October 1993
Official Name:  Mongolia


Area:  1,566,500 sq. km. (604,103 sq. mi.); slightly larger than Alaska 
(land boundaries 8,114 km.).  Cities:  Capital--Ulaanbaatar (pop. 
575,000).  Other cities--Darhan (90,000), Erdenet (58,000).  Terrain:  
Almost 90% of land area is pasture or desert wasteland, of varying 
usefulness; 1% arable; 9% forested.  Climate:  Continental, with little 
precipitation and sharp seasonal fluctuations. 

Nationality:  Noun and adjective--Mongolian(s).  Population (1992):  2.3 
million.  Annual growth rate (1992):  2.6%.  Health:  Infant mortality 
rate (1992)--47/1,000.  Life expectancy (1992)--63-68 yrs.  Ethnic 
groups (1989):  85% Mongol (predominantly Khalkha), 7% Turkic (largest 
group, Kazakh) 4.6% Tungusic, and 3.4% others, including Chinese and 
Russian.  Languages:  Khalkha Mongol, more than 90%; minor languages 
include Kazakh, Chinese, and Russian.  Religions:  Tibetan Buddhist 
Lamaism 94%, Muslim 6% (primarily in the southwest), and Shamanism.  
Education:  Years compulsory--8 (provided free by the government).  The 
traditional Mongolian script has been revived, and there are plans to 
officially replace Cyrillic by 1994.  Literacy--more than 90%. 

Type:  Parliamentary form of government, president second in authority 
to the State Great Hural.  Independence:  1921; democratic reform and 
shift from dependence on the former Soviet Union declared 1990.  
Constitutions:  1960 and February 12, 1992.

Branches:  Executive--power divided between a president (elected by a 
popular election in June 1993) and prime minister (cabinet nominated by 
the new prime minister was formed in Aug. 1992 by the State Great Hural 
which was elected in June 1992).  Legislative--State Great Hural (76 
deputies).  Judicial--Constitutional Court is empowered to supervise the 
implementation of the Constitution, makes judgment on the violation of 
its provisions, and solves disputes.  Legal code under revision.  No 
provision for judicial review of legislative acts.  Legal education at 
Mongolian State Univ.  Recently, Mongolia began accepting ICJ 

Political parties:  11 announced political parties (see box pg. 5).  
Suffrage:  Universal at 18.

Administrative subdivisions:  18 aimags (provinces) and 3 autonomous 
cities (Ulaanbaatar, Darhan, and Erdenet). 

Flag:  Three vertical bands--red, sky-blue, red; on the left red band 
the Mongolian national emblem, in yellow.

GDP:  $2.2 billion (1992).  Per capita GDP: $998 (1992). 

Natural resources:  Coal, copper, molybdenum, iron, phosphates, tin, 
nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, uranium, petroleum.

Agriculture:  22% of 1992 GDP, livelihood for approximately 50% of 
population (1992).  Products--livestock, wheat, oats, barley, hay 
fodder, vegetables.

Industry:  34% of 1992 GDP; minerals (primarily copper), animal-derived 
products, building materials, food/beverage, mining (esp. coal); 
industrial growth rate in 1991 fell 12%.  

Trade:  Exports (1992, $400 million)--livestock, animal products, wool, 
hides, fluorspar, nonferrous metals, minerals.  Imports (1992, $368 
million)--machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial 
consumer goods, tea, chemicals, building equipment, sugar.  Partners 
(1992)--Russia and other NIS states, 55%; China, 14%; Japan, 7.6%; 
Germany, 4%; Switzerland, 3%; U.S., 0.7% ($13 million, 1991).  

Aid received:  Donors promised $325 million in aid, loans, and 
assistance at 1992 Tokyo Donor's Conference (millions):  Japan, $68; 
U.S., $35; Republic of Korea, $15; Germany, $9; U.K., $5; European 
Community, $5. 

Official exchange rate (July 1993):  399 tugriks=U.S.$1.
Fiscal year:  Calendar year.    (###)

Life in sparsely populated Mongolia has become more urbanized.  Nearly 
half of the people live in the capital, Ulaanbaatar, and in other 
provincial centers.  Nomadic life still predominates in the countryside, 
but settled agricultural communities are becoming more common. 

Mongolia's birth rate is estimated at 3.3%.  About three-fourths of the 
total population are under age 30, 45% of  whom are under 16.  Forty-
nine percent of all children are pre-school age.  More than 50,000 
families have five or more children.  

Ethnic Mongols account for about 85% of the population and consist of 
Khalkha and other groups, all distinguished primarily by dialects of the 
Mongol language*.  Mongol is an Altaic language (from the Altaic 
Mountains of Central Asia--a language family comprising the Turkic, 
Tungusic, and Mongolic subfamilies) related to Turkic (Uzbek, Turkish, 
and Kazakh), Korean, and, possibly, Japanese.  The Khalkha make up 90% 
of the Mongol population.  The remaining 10% include Durbet Mongols and 
others in the north and Dariganga Mongols in the east.  Turkic speakers 
(Kazakhs, Turvins, and Khotans) constitute 7% of Mongolia's population, 
and the rest are Tungusic-speakers, Chinese, and Russians.  Many 
Russians left the country following Mongolia's declaration of 

*Mongol is an Altaic language (from the Altaic Mountains of Central 
Asia--a language family comprising the Turkic, Tungusic, and Mongolic 
subfamilies) related to Turkic (Uzbek, Turkish, and Kazakh), Korean, 
and, possibly, Japanese.

Traditionally, Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism was the predominant religion.  
However, it was suppressed under the communist regime until 1990, with 
only one showcase monastery allowed to remain.  Since 1990, as 
liberalization began, Buddhism has enjoyed a resurgence.

About 4 million Mongols live outside Mongolia; about 3.4 million live in 
China, mainly in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; and some 500,000 
live in Russia, primarily in Buryatia and Kalmykia.

In 1203 AD, a single Mongolian state was formed based on nomadic tribal 
groupings under the leadership of Genghis Khan.  He and his immediate 
successors conquered nearly all of Asia and European Russia and sent 
armies as far as Central Europe and Southeast Asia.  Genghis Khan's 
grandson Kublai Khan, who conquered China and established the Yuan 
dynasty (1279-1368 AD), gained fame in Europe through the writings of 
Marco Polo.

Although Mongol-led confederations sometimes exercised wide political 
power over their conquered territories, their strength declined rapidly 
after the Mongol dynasty in China was overthrown in 1368.

The Manchus, a tribal group which conquered China in 1644 and formed the 
Qing dynasty, were able to bring Mongolia under Manchu control in 1691 
as Outer Mongolia when the Khalkha Mongol nobles swore an oath of 
allegiance to the Manchu emperor.  The Mongol rulers of Outer Mongolia 
enjoyed considerable autonomy under the Manchus, and all Chinese claims 
to Outer Mongolia following the establishment of the republic have 
rested on this oath.  In 1727, Russia and Manchu China concluded the 
Treaty of Khiakta, delimiting the border between China and Mongolia that 
exists in large part today.

Outer Mongolia was a Chinese province (1691-1911), an autonomous state 
under Russian protection (1912-19), and again a Chinese province (1919-
21).  As Manchu authority in China waned, and as Russia and Japan 
confronted each other, Russia gave arms and diplomatic support to 
nationalists among the Mongol religious leaders and nobles.  The Mongols 
accepted Russian aid and proclaimed their independence of Chinese rule 
in 1911, shortly after a successful Chinese revolt against the Manchus.  
By agreements signed in 1913 and 1915, the Russian Government forced the 
new Chinese Republican Government to accept Mongolian autonomy under 
continued Chinese control, presumably to discourage other foreign powers 
from approaching a newly independent Mongolian state that might seek 
support from as many foreign sources as possible.

The Russian revolution and civil war afforded Chinese warlords an 
opportunity to re-establish their rule in Outer Mongolia, and Chinese 
troops were dispatched there in 1919.  Following Soviet military 
victories over White Russian forces in the early 1920s, Moscow again 
became the major outside influence on Mongolia.  The Mongolian People's 
Republic (M.P.R.) was proclaimed on November 25, 1924.

Between 1925 and 1928, M.P.R.  power under the communist regime was 
consolidated.  The M.P.R. left gradually undermined rightist elements, 
seizing control of the party and the government.  Several factors 
characterized the country during this period--the society was basically 
nomadic and illiterate; there was no industrial proletariat; the 
aristocracy and the religious establishment shared the country's wealth; 
there was widespread popular obedience to traditional authorities; the 
party lacked grassroots support; and the government had little 
organization or experience. 

In an effort at swift socioeconomic reform, the leftist government 
applied extreme measures which attacked the two most dominant 
institutions in the country--the aristocracy and the religious 
establishment.  Between 1932 and 1945, their excess zeal, intolerance, 
and inexperience led to anti-communist uprisings. 

During World War II, because of a growing Japanese threat over the 
Mongolian-Manchurian border, the Soviet Union reversed the course of 
Mongolian socialism in favor of a new policy of economic gradualism and 
build-up of the national defense.  The Soviet-Mongolian army defeated 
Japanese forces that had invaded eastern Mongolia in the summer of 1939, 
and a truce was signed setting up a commission to define the Mongolian-
Manchurian border in the autumn of that year.

Following the war, the Soviet Union reasserted its influence in 
Mongolia.   Secure in its relations with Moscow, the Mongolian 
Government shifted to post-war development, focusing on civilian 
enterprise.  International ties were expanded, and Mongolia established 
relations with North Korea and the new communist governments in Eastern 
Europe.  It also increased its participation in communist-sponsored 
conferences and international organizations.  Mongolia became a member 
of the United Nations in 1961.

In the early 1960s, Mongolia attempted to maintain a neutral position 
amidst increasingly contentious Sino-Soviet polemics; this orientation 
changed in the middle of the decade.  The M.P.R. and the Soviet Union 
signed an agreement in 1966, which introduced large-scale Soviet ground 
forces to part of Moscow's general build-up along the Sino-Soviet 

During the period of Sino-Soviet tensions, relations between Mongolia 
and China also deteriorated.  In 1983, the M.P.R. systematically began 
expelling some of the 7,000 ethnic Chinese in Mongolia to China.  Many 
of them had lived in the M.P.R. since the 1950s, when they were sent 
there to assist in construction projects.  

Many factors may have motivated this shift:  a historical Mongolian 
antipathy for the Chinese; continued tensions on the Sino-Mongolian 
border (despite a 1964 demarcation); statements attributed to Beijing 
suggesting a continued interest among some Chinese for re-annexing 
Mongolia; Russia's historical counterbalancing of Chinese influence; and 
heavy Mongolian dependence on Soviet economic aid.

Chronology of Mongolian History 1921-Present

March 13, 1921:  Provisional People's Government declares independence 
of Mongolia.

May 31, 1924:  U.S.S.R. signs agreement with Peking government, 
referring to Outer Mongolia as an "integral part of the Republic of 
China," whose "sovereignty" therein the Soviet Union promises to 

May-September 16, 1939:  Large-scale fighting takes place between 
Japanese and Soviet-Mongolian forces along Khalkhyn Gol on M.P.R.-
Manchuria border, ending in defeat of the Japanese expeditionary force. 
Truce negotiated between U.S.S.R. and Japan.

October 6, 1949:  Newly established People's Republic of China accepts 
recognition accorded M.P.R. and agrees to establish diplomatic 

October 1961:  Mongolia becomes a member of the United Nations.

January 27, 1987:  Diplomatic relations established with the United 

December 1989:  First popular reform demonstrations.  Mongolian 
Democratic Association organized.

March 2, 1990:  Soviets and Mongolians announce that all Soviet troops 
will be withdrawn from Mongolia by 1992.

May 1990:  Constitution amended to provide for multi-party system and 
new elections.

July 29, 1990:  First democratic elections held.

September 3, 1990:  First democratically elected People's Great Hural 
takes office.

February 12, 1992:  New constitution goes into effect.

April 8, 1992:  New election law passed.

June 28, 1992:  Election for the first unicameral legislature (State 
Great Hural).

June 6, 1993:  First direct presidential election.  

Until 1990, the Mongolian Government was modeled on the Soviet system.  
Until May 1990, only the communist party--the Mongolian People's 
Revolutionary Party (MPRP)--officially was permitted to function.  After 
some instability during the first two decades of communist rule in 
Mongolia, there was no significant popular unrest until December 1989.  
Collectivization of animal husbandry, introduction of agriculture, and 
the extension of fixed abodes were all carried out without perceptible 
popular opposition. 

The birth of perestroika in the former Soviet Union and the democracy 
movement in Eastern Europe were mirrored in Mongolia.  The first 
demonstrations were held in Ulaanbaatar in December 1989; the 
development of this democracy movement brought swift and peaceful 
changes in Mongolia.  The government adopted a positive approach toward 

The dramatic shift toward reform actually started in 1990.  At that 
time, the first organized opposition group, the Mongolian Democratic 
Union, appeared.  In the face of popular demands for faster reform, the 
leadership of the MPRP resigned in March 1990.  In May, the constitution 
was amended, deleting reference to the MPRP's role as the guiding force 
in the country, legalizing opposition parties, creating a standing 
legislative body (Baga Hural--small Hural), and establishing the office 
of president.  Mongolia's first multi-party elections were held on July 
29, 1990.

A People's Great Hural was elected on July 29, 1990.  The MPRP won 85% 
of the seats.  It first met on September 3 and elected a president 
(MPRP), vice president (SDP--Social Democrats--also chairman of the Baga 
Hural), prime minister (MPRP), and 50 members to the Baga Hural. 

In November 1991, the Great Hural began discussion of a new 
constitution,  which entered into force February 12.  In addition to 
establishing Mongolia as an independent, sovereign republic and 
guaranteeing a number of rights and freedoms, the new constitution 
restructured the legislative branch of government, creating a unicameral 
legislature, the State Great Hural (SGH).

The constitution also provides that the president will be elected by 
popular vote rather than by the legislature as before.  In June 1993, 
incumbent Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat won the first popular presidential 
election running as an opposition candidate.  As the supreme government 
organ, the SGH is empowered to enact and amend laws, determine domestic 
and foreign policy, ratify international agreements, and declare a state 
of emergency.  The SGH meets semi-annually.  SGH members elect a 
chairman and vice chairman who serve 4-year terms.  SGH members are 
popularly elected by district for 4-year terms.  The first SGH was 
elected on June 28, 1992.  The MPRP won about 57% of the popular vote, 
but won 70 of 76 seats in the SGH. 

The president is the head of state, commander in chief of the armed 
forces, and head of the national security council.  He is popularly 
elected by a national majority for a 4-year term and limited to two 
terms.  The constitution empowers the president to propose a prime 
minister, call for the government's dissolution, initiate legislation, 
veto all or parts of legislation (the SGH can override the veto with a 
two-thirds majority),  and issue decrees, which become effective with 
the prime minister's signature.  In the absence, incapacity, or 
resignation of the president, the SGH chairman exercises presidential 
power until inauguration of a newly elected president.

The government, headed by the prime minister, has a 4-year term.  The 
prime minister is nominated by the president and confirmed by the SGH.  
The prime minister chooses a cabinet, subject to SGH approval.  
Dissolution of the government occurs upon the prime minister's 
resignation, simultaneous resignation of half the cabinet, or after an 
SGH vote for dissolution.

Local hurals are elected by the 18 aimags (provinces) plus the capital, 
Ulaanbaatar, and cities of Darhan and Erdenet.  On the next lower 
administrative level they are elected by provincial subdivisions and 
urban subdistricts in Ulaanbaatar and the municipalities, Darhan and 

Political Parties
--  Bourgeois Party (Bourgeois)
--  Buddhist Democratic Party
--  Green Party (Greens)
--  Mongolian National Democratic Party (MNDP)
--  Mongolian Independence Party (Independence)
--  Mongolian People's Party (MPP)
--  Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP)
--  Mongolian Worker's Party (MWP)
--  Social Democratic Party (SDP)
--  United Party of Farmers and Herdsmen (Herdsmen)
--  United Party of Private Property Owners (PPOP)

Principal Government Officials 
President--Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat 
Prime Minister--Puntsagiyn Jasray 
Minister of External Relations--Tserenpiliyn Gombosuren

Legal System
The new constitution empowered a General Council of Courts (GCC) to 
select all judges and protect their rights.  The Supreme Court is the 
highest judicial body.  Justices are nominated by the GCC and confirmed 
by the SGH and president.  The court is constitutionally empowered to 
examine all lower court decisions, excluding specialized court rulings, 
upon appeal and provide official interpretations on all laws except the 

Specialized civil, criminal, and administrative courts exist at all 
levels and are not subject to Supreme Court supervision.  Local 
authorities--district and city governors--ensure that these courts abide 
by presidential decrees and SGH decisions.  At the apex of the judicial 
system is the Constitutional Court, which consists of nine members--
including a chairman--appointed for 6-year terms, whose jurisdiction 
extends solely over the interpretation of the constitution.

The rapid political changes of 1990-91 marked the beginning of 
Mongolia's efforts to develop a market economy, but these efforts have 
been complicated and disrupted by the dissolution and continuing 
deterioration of the economy of the former Soviet Union.  Prior to 1991, 
80% of Mongolia's trade was with the former Soviet Union and 15% was 
with other Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) countries.  
Mongolia was heavily dependent upon the former Soviet Union for fuel, 
medicine, and spare parts for its factories and power plants. 

The former U.S.S.R. also served as the primary market for Mongolian 
industry.  In the 1980s, Mongolia's industrial sector became 
increasingly important.  By 1989, it accounted for an estimated 34% of 
material products compared to 18% from agriculture.  However, minerals, 
animals, and animal-derived products still constitute a large proportion 
of the country's exports.  Principal imports included machinery, 
petroleum, cloth, and building materials.

In the late 1980s, the government began to improve links with non-
communist Asia and the West, and a tourism sector developed.  As of 
January 1, 1991, Mongolia and the former Soviet Union agreed to conduct 
bilateral trade in hard currency at world prices.

Despite its external trade difficulties, Mongolia has continued to press 
ahead with reform.  Privatization of small shops and enterprises is 
largely complete, and most prices have been freed.  Privatization of 
large state enterprises has begun.  Tax reforms also have begun, and the 
barter and official exchange rates were unified in early 1992. 

Prospects for development away from reliance on nomadic, livestock-based 
agriculture are constrained by Mongolia's land-locked location and lack 
of basic infrastructure.  Mongolia's best hope for accelerated growth is 
to attract more foreign investment by further liberalizing the economy 
and expanding trade with non-traditional partners.  A new foreign 
investment law designed to provide increased incentive to investors was 
enacted in mid-1993.

Foreign aid has been necessary, and, in the past, the former Soviet 
Union was the principal source of aid and credit.  Mongolia's estimated 
debt to the former Soviet Union in 1992 was more than $10 billion in 
transferable rubles.  Considerable technical assistance also came from 
the former Soviet Union and East European countries.  Mongolia is 
seeking foreign assistance and investment from the West and 
international financial institutions to replace former Soviet bloc aid 
and to promote development of a market economy.

As a result of rapid urbanization and industrial growth policies under 
the communist regime, Mongolia's deteriorating environment has become a 
major concern.  The burning of soft coal coupled with thousands of 
factories in Ulaanbaatar has resulted in severely polluted air.  
Deforestation, overgrazed pastures, and efforts to increase grain and 
hay production by plowing up more virgin land has increased soil erosion 
from wind and rain.  The government responded by founding the Ministry 
of Environmental Protection in 1987 and by increasing publicity on 
environmental issues.

In the wake of the collapse of the international socialist economic 
system and the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Mongolians 
began to pursue an independent and non-aligned foreign policy.  The 
prime minister called for co-existence with all nations.  Due to 
Mongolia's landlocked position between the newly independent republics 
and China, it was essential to continue and improve relations with these 

Mongolian relations with China began to improve in the mid-1980s when 
consular agreements were reached and cross-border trade contacts 
expanded.  In 1989, China and Mongolia exchanged visits of foreign 
ministers.  In May 1990, a Mongolian head of state visited China for the 
first time in 28 years.  In 1991, the Chinese President and Executive 
Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission, Yang Shangkun, visited 
Mongolia, marking the first visit by a Chinese head of state.  Several 
agreements were signed during the visit.  Yang praised the establishment 
of direct ties between a number of Mongolian ministries, organizations, 
local areas and private firms, and their Chinese counterparts.  The 
Mongolian premier visited Beijing in May 1992.  That month, the Chinese 
and Mongolians signed an agreement establishing new border-crossing 

After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union,  Mongolia developed 
relations with the new independent states (NIS).  Links with Russia and 
other republics were essential to contribute to stabilization of the 
Mongolian economy.  The primary difficulties in developing fruitful 
coordination occurred because the NIS were experiencing the same 
political and economic restructuring as Mongolia.  Despite these 
difficulties, Mongolia and Russia successfully negotiated both a 1991 
Joint Declaration of Cooperation and a bilateral trade agreement.  The 
Prime Minister's visit of March 1992 resulted in an Inter-governmental 
Commission on Trade and Cooperation, allowing faster transport of goods 
and exempting Mongolian exports from Russian customs duties.  Soviet 
troop withdrawals from Mongolia began in 1987 and were completed in 
September 1992.  In April 1992, the Russian Ambassador presented his 
credentials to the Mongolian Prime Minister.  President Ochirbat's 
January 1993 trip to Moscow resulted in a new treaty on friendly 

Mongolia aims to establish a more balanced non-aligned foreign policy.  
It is expanding relations with Japan and South Korea.  Mongolia's Prime 
Minister visited Japan in March 1990.  Mongolia's President attended 
Emperor Akihito's coronation, and Japan's Prime Minister visited 
Mongolia in August 1991.  The Mongols expressed great appreciation for 
the $67 million in grants and loans that Japan provided as well as 
Japan's coordination of international assistance to Mongolia.

Diplomatic relations were established with South Korea in 1991, and 
during the Mongolian President's visit, seven agreements and treaties 
were signed, providing the legal basis for further expanding bilateral 
relations.  In April 1992, a Mongolian delegation attended its first 
forum of Parliament leaders of countries of Asia and the Pacific in 

During 1991, Mongolia signed investment promotion and protection 
agreements with Germany and France, and an economic cooperation 
agreement with the United Kingdom.  Germany continued former East German 
cooperative programs  and also provided loans and aid.  Mongolia seeks 
closer relations with other countries in Europe and hopes to receive 
most-favored-nation status from the European Community (EC).  The prime 
minister traveled to Germany, France, Belgium, and EC headquarters in 
Brussels seeking economic cooperation.

Mongolians, in pursuing a general policy of expanding relations with as 
many countries as possible, have made official visits (high-level 
officials and/or parliamentarians) to other countries, including 
Australia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Pakistan, and have established 
diplomatic relations with a number of nations, even those as far flung 
as Oman and Brunei, among others.  Israel accredited an ambassador to 
Mongolia from Tokyo.

The U.S. Government recognized Mongolia in January 1987, and established 
its first embassy in Ulaanbaatar in June 1988.  It formally opened in 
September 1988.  The first U.S. Ambassador to Mongolia, Richard L. 
Williams, was not resident there; Joseph E. Lake, the first resident 
Ambassador, arrived in July 1990, and will be succeeded by Donald 
Johnson.  Secretary of State James A. Baker, III visited Mongolia in 
August 1990, and again in July 1991.  Mongolia accredited its first 
Ambassador to the United States in March 1989.  Prime Minister Jasray 
visited the United States and met with Secretary Christopher in June 

The United States has sought to assist Mongolia's movement toward 
democracy and market-oriented reform and to expand relations with 
Mongolia primarily in the cultural and economic fields.  The United 
States granted Mongolia most-favored-nation status, and supported 
Mongolia's transition to political democracy and a market economy.  In 
1989 and 1990, a cultural accord, Peace Corps accord, consular 
convention, and Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) agreement 
were signed.  A trade agreement also has been signed.

In 1991, the U.S. Agency for International Development initiated a 
program of technical assistance and training in Mongolia.  The United 
States also provided about 25,000 tons of wheat and flour in 1992 to 
help alleviate a severe food shortage.  For FY 1993, the United States 
has provided Mongolia with $10.3 million in infrastructure and 
developmental assistance and $17 million in food and commodity 
assistance, including 25,000 metric tons of wheat.

With strong support from the United States, Mongolia joined the 
International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the Asian Development 
Bank in early 1991.  All three institutions are providing technical, 
financial, and project aid.  The United States worked closely with Japan 
and the international organizations to organize four donor group 
meetings during 1991-93, which succeeded in raising and coordinating 
substantial financial and development assistance for Mongolia.  (###)

Department of State Publication 7955

Contents of this publication are not copyrighted unless indicated.  If 
not copyrighted, the material may be reproduced without consent; 
citation of the publication as the source is appreciated.  Permission to 
reproduce any copyrighted material (including photos and graphics) must 
be obtained from the original source.  (###)
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