U.S. Department of State 
Background Notes: Indonesia, November 1997 

Released by the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs.



Official Name:  Republic of Indonesia

PROFILE


Geography



Area:  2 million sq. km. (736,000 sq. mi), about three times the size of 
Texas; maritime area: 7,900,000 sq. km.
Cities: Capital--Jakarta (est. 8.8 million).  Other cities--Surabaya 3.0 
million, Medan 2.5 million, Bandung 2.5 million plus an additional 3 
million in the surrounding area
Terrain:  More than 17,000 islands but only 1,000 permanently settled.  
Large islands consist of coastal plains with mountainous interiors.
Climate:  Equatorial but cooler in the highlands.

People

Nationality:  Noun and adjective--Indonesian(s).   
Population:  206.6 million.
Annual growth rate: 1.5%.
Ethnic groups:  Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal 
Malays 7.5%, others 26%.
Religions:  Islam 87%, Protestant 6%, Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 
and other 1%.
Languages:  Indonesian (official), local languages, the most important 
of which is Javanese.
Education:  Years compulsory--9.  Enrollment--92% of eligible primary 
school-age children.  Literacy--85%.
Health:  Infant mortality rate--63/1000 live births.  Life expectancy at 
birth--men 60 years, women 64 years
Work force: 71 million.  Agriculture--50.1.5%,  trade and restaurants--
15.0, public services--13.7%, manufacturing--11.6%.

Government
Type:  Independent republic.
Independence:  August 17, 1945 proclaimed.
Constitution: 1945. Embodies five principals of the state philosophy, 
called Pancasila, namely monotheism, humanitarianism, national unity, 
representative democracy by consensus, and social justice.
Branches of Government: Executive--president (head of government and 
chief of state) chosen for a 5-year term by the 1,000-member People's 
Consultative Assembly. Legislature--500-member House of Representatives 
elected for a 5-year term.  Judicial--Supreme Court.

Economy (1995)
GDP: $197.8 billion.
Annual growth rate: 7.5%.
Per capita income: $1,013.
Natural resources (8.4% of GDP): Oil and gas, bauxite, silver, tin, 
copper, gold, coal.
Agriculture (17.2% of GDP): Products--timber, rubber, rice, palm oil, 
coffee.  Land--17% cultivated.
Manufacturing (24.3% of GDP): Garments, footwear, electronic goods, 
furniture, paper products.
Trade:  Exports--$45.4 billion including oil, natural gas, plywood, 
manufactured goods.  Major markets--Japan, Singapore, Taiwan. Korea, 
U.S.Imports: $33.8 billion including food, chemicals, capital goods, 
consumer goods.  Major suppliers--Japan, U.S., Thailand.

PEOPLE

Indonesia's 206 million people make it the world's fourth-most populous 
nation.  The island of Java is one of the most densely populated areas 
in the world, with more than 107 million people living in an area the 
size of New York State.

Indonesia includes numerous related but distinct cultural and linguistic 
groups, many of which are ethnically Malay.  Since independence, 
Indonesian (the national language, a form of Malay) has spread 
throughout the archipelago and has become the language of all written 
communication, education, government, and business.  Many local 
languages are still important in many areas, however.  English is the 
most widely spoken foreign language.

Education is free and compulsory for children between ages 6 and 12. 
Although about 92% of eligible children are enrolled in primary school, 
a much smaller percentage attend full time.  About 44% of secondary 
school-age children attend junior high school, and some others of this 
age group attend vocational schools.
Constitutional guarantees of religious freedom apply to the five 
religions recognized by the state, namely Islam (87%), Protestantism 
(6%), Catholicism (3%), Buddhism (2%), and Hinduism (1%).  In some 
remote areas, animism is still practiced.

HISTORY

By the time of the Renaissance, the islands of Java and Sumatra had 
already enjoyed a 1,000-year heritage of advanced civilization spanning 
two major empires.  During the 7th-14th centuries, the Buddhist kingdom 
of Srivijaya flourished on Sumatra.  At its peak, the Srivijaya Empire 
reached as far as West Java and the Malay Peninsula.  Also by the 14th 
century, the Hindu Kingdom of Majapahit had risen in eastern Java.  
Gadjah Mada, the empire's chief minister from 1331 to 1364, succeeded in 
gaining allegiance from most of what is now modern Indonesia and much of 
the Malay archipelago as well.  Legacies from Gadjah Mada's time include 
a codification of law and an epic poem.

Islam arrived in Indonesia sometime during the 12th century and, through 
assimilation, supplanted Hinduism by the end of the 16th century in Java 
and Sumatra.  Bali, however, remains overwhelmingly Hindu.  In the 
eastern archipelago, both Christian and Islamic proselytizing took place 
in the 16th and 17th centuries and, currently, there are large 
communities of both religions on these islands.

Beginning in 1602, the Dutch slowly established themselves as rulers of 
present-day Indonesia, exploiting the weakness of the small kingdoms 
that had replaced that of Majapahit .  The only exception was East Timor 
which remained under Portugal until 1975.  During 300 years of Dutch 
rule, the Dutch developed the Netherlands East Indies into one of the 
world's richest colonial possessions.

During the first decade of this century, an Indonesian independence 
movement began and expanded rapidly, particularly between the two World 
Wars.  Its leaders came from a small group of young professionals and 
students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands.  Many, 
including Indonesia's first president, Sukarno, were imprisoned for 
political activities.

The Japanese occupied Indonesia for 3 years during World War II and, for 
their own purposes, encouraged the nationalist movement.  Many 
Indonesians took up positions in the civil administration which had been 
closed to all but token rulers under the Dutch.  On August 17, 1945, 3 
days after the Japanese surrender to the Allies, a small group of 
Indonesians, led by Sukarno -- the country's first truly national figure 
and first president (1945-1967) -- proclaimed independence and 
established the Republic of Indonesia.  Dutch efforts to reestablish 
complete control met strong resistance.  After 4 years of warfare and 
negotiations, the Dutch transferred sovereignty to a federal Indonesian 
Government.  In 1950, Indonesia became the 60th member of the United 
Nations.

Shortly after hostilities with the Dutch ended in 1949, Indonesia 
adopted a new constitution providing for a parliamentary system of 
government in which the executive was chosen by and made responsible to 
parliament.  Parliament was divided among many political parties before 
and after the country's first nationwide election in 1955, and stable 
governmental coalitions were difficult to achieve.

At the time of independence, the Dutch retained control over the western 
half of New Guinea, known as Irian Jaya.  Negotiations with the Dutch on 
the incorporation of West Irian into Indonesia failed, and armed clashes 
broke out between Indonesian and Dutch troops in 1961.  In August 1962, 
the two sides reached an agreement, and Indonesia assumed administrative 
responsibility for Irian Jaya on May 1, 1963.  An Act of Free Choice, 
held in Irian Jaya under UN supervision in 1969, confirmed the transfer 
of sovereignty to Indonesia.

From 1524 to 1975, East Timor was a Portuguese colony on the island of 
Timor, separated from Australia's north coast by the Timor Sea.  As a 
result of political events in Portugal, Portuguese authorities abruptly 
withdrew from Timor in 1975, exacerbating power struggles among several 
Timorese political factions.  An avowedly Marxist faction called 
"Fretilin" achieved military superiority.  Fretilin's ascent in an area 
contiguous to Indonesian territory alarmed the Indonesian Government, 
which regarded it as a threatening movement.  Following appeals from 
some of Fretilin's Timorese opponents, Indonesian military forces 
intervened in East Timor and overcame Fretilin's regular forces in 1975-
1976.  Small-scale guerrilla activity persists to the present.  
Indonesia declared East Timor its 27th province in 1976.

Unsuccessful rebellions on Sumatra, Sulawesi, and other islands 
beginning in 1958 plus a long succession of short-lived national 
governments weakened the parliamentary system.  Consequently, in 1959, 
when President Sukarno revived the 1945 constitution, which gave broad 
presidential powers, he met little resistance.

From 1956 to 1965, President Sukarno imposed an authoritarian regime 
under the label of "Guided Democracy."  He also moved Indonesia's 
foreign policy toward nonalignment.  Advocated  by the leaders of other 
former colonies, these nonaligned countries became known as the Non-
Aligned Movement.  President Sukarno closely worked with Asian communist 
states and increasingly tilted toward the Indonesian Communist Party 
(PKI) in domestic affairs.

By 1965, the PKI controlled many of the mass organizations that Sukarno 
had established to mobilize support for his regime and, with Sukarno's 
acquiescence, embarked on a campaign to establish a "fifth armed force" 
by arming its supporters.  Army leaders resisted this campaign.  On 
October 1, 1965, PKI sympathizers within the military, including 
elements from Sukarno's palace guards, occupied key locations in Jakarta 
and kidnaped and murdered six senior generals.

The army executed the coup plotters within a few days, but unsettled 
conditions persisted through 1966.  Violence swept throughout Indonesia.  
Rightist gangs killed tens of thousands of alleged communists in rural 
areas.  Estimates of the number of deaths range between 160,000 and 
500,000.  The violence was especially brutal in Java and Bali.  The 
emotions and fears of instability created by this crisis persist.

In the aftermath, President Sukarno vainly attempted to restore his 
political position and shift the country back to its pre-October 1965 
position.  Although he remained president, in March 1966, Sukarno had to 
transfer key political and military powers to General Soeharto, the 
general who rallied the military to defeat the coup attempt.  In March 
1967, the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) named General Soeharto 
acting president.  Sukarno ceased to be a political force and lived 
quietly until his death in 1970.

President Soeharto proclaimed a "New Order" in Indonesian politics and 
dramatically shifted foreign and domestic policies away from the course 
set in Sukarno's final years.  The New Order established economic 
rehabilitation and development as its primary goals and pursued its 
policies through an administrative structure dominated by the military 
but with advice from Western-educated economic experts.

In 1968, the MPR formally selected Soeharto to a full 5-year term as 
President, and he was reselected to additional 5-year terms in 1973, 
1978, 1983, 1988, and 1993.  It is likely that he will again be selected 
President in March 1998.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Indonesia is a republic based on the 1945 constitution providing for a 
limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicial power.  The 
president, elected for a 5-year term, is the overwhelmingly dominant 
government and political figure and is the highest executive office of 
the state.  He is selected along with the vice president by the MPR.  
The president has the authority to conduct the administration of the 
government and is accountable only to the MPR.  The President appoints a 
41-member Cabinet to assist him.

The People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) consists of 1,000 members of 
whom 500 are appointed by the president and 500 are members of the House 
of People's Representatives.  The assembly selects the president and 
vice president and establishes governmental guidelines for the next 5 
years.

The House of People's Representatives (DPR) is a 500-member body that 
serves as the legislative arm of the government and is empowered to 
approve all statutes and the national budget and to initiate 
legislation.  Of the 500 members, 425 are elected to office every 5 
years and 75 are selected by the president from Indonesia's armed 
forces.

Although nominally independent, the judiciary is strongly influenced by 
the executive branch of government.

Although Indonesia is a unitary state, there are 24 provinces, 2 special 
territories and 1 capital city district (Jakarta). These are further 
divided into 243 districts and 55 municipalities, 16 administrative 
municipalities, 35 administrative cities, and 3,841 subdistricts.  
Provincial governors are selected by the president.

By law there are only three legal political parties: Golkar, a 
federation of groups including civil servants, youth, labor, farmers, 
and women; United Development Party (PPP), composed of various Muslim 
groups; and the Indonesian Democracy Party (PDI) composed of Christian, 
socialist, and nationalist elements.  The party system reflects the 
Soeharto Government's determination to shift the political focus from 
Indonesia's deep ethnic, religious, and ideological differences, which 
contributed to the collapse of an earlier experiment in parliamentary 
democracy.  Soeharto's preferred strategy is authoritarian, program-
based, development-oriented politics.

In elections held in 1997, Golkar received a 74% majority, PPP  24%, and 
PDI only 3%.  PDI's poor showing reflected a year long struggle over who 
the chairman of the party should be.

The armed forces have shaped and staffed Soeharto's New Order since it 
came to power in the wake of the abortive 1965 uprising.  Military 
officers, especially from the army, have been key advisers to Soeharto 
and have great influence on policy.  Under the dual function concept, 
military officers serve in the civilian bureaucracy at all government 
levels, although there has been a recent tendency to somewhat reduce the 
military's direct involvement in the civilian bureaucracies.

Principal Government Officials

President--Soeharto
Vice President--Try Sutrisno
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Ali Alatas
Ambassador to the United States--Arifin Siregar
Ambassador to the United Nations--Makarim Wibisono

The embassy of Indonesia is at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW., 
Washington, DC  20036 (tel. 202-775-5200-5207; FAX:  202-775-5365). 
Consulates General are in New York (5 East 68th Street, New York, NY 
10021, tel.  212-879-0600/0615; FAX:  212-570-6206); Los Angeles (3457 
Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90010; tel.  213-383-5126; FAX:  213-
487-3971); Houston (10900 Richmond Ave., Houston, TX  77042; tel.  713-
785-1691; FAX:  713-780-9644).  Consulates are in San Francisco (1111 
Columbus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94133; tel. 415-474-9571; FAX:  415-
441-4320); and Chicago (2 Illinois Center, Suite 1422233 N. Michigan 
Avenue, Chicago, IL 60601; tel.  312-938-0101/4; 312-938-0311/0312; FAX:  
312-938-3148).

ECONOMY

Indonesia has a free-market economy that is dominated by the private 
sector.  The government still plays a significant role in the economy, 
however, through state-owned firms and the imposition of price controls 
in selected industries.

Since President Soeharto took power in 1966, Indonesia's economy has 
grown steadily, from a per capita GNP of $70 to a per capita GNP of 
about $900.  It is recognized as a newly industrializing economy.  Real 
GDP growth has averaged 6.7% over the last 5 years.  By employing a 
restrictive monetary policy and a conservative fiscal stance, the 
government has held inflation in the 5%-10% range.  With strong export 
performance and manageable import growth, Indonesia saw a trade surplus 
of about $3 billion in 1995.

Petroleum is one of Indonesia's major exports.  Indonesia endured a 
difficult economic period in the early 1980s because of falling oil 
prices but has successfully managed to diversify its economy and to 
attract manufacturing to create a more stable economic climate.

In the mid-1980s, the government began eliminating regulatory obstacles 
to economic activity.  These steps primarily have been directed at the 
external and financial sectors and were designed to stimulate growth in 
non-oil exports and revenues and to strip away import substitution 
barriers.  The May 1994 and May 1995 deregulation packages helped level 
the playing field for competition.  The January 1996 package helped cut 
tariffs.  The most important, unfinished deregulation steps are removal 
of nontariff barriers and associated domestic regulations reducing 
tariff protection on vehicles, the opening up of the strategic 
industries, and the removal of domestic subsidies and export 
restrictions.

In late 1997, Indonesia concluded a 3-year stabilization/structural 
adjustment program with the international financial institutions.  Under 
this program the rupiah will be stabilized in foreign exchange markets 
by the government adopting tight fiscal and monetary policies.  Non-
viable banks will be closed, and a broad range of structural reforms 
will be implemented including liberalization of foreign trade and 
investment; dismantling of domesic monopolies, allowing greater private 
sector participation in provision of infrastructure; and expanding the 
privatization program.

Indonesia's foreign debt at the end of 1995 was about $95 billion of 
which approximately $65 billion was official. Most of the government's 
foreign debt is medium to long term, predominantly on concessional terms 
from multilateral and bilateral donors.

Oil and Minerals Sector

The oil and gas sector, including refining, constitutes about 10% of 
GDP.  Although the sector's share of export earnings and government 
revenue has dropped to about 10%, it remains an important part of the 
economy.  Many U.S. companies participate.  Crude and condensate output 
averaged 1.6 million barrels per day (bpd) in 1995. With domestic demand 
for petroleum fuels expanding, Indonesia will become a net importer of 
oil by the next decade unless new reserves are found.

The state owns all oil and mineral rights.  Foreign firms participate 
through production sharing and work contracts.  Contractors are required 
to finance all exploration, production, and development costs in their 
contract areas; they are entitled to recover operating, exploration, and 
development costs out of the oil and gas produced.

Although traditionally known for bauxite, silver, and tin production, 
Indonesia is expanding its copper, nickel, gold, and coal output for 
export markets.  Total coal production reached 41 million tons in 1996, 
including exports of 27 million tons.  In mid-1993, the Department of 
Mines and Energy reopened the coal sector to foreign investment.  
Indonesian coal production in the range of 70-80 million tons by the end 
of the decade is possible.

Investment

The Indonesian Government actively encourages foreign investment.  
Burgeoning infrastructure requirements and the desire to contain the 
increase of foreign commercial indebtedness have reinforced that pro-
investment attitude.  The value of domestic investments approved by the 
BKPM grew 65% in 1995 to a total of $31 billion, while foreign 
investment approvals increased five-fold to a total of $40 billion.  
Most approved investment during the last 5 years have been in 
manufacturing, especially in textile, pulp and paper, and chemical 
industries.  While the United States is by far the largest participant 
in the oil and gas sector, Japan has traditionally been the leader in 
terms of value of BKPM-approved investment.  Japan remains the biggest 
foreign investor in Indonesia.  Other major foreign investors include 
Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and South Korea.

Over the past few years, Indonesia has made numerous changes in its 
regulatory framework to improve the business climate and encourage 
increased foreign investment.  In addition to the deregulation measures 
noted earlier, the recent passage of intellectual property protection 
laws and a movement to privatize previously restricted sectors such as 
road, electric power, and telecommunications have improved the 
investment climate in Indonesia.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Since independence, Indonesia has espoused a "free and active" foreign 
policy, seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its 
size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major 
powers.

Indonesian foreign policy under the "New Order" government of President 
Soeharto has moved from the stridently anti-Western, anti-American 
posturing which characterized the Sukarno era.  Indonesia preserves a 
non-aligned position while seeking constructive, responsible relations 
with many nations.

A cornerstone of Indonesia's contemporary foreign policy is its 
participation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), of 
which it was a founding member in 1967 with Thailand, Malaysia, 
Singapore, and the Philippines.  Since then, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, and 
Burma also have joined ASEAN.  While organized to promote common 
economic, social, and cultural goals, ASEAN acquired a security 
dimension after Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in 1979; this aspect of 
ASEAN expanded with the establishment of the ASEAN Regional Forum in 
1994, which comprises 18 countries, including the U.S.

Indonesia was also one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) 
and has taken moderate positions in its councils.  As NAM Chairman in 
1992-95, it led NAM positions away from the rhetoric of North-South 
confrontation, advocating instead the broadening of North-South 
cooperation in the area of development.

Indonesia has the world's largest Muslim population, but it is a secular 
state.  It is a member and current chairman of the Organization of the 
Islamic Conference (OIC), and while it carefully considers the interests 
of Islamic solidarity in its foreign policy decisions, it has been an 
influence for moderation in the OIC.

Since 1966, Indonesia has welcomed and maintained close relations 
concerning economic assistance with the United States, Western Europe, 
Australia, and Japan, from which, through the Intergovernmental Group on 
Indonesia (IGGI) and its successor, the Consultative Group on Indonesia 
(CGI), it has received substantial foreign economic assistance.  
Indonesia has no diplomatic relations with Portugal, due to their 
inability to reach agreement over the decolonization and subsequent 
Indonesian incorporation of East Timor, but the two countries are 
discussing the issue under the auspices of the United Nations.

Indonesia restored diplomatic relations with China in 1989 and, with the 
end of the Cold War, has supported efforts to gradually expand a 
regional security dialogue under the aegis of the ASEAN Regional Forum 
to all Asia-Pacific nations.  Indonesia has advocated the eventual 
expansion of ASEAN to include all the nations of Southeast Asia.

Indonesia has been a strong supporter of the Asia-Pacific Economic 
Cooperation forum (APEC).  Largely through the efforts of President 
Soeharto, APEC members agreed to implement free trade in the region by 
2010 for industrialized economies and 2020 for developing economies at 
the 1994 meeting in Bogor, Indonesia.

National Security

Indonesia's armed forces total about 420,000 members, including the 
national police and the traditional services (army, navy, marines, and 
air force).  The army is by far the largest, with 215,000 active-duty 
personnel.  Various paramilitary, civil defense, and other auxiliary 
units supplement the official armed forces.  With defense spending at 
1.48% of GDP for 1995-96, Indonesia ranks among those countries that 
spend least on their armed forces.

The Indonesian military sees itself as a unifying force among the 
various ethnic, religious, and political elements in Indonesia.  Thus, 
the military views its prime mission as assuring internal security.  The 
president, vice president, and many members of the cabinet have military 
backgrounds.  Furthermore, active duty and retired military personnel 
occupy a large number of seats in the House of Representatives and the 
MPR.  Under the government's dual-function concept, many military 
personnel occupy positions in regional government.

Commanders of the various territorial commands also are very influential 
in the politics of their respective regions.  Local military units can 
and do respond quickly with force if necessary.

Indonesia is at peace with its neighbors.  The P.R.C. claims in the 
South China Sea, where Indonesia has large natural gas reserves, concern 
the Indonesians, however.  Economic development has taken priority over 
the military budget in the Soeharto years.  Recently, however, the armed 
forces, particularly the navy, have undertaken some small but 
significant improvements of their external capabilities.

U.S.-INDONESIAN RELATIONS

The United States has important economic, commercial, and security 
interests in Indonesia because of its growing economy and markets and 
its strategic location astride a number of key international maritime 
straits.  Relations between Indonesia and the U.S. are good.  The U.S. 
played an important role in Indonesian independence in the late 1940s, 
and appreciated Indonesia's role as a staunch anti-communist bulwark 
during the Cold War, and maintains cordial and cooperative security 
arrangements today, although the two countries are not bound by any 
formal security treaties.

The United States and Indonesia share the common goal of maintaining 
peace, security, and stability in the region and engaging in a dialogue 
on threats to regional security.  The United States has welcomed 
Indonesia's contributions to regional security, especially its leading 
role in helping restore democracy in Cambodia and in mediating among the 
many territorial claimants in the South China Sea.  The United States 
and Indonesia maintain a modest, fruitful program of military 
cooperation which includes military training, ship and aircraft visits, 
joint exercises, and mutual visits of ranking military officers.

Friction points in the bilateral political relationship in recent years 
have centered on human rights, especially in East Timor, and also on the 
rights of workers.  The U.S. Congress cut off grant military training 
assistance (IMET) to Indonesia in 1992 in response to a November 12, 
1991, shooting incident in East Timor involving Indonesian security 
forces and peaceful Timorese demonstrators; this restriction was 
partially lifted in 1995.  The U.S. strongly supports UN efforts to 
promote a dialogue between Indonesia and Portugal to resolve their 
differences regarding the political status of East Timor.

On worker rights, Indonesia was the target of two 1992 petitions filed 
under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) legislation.  The 
petitions argued that Indonesia did not meet recognized labor standards 
of excessive military involvement in legitimate labor activity and 
severe restraints on the right of association regarding organizing 
unions.  A formal GSP review was suspended in February 1994 without 
terminating GSP benefits for Indonesia, but an active dialogue continues 
on worker rights issues.

Economic Relations With the United States

U.S. exports to Indonesia in 1995 totaled $3.4 billion.  The main 
exports were construction equipment, machinery, aviation parts, and  
agricultural products.  U.S. imports from Indonesia totaled $7.4 billion 
and consisted mainly of natural rubber and footwear.

Economic assistance to Indonesia is coordinated through the Consultative 
Group on Indonesia (CGI), formed in 1989.  It includes 19 donor 
countries and 13 international organizations and meets annually to 
coordinate donor assistance.  The July 1997 meetings resulted in pledges 
of $5.2 billion.  Japan's contribution of $1.76 billion provided the 
largest share of this total.  The United States pledged about $92 
million for fiscal year 1995.

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has provided 
development assistance to Indonesia since 1950.  Initial assistance 
focused on the most urgent needs of the new republic, including food 
aid, infrastructure rehabilitation, health care, and training.  After 
the 1965 turmoil, during which time U.S. aid was curtailed, USAID 
responded to the Indonesian Government's request to reactivate the 
overseas training program, assist in rebuilding infrastructure, 
invigorate the fledgling private sector, and help curb the country's 
exploding population growth rate.  Through the 1970s, a time of great 
economic growth in Indonesia, USAID played a major role in helping the 
country achieve self-sufficiency in rice production and in reducing the 
birth rate.

By the mid-1980s, a drop in oil prices led Indonesia to undertake far-
reaching economic policy reforms aimed at improving economic efficiency 
and reducing dependency on oil revenues.  USAID supported this process 
with technical and financial assistance.  USAID's current program, which 
supports Indonesia's goal of achieving a per capita income of $1,000 by 
the year 2000, focuses on developing a more competitive, participatory 
economy, improving health and reducing fertility, reducing the rate of 
environmental degradation, and strengthening key institutions which 
support citizen's rights and civic participation.  Total U.S. grant and 
loan assistance in fiscal year 1996 was $52 million.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Ambassador--J. Stapleton Roy
Deputy Chief of Mission--Michael Owens
Political Counselor--Edmund McWilliams Jr.
Economic Counselor--Judith Fergin
Administrative Counselor--Maurice Kralnek
USAID Director--Vivikka Moldrem
Defense Attache--Col. Charles McFetridge
Consul General--William H. Barkell
Public Affairs Officer--Steven J. Monblatt
Agricultural Counselor--Rubin Tilsworth-Rude
Commercial Counselor--Michael Hand

The U.S. Embassy in Indonesia is located at Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 
5, Jakarta (tel.  (62-21) 344-2211).  U.S. mail to the embassy may be 
addressed to APO AP 96520.

The U.S. Consulate General in Surabaya is located at Jalan Dr. Sutomo 
33, Surabaya East Java (tel.  (62-31) 568-2287).  Principal Officer--
William Pierce

For information on economic trends, commercial development, production, 
trade regulations, and tariff rates, contact the International Trade 
Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC 20230.

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the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta,
Georgia. A hotline at (404) 332-4559 gives the most recent health
advisories, immunization recommendations or requirements, and
advice on food and drinking water safety for regions and countries.
A booklet entitled Health Information for International Travel
(HHS publication number CDC-95-8280) is available from the U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.

Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency
and customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest
to travelers also may be obtained before your departure
from a country's embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this
country, see "Principal Government Officials" listing
in this publication). 

U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling
in dangerous areas are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy
upon arrival in a country (see "Principal U.S. Embassy
Officials" listing in this publication). This may help family
members contact you in case of an emergency. 

Further Electronic Information: 

Department of State Foreign Affairs Network.
Available on the Internet, DOSFAN provides timely, global access
to official U.S. foreign policy information. Updated daily, DOSFAN
includes Background Notes; Dispatch, the official
magazine of U.S. foreign policy; daily press briefings; Country
Commercial Guides; directories of key officers of foreign
service posts; etc. DOSFAN's World Wide Web site is at 
http://www.state.gov.

U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published
on a semi-annual basis by the U.S. Department of State, USFAC
archives information on the Department of State Foreign Affairs
Network, and includes an array of official foreign policy information
from 1990 to the present. Contact the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh,
PA 15250-7954. To order, call (202) 512-1800 or fax (202) 512-2250.

National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related information. It is available on the Internet (www.stat- usa.gov) and on CD-ROM. Call the NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-1986 for more information. 

[end of document]

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