U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Mongolia, April 1998 (corrected*)
Released by the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs

Official Name: Mongolia



Area: 1,566,500 sq. km. (604,103 sq. mi.); slightly larger than Alaska 
(land boundaries 8,114 km.).
Cities: Capital--Ulaanbaatar (pop. 638,000). Other cities--Darhan 
(90,000), Erdenet (65,000).
Terrain: Almost 90% of land area is pasture or desert wasteland, of 
varying usefulness; 1% arable; 9% forested.
Climate: Continental, with little precipitation and sharp seasonal 


Nationality: Noun and adjective--Mongolian(s).
Population (1996 est.): 2.5 million.
Annual growth rate (1996 est.): 1.62%.
Health (1995): Infant mortality rate--44.4/1,000. Life expectancy--63-68 
Ethnic groups (1995): 85% Mongol (predominantly Khalkha), 7% Turkic 
(largest group, Kazakh) 4.6% Tungusic, and 3.4% others, including 
Chinese and Russian.
Languages: Khalkha Mongol, more than 90%; minor languages include
Kazakh, Chinese, and Russian.
Religions: Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim 4% (primarily in the 
southwest), and Shamanism.
Education: Years compulsory--8 (provided free by the government).
Literacy--more than 90%.


Type: Parliamentary form of government, president second in authority to 
the State Great Hural.
Independence: 1921; democratic reform and shift from dependence on the 
former Soviet Union declared 1990.
Constitutions: 1960 and February 12, 1992.
Branches: Executive--power is divided between a president (elected by a 
popular election in May 1997) and prime minister (current cabinet 
nominated by the prime minister was formed in April 1998 by the State 
Great Hural which was elected in June 1996).
Legislative--State Great Hural (76 deputies).
Judicial--Constitutional Court is empowered to supervise the 
implementation of the Constitution, makes judgment on the violation of 
its provisions, and solves disputes. Legal code under revision. No 
provision for judicial review of legislative acts. Legal education at 
Mongolian State Univ. Mongolia accepts ICJ jurisdiction.
Political parties: 11 announced political parties.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Administrative subdivisions: 18 aimags (provinces) and 3 autonomous 
cities (Ulaanbaatar, Darhan, and Erdenet).
Flag: Three vertical bands--red, sky-blue, red; on the left red band the 
Mongolian national emblem, the Soyombo, in yellow.


GDP (1997): $936 million.
Per capita GDP (1997): $395.
Natural resources: Coal, copper, molybdenum, iron, phosphates, tin, 
nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, uranium, petroleum.
Agriculture: 31% of 1996 GDP, livelihood for approximately 50% of 
population. Products--livestock and byproducts, hay fodder, vegetables.
Industry (32% of 1997 GDP): Minerals (primarily copper), animal-derived 
products, building materials, food/beverage, mining (esp. coal); 
industrial growth rate in 1996 was 0.5%.
Trade (1997): Exports--$418 million: livestock, animal products, wool, 
hides, fluorspar, nonferrous metals, minerals.
Markets--Switzerland 31.5%, Russia 10.5%, China 9.7%, Korea 8.8%, Japan 
5.6%, U.K. 5.2%. Imports--$443 million: machinery and equipment, fuels, 
food products, industrial consumer goods, tea, chemicals, building 
equipment, sugar. Suppliers--Russia 36.6%, China 14.3%, Italy 6.6%, 
Korea 4.5%, Germany 4.2%.
Aid received: Donors promised $250 million in aid, loans, and assistance 
at 1997 Tokyo Donor's Conference.
Official exchange rate (April 1998): 820 tugriks=U.S. $1.
Fiscal year: Calendar year.


Life in sparsely populated Mongolia has become more urbanized. Nearly 
half of the people live in the capital, Ulaanbaatar, and in other 
provincial centers. Semi-nomadic life still predominates in the 
countryside, but settled agricultural communities are becoming more 

Mongolia's birth rate is estimated at 2.7%. About three-fourths of the 
total population are under age 30, 38% of whom are under 14.

Ethnic Mongols account for about 85% of the population and consist of 
Khalkha and other groups, all distinguished primarily by dialects of the 
Mongol language. Mongol is an Altaic language--from the Altaic Mountains 
of Central Asia, a language family comprising the Turkic, Tungusic, and 
Mongolic subfamilies--and is related to Turkic (Uzbek, Turkish, and 
Kazakh), Korean, and, possibly, Japanese. The Khalkha make up 90% of the 
ethnic Mongol population. The remaining 10% include Durbet Mongols and 
others in the north and Dariganga Mongols in the east. Turkic speakers 
(Kazakhs, Turvins, and Khotans) constitute 7% of Mongolia's population, 
and the rest are Tungusic-speakers, Chinese, and Russians. Most Russians 
left the country following the withdrawal of economic aid and collapse 
of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Traditionally, Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism was the predominant religion. 
However, it was suppressed under the communist regime until 1990, with 
only one showcase monastery allowed to remain. Since 1990, as 
liberalization began, Buddhism has enjoyed a resurgence.

About 4 million Mongols live outside Mongolia; about 3.4 million live in 
China, mainly in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; and some 500,000 
live in Russia, primarily in Buryatia and Kalmykia.


In 1203 AD, a single Mongolian state was formed based on nomadic tribal 
groupings under the leadership of Genghis Khan. He and his immediate 
successors conquered nearly all of Asia and European Russia and sent 
armies as far as Central Europe and Southeast Asia. Genghis Khan's 
grandson Kublai Khan, who conquered China and established the Yuan 
dynasty (1279-1368 AD), gained fame in Europe through the writings of 
Marco Polo.

Although Mongol-led confederations sometimes exercised wide political 
power over their conquered territories, their strength declined rapidly 
after the Mongol dynasty in China was overthrown in 1368.

The Manchus, a tribal group which conquered China in 1644 and formed the 
Qing dynasty, were able to bring Mongolia under Manchu control in 1691 
as Outer Mongolia when the Khalkha Mongol nobles swore an oath of 
allegiance to the Manchu emperor. The Mongol rulers of Outer Mongolia 
enjoyed considerable autonomy under the Manchus, and all Chinese claims 
to Outer Mongolia following the establishment of the republic have 
rested on this oath. In 1727, Russia and Manchu China concluded the 
Treaty of Khiakta, delimiting the border between China and Mongolia that 
exists in large part today.

Outer Mongolia was a Chinese province (1691-1911), an autonomous state 
under Russian protection (1912-19), and again a Chinese province (1919- 
21). As Manchu authority in China waned, and as Russia and Japan 
confronted each other, Russia gave arms and diplomatic support to 
nationalists among the Mongol religious leaders and nobles. The Mongols 
accepted Russian aid and proclaimed their independence of Chinese rule 
in 1911, shortly after a successful Chinese revolt against the Manchus. 
By agreements signed in 1913 and 1915, the Russian Government forced the 
new Chinese Republican Government to accept Mongolian autonomy under 
continued Chinese control, presumably to discourage other foreign powers 
from approaching a newly independent Mongolian state that might seek 
support from as many foreign sources as possible.

The Russian revolution and civil war afforded Chinese warlords an 
opportunity to re-establish their rule in Outer Mongolia, and Chinese 
troops were dispatched there in 1919. Following Soviet military 
victories over White Russian forces in the early 1920s and the 
occupation of the Mongolian capital Urga in July 1921, Moscow again 
became the major outside influence on Mongolia. The Mongolian People's 
Republic was proclaimed on November 25, 1924.

Between 1925 and 1928, power under the communist regime was consolidated 
by the Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party (MPRP). The MPRP left 
gradually undermined rightist elements, seizing control of the party and 
the government. Several factors characterized the country during this 
period--the society was basically nomadic and illiterate; there was no 
industrial proletariat; the aristocracy and the religious establishment 
shared the country's wealth; there was widespread popular obedience to 
traditional authorities; the party lacked grassroots support; and the 
government had little organization or experience.

In an effort at swift socioeconomic reform, the leftist government 
applied extreme measures which attacked the two most dominant 
institutions in the country--the aristocracy and the religious 
establishment. Between 1932 and 1945, their excess zeal, intolerance, 
and inexperience led to anti-communist uprisings. In the late 1930's 
purges directed at the religious institution resulted in the desecration 
of hundreds of Buddhist institutions and imprisonment of more than 
10,000 people.

During World War II, because of a growing Japanese threat over the 
Mongolian-Manchurian border, the Soviet Union reversed the course of 
Mongolian socialism in favor of a new policy of economic gradualism and 
buildup of the national defense. The Soviet-Mongolian army defeated 
Japanese forces that had invaded eastern Mongolia in the summer of 1939, 
and a truce was signed setting up a commission to define the Mongolian-
Manchurian border in the autumn of that year.

Following the war, the Soviet Union reasserted its influence in 
Mongolia. Secure in its relations with Moscow, the Mongolian Government 
shifted to postwar development, focusing on civilian enterprise. 
International ties were expanded, and Mongolia established relations 
with North Korea and the new communist governments in Eastern Europe. It 
also increased its participation in communist-sponsored conferences and 
international organizations. Mongolia became a member of the United 
Nations in 1961.

In the early 1960s, Mongolia attempted to maintain a neutral position 
amidst increasingly contentious Sino-Soviet polemics; this orientation 
changed in the middle of the decade. Mongolia and the Soviet Union 
signed an agreement in 1966 that introduced large-scale Soviet ground 
forces as part of Moscow's general buildup along the Sino-Soviet 

During the period of Sino-Soviet tensions, relations between Mongolia 
and China deteriorated. In 1983, Mongolia systematically began expelling 
some of the 7,000 ethnic Chinese in Mongolia to China. Many of them had 
lived in Mongolia since the 1950s, when they were sent there to assist 
in construction projects.

Chronology of Mongolian History 1921-Present

March 13, 1921: Provisional People's Government declares independence of 

May 31, 1924: U.S.S.R. signs agreement with Peking government, referring 
to Outer Mongolia as an "integral part of the Republic of China," whose 
"sovereignty" therein the Soviet Union promises to respect.

May-September 16, 1939: Large-scale fighting takes place between 
Japanese and Soviet-Mongolian forces along Khalkhyn Gol on Mongolia-
Manchuria border, ending in defeat of the Japanese expeditionary force. 
Truce negotiated between U.S.S.R. and Japan.

October 6, 1949: Newly established People's Republic of China accepts 
recognition accorded Mongolia and agrees to establish diplomatic 

October 1961: Mongolia becomes a member of the United Nations.

January 27, 1987: Diplomatic relations established with the United 

December 1989: First popular reform demonstrations. Mongolian Democratic 
Association organized.

January 1990: Large-scale demonstrations demanding democracy held in 
sub-zero weather.

March 2, 1990: Soviets and Mongolians announce that all Soviet troops 
will be withdrawn from Mongolia by 1992.

May 1990: Constitution amended to provide for multi-party system and new 

July 29, 1990: First democratic elections held.

September 3, 1990: First democratically elected People's Great Hural 
takes office.

February 12, 1992: New constitution goes into effect.

April 8, 1992: New election law passed.

June 28, 1992: Election for the first unicameral legislature (State 
Great Hural).

June 6, 1993: First direct presidential election.

June 30, 1996: Election of first non-communist government.


Until 1990, the Mongolian Government was modeled on the Soviet system; 
only the communist party--the MPRP--officially was permitted to 
function. After some instability during the first two decades of 
communist rule in Mongolia, there was no significant popular unrest 
until December 1989. Collectivization of animal husbandry, introduction 
of agriculture, and the extension of fixed abodes were all carried out 
without perceptible popular opposition.

The birth of perestroika in the former Soviet Union and the democracy 
movement in Eastern Europe were mirrored in Mongolia.

The dramatic shift toward reform started in early 1990 when the first 
organized opposition group, the Mongolian Democratic Union, appeared. In 
the face of extended street protests in sub-zero whether and popular 
demands for faster reform, the politburo of the MPRP resigned in March 
1990. In May, the constitution was amended, deleting reference to the 
MPRP's role as the guiding force in the country, legalizing opposition 
parties, creating a standing legislative body, and establishing the 
office of president.

Mongolia's first multi-party elections for a People's Great Hural were 
held on July 29, 1990. The MPRP won 85% of the seats. The People's Great 
Hural first met on September 3 and elected a president (MPRP), vice 
president (SDP--Social Democrats), prime minister (MPRP), and 50 members 
to the Baga Hural (small Hural). The vice president was also chairman of 
the Baga Hural.

In November 1991, the People's Great Hural began discussion on a new 
constitution, which entered into force February 12. In addition to 
establishing Mongolia as an independent, sovereign republic and 
guaranteeing a number of rights and freedoms, the new constitution 
restructured the legislative branch of government, creating a unicameral 
legislature, the State Great Hural (SGH).

The 1992 constitution provided that the president would be elected by 
popular vote rather than by the legislature as before. In June 1993, 
incumbent Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat won the first popular presidential 
election running as the candidate of the democratic opposition.

As the supreme government organ, the SGH is empowered to enact and amend 
laws, determine domestic and foreign policy, ratify international 
agreements, and declare a state of emergency. The SGH meets semi-
annually. SGH members elect a chairman and vice chairman who serve 4-
year terms. SGH members are popularly elected by district for 4-year 
terms. In the most recent parliamentary election on June 30, 1996, the 
opposition, running together under the banner of the Democratic Union 
won a landslide victory, taking 50 of 76 seats in the SGH. The first 
completely non-communist government was installed in July 1996, headed 
by Prime Minister M. Enkhsaihan.

The president is the head of state, commander in chief of the armed 
forces, and head of the national security council. He is popularly 
elected by a national majority for a 4-year term and limited to two 
terms. The constitution empowers the president to propose a prime 
minister, call for the government's dissolution, initiate legislation, 
veto all or parts of legislation (the SGH can override the veto with a 
two-thirds majority), and issue decrees, which become effective with the 
prime minister's signature. In the absence, incapacity, or resignation 
of the president, the SGH chairman exercises presidential power until 
inauguration of a newly elected president. In the most recent 
presidential election on May 18, 1997, the MPRP candidate, N. Bagabandi, 
was elected with 57% of the vote.

The government, headed by the prime minister, has a 4-year term. The 
prime minister is nominated by the president and confirmed by the SGH. 
The prime minister chooses a cabinet, subject to SGH approval. 
Dissolution of the government occurs upon the prime minister's 
resignation, simultaneous resignation of half the cabinet, or after an 
SGH vote for dissolution.

Local hurals are elected by the 18 aimags (provinces) plus the capital, 
Ulaanbaatar, and cities of Darhan and Erdenet. On the next-lower 
administrative level they are elected by provincial subdivisions and 
urban subdistricts in Ulaanbaatar and the municipalities, Darhan and 

Political Parties

-- Bourgeois Party (Bourgeois)
-- Buddhist Democratic Party
-- Green Party (Greens)
-- Mongolian National Democratic Party (MNDP)
-- Mongolian Independence Party (Independence)
-- Mongolian People's Party (MPP)
-- Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP)
-- Mongolian Worker's Party (MWP)
-- Social Democratic Party (SDP)
-- United Party of Farmers and Herdsmen (Herdsmen)
-- United Party of Private Property Owners (PPOP)

Legal System

The new constitution empowered a General Council of Courts (GCC) to 
select all judges and protect their rights. The Supreme Court is the 
highest judicial body. Justices are nominated by the GCC and confirmed 
by the SGH and president. The court is constitutionally empowered to 
examine all lower court decisions--excluding specialized court rulings--
upon appeal and provide official interpretations on all laws except the 

Specialized civil, criminal, and administrative courts exist at all 
levels and are not subject to Supreme Court supervision. Local 
authorities--district and city governors--ensure that these courts abide 
by presidential decrees and SGH decisions. At the apex of the judicial 
system is the Constitutional Court, which consists of nine members--
including a chairman--appointed for 6-year terms, whose jurisdiction 
extends solely over the interpretation of the constitution.

Principal Government Officials

President--Natsagiyn Bagabandi
Prime Minister--Tsahiagiyn Elbegdorj

Mongolia maintains an embassy in the U.S. at 2833 M Street, NW, 
Washington, DC, 20007; tel. (202) 333-7117, fax (202) 298-9227.


The rapid political changes of 1990-91 marked the beginning of 
Mongolia's efforts to develop a market economy, but these efforts have 
been complicated and disrupted by the dissolution and continuing 
deterioration of the economy of the former Soviet Union. Prior to 1991, 
80% of Mongolia's trade was with the former Soviet Union and 15% was 
with other Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) countries. 
Mongolia was heavily dependent upon the former Soviet Union for fuel, 
medicine, and spare parts for its factories and power plants.

The former U.S.S.R. also served as the primary market for Mongolian 
industry. In the 1980s, Mongolia's industrial sector became increasingly 
important. By 1989, it accounted for an estimated 34% of material 
products, compared to 18% from agriculture. However, minerals, animals, 
and animal-derived products still constitute a large proportion of the 
country's exports. Principal imports included machinery, petroleum, 
cloth, and building materials.

In the late 1980s, the government began to improve links with non-
communist Asia and the West, and a tourism sector developed. As of 
January 1, 1991, Mongolia and the former Soviet Union agreed to conduct 
bilateral trade in hard currency at world prices.

Despite its external trade difficulties, Mongolia has continued to press 
ahead with reform. Privatization of small shops and enterprises is 
largely complete, and most prices have been freed. Privatization of 
large state enterprises has begun. Tax reforms also have begun, and the 
barter and official exchange rates were unified in early 1992.

Between 1990 and 1993, Mongolia suffered triple-digit inflation, rising 
unemployment, shortages of basic goods and food rationing. During that 
period, economic output contracted by one-third. As market reforms and 
private enterprise took hold, economic growth began again in 1994-95. 
Unfortunately, since this growth was fueled in part by over-allocation 
of bank credit, especially to the remaining state-owned enterprises, 
economic growth was accompanied by a severe weakening of the banking 
sector. GDP grew by about 6% in 1995, thanks largely to a boom in copper 

Economic growth stalled in 1996 due to unusually large and widespread 
forest and steppe fires. These caused damage estimated at more than $2 
billion and scared away much of the crucial tourist trade at the height 
of the brief summer season. At the same time, world prices of two of 
Mongolia's major exports--cashmere and copper--fell. When the newly 
elected Democratic Union took office in July 1996, it faced a widening 
budget shortfall, worsening balance of payments problems, and a banking 
system in crisis. It undertook almost immediately an aggressive program 
of economic "shock treatment" designed to eliminate the last vestiges of 
the centrally planned economy, which included energy price 
liberalization, privatization of housing, and elimination of virtually 
all import tariffs. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 
January 1997.

Prospects for development outside the traditional reliance on nomadic, 
livestock-based agriculture are constrained by Mongolia's land-locked 
location and lack of basic infrastructure. Mongolia's best hope for 
accelerated growth is to attract more foreign investment. New foreign 
investment in the first half of 1997 totaled $16.7 million, a figure 
that the Mongolian government seeks to increase dramatically.


As a result of rapid urbanization and industrial growth policies under 
the communist regime, Mongolia's deteriorating environment has become a 
major concern. The burning of soft coal coupled with thousands of 
factories in Ulaanbaatar has resulted in severely polluted air. 
Deforestation, overgrazed pastures, and efforts to increase grain and 
hay production by plowing up more virgin land has increased soil erosion 
from wind and rain. Most recently, with the rapid growth of newly 
privatized herds, overgrazing in selected areas is also a concern.


In the wake of the international socialist economic system's collapse 
and the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Mongolians began to 
pursue an independent and non-aligned foreign policy. The Prime Minister 
called for co-existence with all nations, and Mongolia follows a general 
policy of expanding relations with as many countries as possible.

Due to Mongolia's landlocked position between the new independent states 
(NIS) of the former Soviet Union and China, it was essential to continue 
and improve relations with these countries. At the same time, Mongolia 
is reaching out to advance its regional and global relations.

As part of its aim to establish a more balanced non-aligned foreign 
policy, Mongolia is seeking active supporters and friends beyond its 
neighbors and looking to take a more active role in the United Nations 
and other international organizations. While it is downgrading relations 
with most of its former East European allies, it is pursuing a more 
active role in Asian and Northeast Asian affairs. Mongolia is seeking to 
join APEC and has applied for membership in a number of technical 
regional organizations including the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF).

High-level Mongolian officials and/or parliamentarians have made 
official visits to countries including China, Japan, South Korea, 
Australia, Nepal, the Philippines, Pakistan, and several Western 
European countries. Mongolia also has established diplomatic relations 
with a number of other nations, among them Oman, Brunei, and Israel.


Mongolian relations with China began to improve in the mid-1980s when 
consular agreements were reached and cross-border trade contacts 
expanded. In 1989, China and Mongolia exchanged visits of foreign 
ministers. In May 1990, a Mongolian head of state visited China for the 
first time in 28 years. The cornerstone of the Mongolian-Chinese 
relationship is a 1994 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation which 
codifies mutual respect for the independence and territorial integrity 
of both sides. Today, relations between Mongolia and China are correct. 
The two foreign ministers exchanged visits in 1997, as did the leaders 
of the two countries' parliaments. Mongolia's Defense Minister also 
visited in Beijing in November 1997 for talks with his counterpart.

Mongolia is expanding relations with Japan and South Korea. Its Prime 
Minister visited Japan in March 1990. Japan has provided over $100 
million in grants and loans since 1991 and coordinated international 
assistance to Mongolia. Diplomatic relations were established with South 
Korea in 1991, and during the Mongolian President's visit, seven 
agreements and treaties were signed, providing the legal basis for 
further expanding bilateral relations.


After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Mongolia developed 
relations with the new independent states. Links with Russia and other 
republics were essential to contribute to stabilization of the Mongolian 
economy. The primary difficulties in developing fruitful coordination 
occurred because the NIS were experiencing the same political and 
economic restructuring as Mongolia. Despite these difficulties, Mongolia 
and Russia successfully negotiated both a 1991 Joint Declaration of 
Cooperation and a bilateral trade agreement. This was followed by a 1993 
Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation establishing a new basis of 
equality in the relationship.


Mongolia seeks closer relations with countries in Europe and hopes to 
receive most-favored-nation status from the European Union (EU). During 
1991, Mongolia signed investment promotion and protection agreements 
with Germany and France and an economic cooperation agreement with the 
United Kingdom. Germany continued former East German cooperative 
programs and also provided loans and aid. The Prime Minister has 
traveled to Germany, France, Belgium, and EU headquarters in Brussels 
seeking economic cooperation.  U.S.-MONGOLIAN RELATIONS

The U.S. Government recognized Mongolia in January 1987 and established 
its first embassy in Ulaanbaatar in June 1988. It formally opened in 
September 1988. The first U.S. ambassador to Mongolia, Richard L. 
Williams, was not resident there; Joseph E. Lake, the first resident 
ambassador, arrived in July 1990. Secretary of State James A. Baker, III 
visited Mongolia in August 1990, and again in July 1991. Mongolia 
accredited its first ambassador to the United States in March 1989. Most 
recently, Prime Minister Enkhsaihan visited the United States in October 

The United States has sought to assist Mongolia's movement toward 
democracy and market-oriented reform and to expand relations with 
Mongolia primarily in the cultural and economic fields. The United 
States granted Mongolia most-favored-nation status and has supported 
Mongolia's transition to political democracy and a market economy. In 
1989 and 1990, a cultural accord, Peace Corps accord, consular 
convention, and Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) agreement 
were signed. A trade agreement was signed in January 1991 and a 
bilateral investment treaty in 1994.

USAID has provided almost $80 million over the past 5 years in technical 
assistance and training for Mongolia's democratic and economic reform 
program. Of that total, some $38 million has gone for emergency energy 
assistance, which has been instrumental in keeping Mongolia's power and 
heating system operable through the country's harsh winters. In FY 1998, 
the bulk of USAID energy funding is being used to support rural economic 
growth by providing a reliable, cost-effective source of electricity 
through purchase of U.S.-made diesel generators for a number of 
provincial capitals.

The U.S. is also directly supporting Mongolia's democratization by 
working with U.S. non-governmental organizations to provide training for 
parliamentary committee organization and constituent service and has 
recently launched a program to establish public affairs organizations 
and legislative relations offices in every ministry. U.S. assistance 
also provided technical assistance for the drafting of the 1992 
constitution and for non-partisan voter education guides for the 1996 
parliamentary election.

The U.S. provides support for the Mongolian government's economic 
reforms through a $2 million Economic Policy Support Project that 
includes a full-time American policy advisor in the Prime Minister's 
office. The advisor has worked closely with the Government of Mongolia 
to set the policy agenda of the current government and provides policy 
advice and expert technical assistance for the government's major reform 

The Peace Corps currently has 49 volunteers in Mongolia. They are 
engaged primarily in English teaching and teacher training activities. 
At the request of the Government of Mongolia, the Peace Corps has agreed 
to develop new programs in the areas of public health and the 
environment. Plans call for increasing the number of volunteers to 
between 60 and 80 within 2 years.

Principal U.S. Embassy Official

Ambassador--Alphonse La Porta

The U.S. embassy is located in Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, 
Ulaanbaatar; tel. [976] (1) 329-095 or 329-606, fax 320-776.


The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program provides 
Travel Warnings and Consular Information Sheets. Travel Warnings are 
issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel 
to a certain country. Consular Information Sheets exist for all 
countries and include information on immigration practices, currency 
regulations, health conditions, areas of instability, crime and 
security, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. posts in 
the country. Public Announcements are issued as a means to disseminate 
information quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively short-
term conditions overseas which pose significant risks to the security of 
American travelers. Free copies of this information are available by 
calling the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202-647-5225 or via the fax-
on-demand system: 202-647-3000. Travel Warnings and Consular Information 
Sheets also are available on the Consular Affairs Internet home page: 
http://travel.state.gov and the Consular Affairs Bulletin Board (CABB). 
To access CABB, dial the modem number: 301-946-4400 (it will accommodate 
up to 33,600 bps), set terminal communications program to N-8-1(no 
parity, 8 bits, 1 stop bit); and terminal emulation to VT100. The login 
is travel and the password is info. (Note: Lower case is required). The 
CABB also carries international security information from the Overseas 
Security Advisory Council and Department's Bureau of Diplomatic 
Security. Consular Affairs Trips for Travelers publication series, which 
contain information on obtaining passports and planning a safe trip 
abroad, can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954; 
telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250.

Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be 
obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-
5225. For after-hours emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-

Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-hour, 7-
day a week automated system ($.35 per minute) or live operators 8 a.m. 
to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday ($1.05 per minute). The number is 1-900-
225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778). Major credit card users (for a flat rate 
of $4.95) may call 1-888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648).

Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers 
for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at 
(404) 332-4559 gives the most recent health advisories, immunization 
recommendations or requirements, and advice on food and drinking water 
safety for regions and countries. A booklet entitled Health Information 
for International Travel (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280) is 
available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 
20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.

Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and 
customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to 
travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a country's 
embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see "Principal 
Government Officials" listing in this publication).

U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous areas 
are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country 
(see "Principal U.S. Embassy Officials" listing in this publication). 
This may help family members contact you in case of an emergency.

Further Electronic Information

Department of State Foreign Affairs Network. Available on the Internet, 
DOSFAN provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign policy 
information. Updated daily, DOSFAN includes Background Notes; Dispatch, 
the official magazine of U.S. foreign policy; daily press briefings; 
Country Commercial Guides; directories of key officers of foreign 
service posts; etc. DOSFAN's World Wide Web site is at 

U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published on an annual basis by 
the U.S. Department of State, USFAC archives information on the 
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network, and includes an array of 
official foreign policy information from 1990 to the present. Contact 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. 
Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. To order, call (202) 512-1800 or 
fax (202) 512-2250.

National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department of 
Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related information. It is 
available on the Internet (www.stat-usa.gov) and on CD-ROM. Call the 
NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-1986 for more information.

NOTE: Inclusion of non-U.S. Government links does not imply endorsement 
of contents.

*corrections to Profile -- Govt Branches and Economy GDP


Return to East Asia and the Pacific Background Notes Archive
Return to Background Notes Archive Homepage
Return to Electronic Research Collection Homepage