed; and marginal rates of
taxation reduced. Tight monetary policy and major efforts to
reduce the government budget deficit have cut inflation from an
annual rate of more than 18% in 1987 to about 1.6% in 1997. The
restructuring and sale of government-owned enterprises has
reduced government's role in the economy and permitted the
retirement of some public debt. However, the reforms led to
economic dislocations with unemployment reaching 11% in 1991. An
improving economy brought unemployment down to 6.2% by March
1996, but unemployment remains a significant social concern and
has been rising for the past year to 7.7% in June 1998.
Economic growth has slowed substantially since an unsustainable
peak of over 6% in 1994, in response to tighter monetary policy.
At the same time, by early 1998, real GDP growth was approaching
2% and economists believe that the Asian financial crisis could
postpone New Zealand's long-expected economic recovery until
perhaps 1999. Business and consumer confidence are trending
downward, negatively impacting both business investment and
New Zealand's exports were hurt by the rapid appreciation of the
NZ dollar from late 1994 to mid-1997 in response to tight
monetary policy. With the loosening of monetary conditions
throughout 1997, the NZ currency lost all of its gains against
the U.S. dollar, boosting exports in the second half of 1997.
However, the Asian financial crisis has begun to bite into such
key foreign exchange earners as tourism from Asia, forestry
exports, and educational services. Dairy and meat exports to
Asia are also expected to suffer in 1998, while manufactured
products are holding up well. New Zealand commodity exporters
are looking to U.S. and European markets to replace lost Asian
customers. The current account has been deteriorating
substantially in the last few years and is expected to create a
downward risk for the NZ currency.
Prices and access to foreign markets are a constant concern to
New Zealand. Exports also have been helped by improving economic
relations with Australia. Australia and New Zealand are partners
in "Closer Economic Relations" (CER), which allows for free trade
in goods and most services. Since 1990, CER has created a single
market of more than 20 million people, and this has provided new
opportunities for New Zealand exporters. Australia is now the
destination of 19.7% of New Zealand's exports, compared to 14% in
1983. Extending CER to product standardization and taxation
policy is also under consideration.
U.S. goods and services are increasingly competitive in New
Zealand. The market-led economy offers many opportunities for
U.S. exporters and investors. Investment opportunities exist in
chemicals, food preparation, finance, tourism and forest
products, as well as in franchising. The best sales prospects are
for computers, software, medical equipment, chemicals, sporting
goods, and telecommunications and transportation equipment.
New Zealand welcomes and encourages foreign investment without
discrimination. Approval by its Overseas Investment
Commission(OIC) is required for foreign investments over $6.4
million or investments of any size in two specific sectors--
commercial fishing and rural land. Foreign investment in
commercial fishing is limited to a 25% holding, unless an
exemption is granted by the Ministry of Agriculture and
Fisheries. While the level of ownership is not restricted for
rural land, foreign purchasers are required to demonstrate that
the purchase is beneficial to New Zealand. In practice, OIC
approval requirements have not been an obstacle for U.S.
investors. No performance requirements are attached to foreign
direct investment. Full remittance of profits and capital is
permitted through normal banking channels.
A number of U.S. companies have subsidiary branches in New
Zealand. Many companies operate through local agents, and some
are in association in joint ventures. The U.S. Government
recognized the generally liberal trading environment in New
Zealand by signing a bilateral Trade and Investment Framework
Agreement in 1992 providing for periodic government-to-government
consultations on bilateral and multilateral trade and investment
issues and concerns.
New Zealand has three defense policy objectives: 1) defend New
Zealand against low-level threats; 2) contribute to regional
security; and 3) play a part in global security efforts. New
Zealand considers its own national defense needs to be modest.
New Zealand's 1997 Defense Budget provides for significant
updgrades in equipment over the next five years.
New Zealand states it maintains a "credible minimum force" to
reassure its neighbors and allies of its commitment to regional
stability, although critics maintain that the country's defense
forces have fallen below this standard. With a claimed area of
direct strategic concern that extends from Australia to Southeast
Asia to the South Pacific, and with defense expenditures that
total less than 1.4% of GDP, New Zealand necessarily places
substantial reliance on its defense relationship with larger
countries. Before the ANZUS rift over NZ's anti-nuclear
legislation, its defense relationship with the U.S. was very
important to New Zealand. In recent years, NZ has coordinated
its defense efforts more closely with Australia.
New Zealand is an active participant in multilateral
peacekeeping. It has taken a leading role in trying to bring
peace to Bougainville, brokering a cease-fire and leading the
"truce monitoring group" composed of NZ, Australia, Fiji, and
Vanuatu. New Zealand maintains a contingent in the Sinai
Multinational Force and Observers and has contributed to UN
peacekeeping operations in Angola, Cambodia, Somalia, and the
former Yugoslavia. It has also participated in the Multilateral
Interception Force in the Persian Gulf.
NZ participates in Mutual Assistance Programs (MAP), sharing
training facilities and exchanges of personnel, and conducting
joint exercises with the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Papua
New Guinea, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Fiji, Tonga, and other
South Pacific states. In addition to its MAP partners, NZ
exercises with its Five Power Defense Arrangement partners
(Australia, the United Kingdom, Malaysia, and Singapore), as well
as with Korea.
Due to New Zealand's anti-nuclear policy, defense cooperation
with the U.S. (including training exercises) has been
significantly restricted since 1986.
New Zealand's foreign policy is oriented chiefly toward developed
democratic nations and emerging Pacific economies. The country's
major political parties have generally agreed on the broad
outlines of foreign policy, and the current coalition government
has been active in multilateral fora on issues of recurring
interest to NZ: trade liberalization, disarmament, and arms
New Zealand values the United Nations and its own participation
in that organization. It also values its participation in: the
World Trade Organization (WTO); World Bank; International
Monetary Fund (IMF); Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD); International Energy Agency; Asian
Development Bank; South Pacific Forum; The Pacific Community;
Colombo Plan; Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC); INTELSAT;
and the International Whaling Commission. New Zealand is also an
active member of the Commonwealth. Despite the 1985 rupture in
the ANZUS alliance, New Zealand has maintained good working
relations with the United States and Australia on a broad array
of international issues.
In the past, New Zealand's geographic isolation and its
agricultural economy's general prosperity tended to minimize
public interest in world affairs. However, growing global trade
and other international economic events have made New Zealanders
increasingly aware of their country's dependence on stable
New Zealand's economic involvement with Asia has been
increasingly important, first through aid, mainly to Southeast
Asia, and through expanding trade with the growing economies of
Asia. New Zealand is a "dialogue partner" with the Association of
South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and an active participant in
As a charter member of the Colombo Plan, New Zealand has provided
Asian countries with technical assistance and capital. It also
contributes through the Asian Development Bank and through UN
programs. It is a member of the UN Economic and Social Council
for Asia and the Pacific.
New Zealand has focused its bilateral economic assistance
resources on projects in the South Pacific island states. It has
taken a special interest in facilitating peace and reconciliation
on Bougainville Island I Papua New Guinea. NZ's long association
with Samoa (formerly known as Western Samoa), reflected in a
treaty of friendship signed in 1962, and its close association
with Tonga have resulted in a flow of immigrants and visitors
under work permit schemes from both countries. New Zealand
administers the Tokelau Islands and provides foreign policy and
economic support when requested for the freely associated self-
governing states of the Cook Islands and Niue. Inhabitants of
these areas hold New Zealand citizenship.
In 1947, New Zealand joined Australia, France, the United
Kingdom, and the United States to form the South Pacific
Commission, a regional body to promote the welfare of the Pacific
region. New Zealand has been a leader in the organization. In
1971, New Zealand joined the other independent and self-governing
states of the South Pacific to establish the South Pacific Forum,
which meets annually at the "heads of government" level.
U.S.-NEW ZEALAND RELATIONS
Bilateral relations are excellent. The United States and New
Zealand share common elements of history and culture and a
commitment to democratic principles. Senior-level officials
regularly consult with each on issues of mutual importance.
The United States established consular representation in New
Zealand in 1839 to represent and protect American shipping and
whaling interests. Since the U.K. was responsible for New
Zealand's foreign affairs, direct U.S.-New Zealand diplomatic
ties were not established until 1942, when the Japanese threat
encouraged close U.S.-New Zealand cooperation in the Pacific
campaign. During the war, more than 400,000 American military
personnel were stationed in New Zealand to help bolster its
defenses and to prepare for crucial battles such as Tarawa and
New Zealand's relationship with the United States in the post-
World War II period was closely associated with the Australian,
New Zealand, United States (ANZUS) security treaty of 1951, under
which signatories agreed to consult in case of an attack in the
Pacific and to "act to meet the common danger." During the
postwar period, access to New Zealand ports by U.S. vessels
contributed significantly to the flexibility and effectiveness of
U.S. naval forces in the Pacific.
Growing concern about nuclear and arms control issues contributed
to the 1984 election of a Labour Government committed to barring
nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered warships from New Zealand
ports. The Labour Government's anti-nuclear policy proved
incompatible with a long-standing, worldwide U.S. policy of
neither confirming nor denying the presence or absence of nuclear
weapons on board U.S. vessels. Moreover, Labour's policy,
subsequently enacted as legislation, also prohibits visits by
nuclear powered ships.
Implementation of New Zealand's policy effectively prevented
practical alliance cooperation under ANZUS. After extensive
efforts to resolve the issue proved unsuccessful, in August 1986
the United States suspended its ANZUS security obligations to New
Zealand. The United States would welcome New Zealand's
reassessment of its legislation to permit that country's return
to full ANZUS cooperation.
Despite suspension of U.S. security obligations, the New Zealand
Government has reaffirmed the importance it attaches to continued
close political, economic, and social ties with the United States
and Australia. In trade, the United States is New Zealand's
third-largest supplier and customer after Australia and Japan.
Total bilateral trade for 1996 was $3.5 billion (with a $300
million surplus in favor of the U.S.), U.S. merchandise exports
to NZ were $1.9 billion. U.S. direct foreign investment in New
Zealand (as of 1996) totaled $4.8 billion, largely concentrated
in manufacturing, forestry, telecommunications services, and
New Zealand has worked closely with the U.S. to promote free
trade in the GATT/WTO, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) forum, and other multilateral fora. The U.S. and New
Zealand hold annual high-level trade and investment meetings.
The U.S. and New Zealand work together closely on scientific
research in the Antarctic. Christchurch, New Zealand is the
staging area for the shared logistical support of the U.S.
National Science Foundation's (NSF) three permanent bases in
Antarctica and New Zealand's one base, located just three
kilometers from the principal U.S. base.
Principal U.S. Embassy Officials
Ambassador--Josiah H. Beeman
Deputy Chief of Mission--Richard T. Miller
Political and Economic Counselor--Karen Krueger
Agricultural Attache--Gary Meyers
Defense Attache--Captain John Langer, USN
Public Affairs Officer--Frank Huffman
Administrative Officer--Boyd Doty
Consul (Auckland)--Michael Thurston
Senior Commercial Officer (Auckland)--M. Philip Gates
The U.S. Embassy in New Zealand is located at 29 Fitzherbert
Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington (tel. 64-4-472-2068, fax 64-4-471-
2380); the U.S. Consulate General is located on the 4th Floor,
Yorkshire General Building, corner of Shortland and O'Connell
Streets, Auckland (tel. 64-9-303-2724, fax 64-9-366-0870). For
information on foreign economic trends, commercial development,
production, trade regulations, and tariff rates, contact the
Bureau of Export Development, International Trade Administration,
U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC 20230. This
information is also available from any Commerce Department
TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATION
The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program
provides Travel Warnings and Consular Information Sheets. Travel
Warnings are issued when the State Department recommends that
Americans avoid travel to a certain country. Consular Information
Sheets exist for all countries and include information on
immigration practices, currency regulations, health conditions,
areas of instability, crime and security, political disturbances,
and the addresses of the U.S. posts in the country. Public
Announcements are issued as a means to disseminate information
quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively short-term
conditions overseas which pose significant risks to the security
of American travelers. Free copies of this information are
available by calling the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202-647-
5225 or via the fax-on-demand system: 202-647-3000. Travel
Warnings and Consular Information Sheets also are available on
the Consular Affairs Internet home page: http://travel.state.gov
and the Consular Affairs Bulletin Board (CABB). To access CABB,
dial the modem number: 301-946-4400 (it will accommodate up to
33,600 bps), set terminal communications program to N-8-1(no
parity, 8 bits, 1 stop bit); and terminal emulation to VT100. The
login is travel and the password is info. (Note: Lower case is
required). The CABB also carries international security
information from the Overseas Security Advisory Council and
Department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Consular Affairs
Trips for Travelers publication series, which contain information
on obtaining passports and planning a safe trip abroad, can be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954;
telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250.
Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may
be obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at
(202) 647-5225. For after-hours emergencies, Sundays and
holidays, call 202-647-4000.
Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-
hour, 7-day a week automated system ($.35 per minute) or live
operators 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday ($1.05 per
minute). The number is 1-900-225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778).
Major credit card users (for a flat rate of $4.95) may call 1-
888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648).
Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A
hotline at (404) 332-4559 gives the most recent health
advisories, immunization recommendations or requirements, and
advice on food and drinking water safety for regions and
countries. A booklet entitled Health Information for
International Travel (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280) is
available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
DC 20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.
Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and
customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest
to travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a
country's embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this
country, see "Principal Government Officials" listing in this
U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in
dangerous areas are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy
upon arrival in a country (see "Principal U.S. Embassy Officials"
listing in this publication). This may help family members
contact you in case of an emergency.
Further Electronic Information
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network. Available on the
Internet, DOSFAN provides timely, global access to official U.S.
foreign policy information. Updated daily, DOSFAN includes
Background Notes; Dispatch, the official magazine of U.S. foreign
policy; daily press briefings; Country Commercial Guides;
directories of key officers of foreign service posts; etc.
DOSFAN's World Wide Web site is at http://www.state.gov.
U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published on an annual
basis by the U.S. Department of State, USFAC archives information
on the Department of State Foreign Affairs Network, and includes
an array of official foreign policy information from 1990 to the
present. Contact the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. To
order, call (202) 512-1800 or fax (202) 512-2250.
National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department
of Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related
information. It is available on the Internet (www.stat-usa.gov)
and on CD-ROM. Call the NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-1986 for more
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