U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Mongolia, April 1998 (corrected*)
Released by the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
Official Name: Mongolia
Area: 1,566,500 sq. km. (604,103 sq. mi.); slightly larger than Alaska
(land boundaries 8,114 km.).
Cities: Capital--Ulaanbaatar (pop. 638,000). Other cities--Darhan
(90,000), Erdenet (65,000).
Terrain: Almost 90% of land area is pasture or desert wasteland, of
varying usefulness; 1% arable; 9% forested.
Climate: Continental, with little precipitation and sharp seasonal
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Mongolian(s).
Population (1996 est.): 2.5 million.
Annual growth rate (1996 est.): 1.62%.
Health (1995): Infant mortality rate--44.4/1,000. Life expectancy--63-68
Ethnic groups (1995): 85% Mongol (predominantly Khalkha), 7% Turkic
(largest group, Kazakh) 4.6% Tungusic, and 3.4% others, including
Chinese and Russian.
Languages: Khalkha Mongol, more than 90%; minor languages include
Kazakh, Chinese, and Russian.
Religions: Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim 4% (primarily in the
southwest), and Shamanism.
Education: Years compulsory--8 (provided free by the government).
Literacy--more than 90%.
Type: Parliamentary form of government, president second in authority to
the State Great Hural.
Independence: 1921; democratic reform and shift from dependence on the
former Soviet Union declared 1990.
Constitutions: 1960 and February 12, 1992.
Branches: Executive--power is divided between a president (elected by a
popular election in May 1997) and prime minister (current cabinet
nominated by the prime minister was formed in April 1998 by the State
Great Hural which was elected in June 1996).
Legislative--State Great Hural (76 deputies).
Judicial--Constitutional Court is empowered to supervise the
implementation of the Constitution, makes judgment on the violation of
its provisions, and solves disputes. Legal code under revision. No
provision for judicial review of legislative acts. Legal education at
Mongolian State Univ. Mongolia accepts ICJ jurisdiction.
Political parties: 11 announced political parties.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Administrative subdivisions: 18 aimags (provinces) and 3 autonomous
cities (Ulaanbaatar, Darhan, and Erdenet).
Flag: Three vertical bands--red, sky-blue, red; on the left red band the
Mongolian national emblem, the Soyombo, in yellow.
GDP (1997): $936 million.
Per capita GDP (1997): $395.
Natural resources: Coal, copper, molybdenum, iron, phosphates, tin,
nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, uranium, petroleum.
Agriculture: 31% of 1996 GDP, livelihood for approximately 50% of
population. Products--livestock and byproducts, hay fodder, vegetables.
Industry (32% of 1997 GDP): Minerals (primarily copper), animal-derived
products, building materials, food/beverage, mining (esp. coal);
industrial growth rate in 1996 was 0.5%.
Trade (1997): Exports--$418 million: livestock, animal products, wool,
hides, fluorspar, nonferrous metals, minerals.
Markets--Switzerland 31.5%, Russia 10.5%, China 9.7%, Korea 8.8%, Japan
5.6%, U.K. 5.2%. Imports--$443 million: machinery and equipment, fuels,
food products, industrial consumer goods, tea, chemicals, building
equipment, sugar. Suppliers--Russia 36.6%, China 14.3%, Italy 6.6%,
Korea 4.5%, Germany 4.2%.
Aid received: Donors promised $250 million in aid, loans, and assistance
at 1997 Tokyo Donor's Conference.
Official exchange rate (April 1998): 820 tugriks=U.S. $1.
Fiscal year: Calendar year.
Life in sparsely populated Mongolia has become more urbanized. Nearly
half of the people live in the capital, Ulaanbaatar, and in other
provincial centers. Semi-nomadic life still predominates in the
countryside, but settled agricultural communities are becoming more
Mongolia's birth rate is estimated at 2.7%. About three-fourths of the
total population are under age 30, 38% of whom are under 14.
Ethnic Mongols account for about 85% of the population and consist of
Khalkha and other groups, all distinguished primarily by dialects of the
Mongol language. Mongol is an Altaic language--from the Altaic Mountains
of Central Asia, a language family comprising the Turkic, Tungusic, and
Mongolic subfamilies--and is related to Turkic (Uzbek, Turkish, and
Kazakh), Korean, and, possibly, Japanese. The Khalkha make up 90% of the
ethnic Mongol population. The remaining 10% include Durbet Mongols and
others in the north and Dariganga Mongols in the east. Turkic speakers
(Kazakhs, Turvins, and Khotans) constitute 7% of Mongolia's population,
and the rest are Tungusic-speakers, Chinese, and Russians. Most Russians
left the country following the withdrawal of economic aid and collapse
of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Traditionally, Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism was the predominant religion.
However, it was suppressed under the communist regime until 1990, with
only one showcase monastery allowed to remain. Since 1990, as
liberalization began, Buddhism has enjoyed a resurgence.
About 4 million Mongols live outside Mongolia; about 3.4 million live in
China, mainly in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; and some 500,000
live in Russia, primarily in Buryatia and Kalmykia.
In 1203 AD, a single Mongolian state was formed based on nomadic tribal
groupings under the leadership of Genghis Khan. He and his immediate
successors conquered nearly all of Asia and European Russia and sent
armies as far as Central Europe and Southeast Asia. Genghis Khan's
grandson Kublai Khan, who conquered China and established the Yuan
dynasty (1279-1368 AD), gained fame in Europe through the writings of
Although Mongol-led confederations sometimes exercised wide political
power over their conquered territories, their strength declined rapidly
after the Mongol dynasty in China was overthrown in 1368.
The Manchus, a tribal group which conquered China in 1644 and formed the
Qing dynasty, were able to bring Mongolia under Manchu control in 1691
as Outer Mongolia when the Khalkha Mongol nobles swore an oath of
allegiance to the Manchu emperor. The Mongol rulers of Outer Mongolia
enjoyed considerable autonomy under the Manchus, and all Chinese claims
to Outer Mongolia following the establishment of the republic have
rested on this oath. In 1727, Russia and Manchu China concluded the
Treaty of Khiakta, delimiting the border between China and Mongolia that
exists in large part today.
Outer Mongolia was a Chinese province (1691-1911), an autonomous state
under Russian protection (1912-19), and again a Chinese province (1919-
21). As Manchu authority in China waned, and as Russia and Japan
confronted each other, Russia gave arms and diplomatic support to
nationalists among the Mongol religious leaders and nobles. The Mongols
accepted Russian aid and proclaimed their independence of Chinese rule
in 1911, shortly after a successful Chinese revolt against the Manchus.
By agreements signed in 1913 and 1915, the Russian Government forced the
new Chinese Republican Government to accept Mongolian autonomy under
continued Chinese control, presumably to discourage other foreign powers
from approaching a newly independent Mongolian state that might seek
support from as many foreign sources as possible.
The Russian revolution and civil war afforded Chinese warlords an
opportunity to re-establish their rule in Outer Mongolia, and Chinese
troops were dispatched there in 1919. Following Soviet military
victories over White Russian forces in the early 1920s and the
occupation of the Mongolian capital Urga in July 1921, Moscow again
became the major outside influence on Mongolia. The Mongolian People's
Republic was proclaimed on November 25, 1924.
Between 1925 and 1928, power under the communist regime was consolidated
by the Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party (MPRP). The MPRP left
gradually undermined rightist elements, seizing control of the party and
the government. Several factors characterized the country during this
period--the society was basically nomadic and illiterate; there was no
industrial proletariat; the aristocracy and the religious establishment
shared the country's wealth; there was widespread popular obedience to
traditional authorities; the party lacked grassroots support; and the
government had little organization or experience.
In an effort at swift socioeconomic reform, the leftist government
applied extreme measures which attacked the two most dominant
institutions in the country--the aristocracy and the religious
establishment. Between 1932 and 1945, their excess zeal, intolerance,
and inexperience led to anti-communist uprisings. In the late 1930's
purges directed at the religious institution resulted in the desecration
of hundreds of Buddhist institutions and imprisonment of more than
During World War II, because of a growing Japanese threat over the
Mongolian-Manchurian border, the Soviet Union reversed the course of
Mongolian socialism in favor of a new policy of economic gradualism and
buildup of the national defense. The Soviet-Mongolian army defeated
Japanese forces that had invaded eastern Mongolia in the summer of 1939,
and a truce was signed setting up a commission to define the Mongolian-
Manchurian border in the autumn of that year.
Following the war, the Soviet Union reasserted its influence in
Mongolia. Secure in its relations with Moscow, the Mongolian Government
shifted to postwar development, focusing on civilian enterprise.
International ties were expanded, and Mongolia established relations
with North Korea and the new communist governments in Eastern Europe. It
also increased its participation in communist-sponsored conferences and
international organizations. Mongolia became a member of the United
Nations in 1961.
In the early 1960s, Mongolia attempted to maintain a neutral position
amidst increasingly contentious Sino-Soviet polemics; this orientation
changed in the middle of the decade. Mongolia and the Soviet Union
signed an agreement in 1966 that introduced large-scale Soviet ground
forces as part of Moscow's general buildup along the Sino-Soviet
During the period of Sino-Soviet tensions, relations between Mongolia
and China deteriorated. In 1983, Mongolia systematically began expelling
some of the 7,000 ethnic Chinese in Mongolia to China. Many of them had
lived in Mongolia since the 1950s, when they were sent there to assist
in construction projects.
Chronology of Mongolian History 1921-Present
March 13, 1921: Provisional People's Government declares independence of
May 31, 1924: U.S.S.R. signs agreement with Peking government, referring
to Outer Mongolia as an "integral part of the Republic of China," whose
"sovereignty" therein the Soviet Union promises to respect.
May-September 16, 1939: Large-scale fighting takes place between
Japanese and Soviet-Mongolian forces along Khalkhyn Gol on Mongolia-
Manchuria border, ending in defeat of the Japanese expeditionary force.
Truce negotiated between U.S.S.R. and Japan.
October 6, 1949: Newly established People's Republic of China accepts
recognition accorded Mongolia and agrees to establish diplomatic
October 1961: Mongolia becomes a member of the United Nations.
January 27, 1987: Diplomatic relations established with the United
December 1989: First popular reform demonstrations. Mongolian Democratic
January 1990: Large-scale demonstrations demanding democracy held in
March 2, 1990: Soviets and Mongolians announce that all Soviet troops
will be withdrawn from Mongolia by 1992.
May 1990: Constitution amended to provide for multi-party system and new
July 29, 1990: First democratic elections held.
September 3, 1990: First democratically elected People's Great Hural
February 12, 1992: New constitution goes into effect.
April 8, 1992: New election law passed.
June 28, 1992: Election for the first unicameral legislature (State
June 6, 1993: First direct presidential election.
June 30, 1996: Election of first non-communist government.
Until 1990, the Mongolian Government was modeled on the Soviet system;
only the communist party--the MPRP--officially was permitted to
function. After some instability during the first two decades of
communist rule in Mongolia, there was no significant popular unrest
until December 1989. Collectivization of animal husbandry, introduction
of agriculture, and the extension of fixed abodes were all carried out
without perceptible popular opposition.
The birth of perestroika in the former Soviet Union and the democracy
movement in Eastern Europe were mirrored in Mongolia.
The dramatic shift toward reform started in early 1990 when the first
organized opposition group, the Mongolian Democratic Union, appeared. In
the face of extended street protests in sub-zero whether and popular
demands for faster reform, the politburo of the MPRP resigned in March
1990. In May, the constitution was amended, deleting reference to the
MPRP's role as the guiding force in the country, legalizing opposition
parties, creating a standing legislative body, and establishing the
office of president.
Mongolia's first multi-party elections for a People's Great Hural were
held on July 29, 1990. The MPRP won 85% of the seats. The People's Great
Hural first met on September 3 and elected a president (MPRP), vice
president (SDP--Social Democrats), prime minister (MPRP), and 50 members
to the Baga Hural (small Hural). The vice president was also chairman of
the Baga Hural.
In November 1991, the People's Great Hural began discussion on a new
constitution, which entered into force February 12. In addition to
establishing Mongolia as an independent, sovereign republic and
guaranteeing a number of rights and freedoms, the new constitution
restructured the legislative branch of government, creating a unicameral
legislature, the State Great Hural (SGH).
The 1992 constitution provided that the president would be elected by
popular vote rather than by the legislature as before. In June 1993,
incumbent Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat won the first popular presidential
election running as the candidate of the democratic opposition.
As the supreme government organ, the SGH is empowered to enact and amend
laws, determine domestic and foreign policy, ratify international
agreements, and declare a state of emergency. The SGH meets semi-
annually. SGH members elect a chairman and vice chairman who serve 4-
year terms. SGH members are popularly elected by district for 4-year
terms. In the most recent parliamentary election on June 30, 1996, the
opposition, running together under the banner of the Democratic Union
won a landslide victory, taking 50 of 76 seats in the SGH. The first
completely non-communist government was installed in July 1996, headed
by Prime Minister M. Enkhsaihan.
The president is the head of state, commander in chief of the armed
forces, and head of the national security council. He is popularly
elected by a national majority for a 4-year term and limited to two
terms. The constitution empowers the president to propose a prime
minister, call for the government's dissolution, initiate legislation,
veto all or parts of legislation (the SGH can override the veto with a
two-thirds majority), and issue decrees, which become effective with the
prime minister's signature. In the absence, incapacity, or resignation
of the president, the SGH chairman exercises presidential power until
inauguration of a newly elected president. In the most recent
presidential election on May 18, 1997, the MPRP candidate, N. Bagabandi,
was elected with 57% of the vote.
The government, headed by the prime minister, has a 4-year term. The
prime minister is nominated by the president and confirmed by the SGH.
The prime minister chooses a cabinet, subject to SGH approval.
Dissolution of the government occurs upon the prime minister's
resignation, simultaneous resignation of half the cabinet, or after an
SGH vote for dissolution.
Local hurals are elected by the 18 aimags (provinces) plus the capital,
Ulaanbaatar, and cities of Darhan and Erdenet. On the next-lower
administrative level they are elected by provincial subdivisions and
urban subdistricts in Ulaanbaatar and the municipalities, Darhan and
-- Bourgeois Party (Bourgeois)
-- Buddhist Democratic Party
-- Green Party (Greens)
-- Mongolian National Democratic Party (MNDP)
-- Mongolian Independence Party (Independence)
-- Mongolian People's Party (MPP)
-- Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP)
-- Mongolian Worker's Party (MWP)
-- Social Democratic Party (SDP)
-- United Party of Farmers and Herdsmen (Herdsmen)
-- United Party of Private Property Owners (PPOP)
The new constitution empowered a General Council of Courts (GCC) to
select all judges and protect their rights. The Supreme Court is the
highest judicial body. Justices are nominated by the GCC and confirmed
by the SGH and president. The court is constitutionally empowered to
examine all lower court decisions--excluding specialized court rulings--
upon appeal and provide official interpretations on all laws except the
Specialized civil, criminal, and administrative courts exist at all
levels and are not subject to Supreme Court supervision. Local
authorities--district and city governors--ensure that these courts abide
by presidential decrees and SGH decisions. At the apex of the judicial
system is the Constitutional Court, which consists of nine members--
including a chairman--appointed for 6-year terms, whose jurisdiction
extends solely over the interpretation of the constitution.
Principal Government Officials
Prime Minister--Tsahiagiyn Elbegdorj
Mongolia maintains an embassy in the U.S. at 2833 M Street, NW,
Washington, DC, 20007; tel. (202) 333-7117, fax (202) 298-9227.
The rapid political changes of 1990-91 marked the beginning of
Mongolia's efforts to develop a market economy, but these efforts have
been complicated and disrupted by the dissolution and continuing
deterioration of the economy of the former Soviet Union. Prior to 1991,
80% of Mongolia's trade was with the former Soviet Union and 15% was
with other Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) countries.
Mongolia was heavily dependent upon the former Soviet Union for fuel,
medicine, and spare parts for its factories and power plants.
The former U.S.S.R. also served as the primary market for Mongolian
industry. In the 1980s, Mongolia's industrial sector became increasingly
important. By 1989, it accounted for an estimated 34% of material
products, compared to 18% from agriculture. However, minerals, animals,
and animal-derived products still constitute a large proportion of the
country's exports. Principal imports included machinery, petroleum,
cloth, and building materials.
In the late 1980s, the government began to improve links with non-
communist Asia and the West, and a tourism sector developed. As of
January 1, 1991, Mongolia and the former Soviet Union agreed to conduct
bilateral trade in hard currency at world prices.
Despite its external trade difficulties, Mongolia has continued to press
ahead with reform. Privatization of small shops and enterprises is
largely complete, and most prices have been freed. Privatization of
large state enterprises has begun. Tax reforms also have begun, and the
barter and official exchange rates were unified in early 1992.
Between 1990 and 1993, Mongolia suffered triple-digit inflation, rising
unemployment, shortages of basic goods and food rationing. During that
period, economic output contracted by one-third. As market reforms and
private enterprise took hold, economic growth began again in 1994-95.
Unfortunately, since this growth was fueled in part by over-allocation
of bank credit, especially to the remaining state-owned enterprises,
economic growth was accompanied by a severe weakening of the banking
sector. GDP grew by about 6% in 1995, thanks largely to a boom in copper
Economic growth stalled in 1996 due to unusually large and widespread
forest and steppe fires. These caused damage estimated at more than $2
billion and scared away much of the crucial tourist trade at the height
of the brief summer season. At the same time, world prices of two of
Mongolia's major exports--cashmere and copper--fell. When the newly
elected Democratic Union took office in July 1996, it faced a widening
budget shortfall, worsening balance of payments problems, and a banking
system in crisis. It undertook almost immediately an aggressive program
of economic "shock treatment" designed to eliminate the last vestiges of
the centrally planned economy, which included energy price
liberalization, privatization of housing, and elimination of virtually
all import tariffs. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in
Prospects for development outside the traditional reliance on nomadic,
livestock-based agriculture are constrained by Mongolia's land-locked
location and lack of basic infrastructure. Mongolia's best hope for
accelerated growth is to attract more foreign investment. New foreign
investment in the first half of 1997 totaled $16.7 million, a figure
that the Mongolian government seeks to increase dramatically.
As a result of rapid urbanization and industrial growth policies under
the communist regime, Mongolia's deteriorating environment has become a
major concern. The burning of soft coal coupled with thousands of
factories in Ulaanbaatar has resulted in severely polluted air.
Deforestation, overgrazed pastures, and efforts to increase grain and
hay production by plowing up more virgin land has increased soil erosion
from wind and rain. Most recently, with the rapid growth of newly
privatized herds, overgrazing in selected areas is also a concern.
In the wake of the international socialist economic system's collapse
and the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Mongolians began to
pursue an independent and non-aligned foreign policy. The Prime Minister
called for co-existence with all nations, and Mongolia follows a general
policy of expanding relations with as many countries as possible.
Due to Mongolia's landlocked position between the new independent states
(NIS) of the former Soviet Union and China, it was essential to continue
and improve relations with these countries. At the same time, Mongolia
is reaching out to advance its regional and global relations.
As part of its aim to establish a more balanced non-aligned foreign
policy, Mongolia is seeking active supporters and friends beyond its
neighbors and looking to take a more active role in the United Nations
and other international organizations. While it is downgrading relations
with most of its former East European allies, it is pursuing a more
active role in Asian and Northeast Asian affairs. Mongolia is seeking to
join APEC and has applied for membership in a number of technical
regional organizations including the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF).
High-level Mongolian officials and/or parliamentarians have made
official visits to countries including China, Japan, South Korea,
Australia, Nepal, the Philippines, Pakistan, and several Western
European countries. Mongolia also has established diplomatic relations
with a number of other nations, among them Oman, Brunei, and Israel.
Mongolian relations with China began to improve in the mid-1980s when
consular agreements were reached and cross-border trade contacts
expanded. In 1989, China and Mongolia exchanged visits of foreign
ministers. In May 1990, a Mongolian head of state visited China for the
first time in 28 years. The cornerstone of the Mongolian-Chinese
relationship is a 1994 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation which
codifies mutual respect for the independence and territorial integrity
of both sides. Today, relations between Mongolia and China are correct.
The two foreign ministers exchanged visits in 1997, as did the leaders
of the two countries' parliaments. Mongolia's Defense Minister also
visited in Beijing in November 1997 for talks with his counterpart.
Mongolia is expanding relations with Japan and South Korea. Its Prime
Minister visited Japan in March 1990. Japan has provided over $100
million in grants and loans since 1991 and coordinated international
assistance to Mongolia. Diplomatic relations were established with South
Korea in 1991, and during the Mongolian President's visit, seven
agreements and treaties were signed, providing the legal basis for
further expanding bilateral relations.
After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Mongolia developed
relations with the new independent states. Links with Russia and other
republics were essential to contribute to stabilization of the Mongolian
economy. The primary difficulties in developing fruitful coordination
occurred because the NIS were experiencing the same political and
economic restructuring as Mongolia. Despite these difficulties, Mongolia
and Russia successfully negotiated both a 1991 Joint Declaration of
Cooperation and a bilateral trade agreement. This was followed by a 1993
Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation establishing a new basis of
equality in the relationship.
Mongolia seeks closer relations with countries in Europe and hopes to
receive most-favored-nation status from the European Union (EU). During
1991, Mongolia signed investment promotion and protection agreements
with Germany and France and an economic cooperation agreement with the
United Kingdom. Germany continued former East German cooperative
programs and also provided loans and aid. The Prime Minister has
traveled to Germany, France, Belgium, and EU headquarters in Brussels
seeking economic cooperation. U.S.-MONGOLIAN RELATIONS
The U.S. Government recognized Mongolia in January 1987 and established
its first embassy in Ulaanbaatar in June 1988. It formally opened in
September 1988. The first U.S. ambassador to Mongolia, Richard L.
Williams, was not resident there; Joseph E. Lake, the first resident
ambassador, arrived in July 1990. Secretary of State James A. Baker, III
visited Mongolia in August 1990, and again in July 1991. Mongolia
accredited its first ambassador to the United States in March 1989. Most
recently, Prime Minister Enkhsaihan visited the United States in October
The United States has sought to assist Mongolia's movement toward
democracy and market-oriented reform and to expand relations with
Mongolia primarily in the cultural and economic fields. The United
States granted Mongolia most-favored-nation status and has supported
Mongolia's transition to political democracy and a market economy. In
1989 and 1990, a cultural accord, Peace Corps accord, consular
convention, and Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) agreement
were signed. A trade agreement was signed in January 1991 and a
bilateral investment treaty in 1994.
USAID has provided almost $80 million over the past 5 years in technical
assistance and training for Mongolia's democratic and economic reform
program. Of that total, some $38 million has gone for emergency energy
assistance, which has been instrumental in keeping Mongolia's power and
heating system operable through the country's harsh winters. In FY 1998,
the bulk of USAID energy funding is being used to support rural economic
growth by providing a reliable, cost-effective source of electricity
through purchase of U.S.-made diesel generators for a number of
The U.S. is also directly supporting Mongolia's democratization by
working with U.S. non-governmental organizations to provide training for
parliamentary committee organization and constituent service and has
recently launched a program to establish public affairs organizations
and legislative relations offices in every ministry. U.S. assistance
also provided technical assistance for the drafting of the 1992
constitution and for non-partisan voter education guides for the 1996
The U.S. provides support for the Mongolian government's economic
reforms through a $2 million Economic Policy Support Project that
includes a full-time American policy advisor in the Prime Minister's
office. The advisor has worked closely with the Government of Mongolia
to set the policy agenda of the current government and provides policy
advice and expert technical assistance for the government's major reform
The Peace Corps currently has 49 volunteers in Mongolia. They are
engaged primarily in English teaching and teacher training activities.
At the request of the Government of Mongolia, the Peace Corps has agreed
to develop new programs in the areas of public health and the
environment. Plans call for increasing the number of volunteers to
between 60 and 80 within 2 years.
Principal U.S. Embassy Official
Ambassador--Alphonse La Porta
The U.S. embassy is located in Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road,
Ulaanbaatar; tel.  (1) 329-095 or 329-606, fax 320-776.
TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATION
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National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department of
Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related information. It is
available on the Internet (www.stat-usa.gov) and on CD-ROM. Call the
NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-1986 for more information.
NOTE: Inclusion of non-U.S. Government links does not imply endorsement
*corrections to Profile -- Govt Branches and Economy GDP
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