BACKGROUND NOTES:  TANZANIA
PUBLISHED BY THE BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE

MAY 1994
Official Name:  United Republic of Tanzania

PROFILE

Geography
Area:  Mainland--945,000 sq. km. (378,000 sq.
mi.); slightly smaller than New Mexico and
Texas combined.  Zanzibar--1,658 sq. km. (640
sq. mi.).
Cities:  Capital--Dar es Salaam (pop. 2
million); Dodoma (future capital--200,000),
Zanzibar Town (160,000), Tanga (190,000),
Mwanza (225,000), Arusha (140,000).
Terrain:  Varied.
Climate:  Varies from tropical to arid to
temperate.

People
Nationality:  Noun and adjective--Tanzanian(s);
Zanzibari(s).
Population:  Mainland--25 million.  Zanzibar--
800,000.
Ethnic groups:  More than 120.
Religions:  Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%,
Christian 30%.
Languages:  Kiswahili (official), English.
Education:  Attendance--86% (primary).
Literacy--90%.
Health:  Infant mortality rate--110/1,000.
Life expectancy--53 yrs.
Work force:  Agriculture--85%.   Industry,
commerce, and government--15%.

Government
Type:  Republic.
Independence:  Tanganyika 1961, Zanzibar 1963,
union formed 1964.
Constitution:  1982.
Branches:  Executive--president (chief of state
and commander in chief), prime minister, first
vice-president, and second vice-president (also
president of Zanzibar).  Legislative--
unicameral National Assembly (for the union),
House of Representatives (for Zanzibar only).
Judicial--mainland:  Court of Appeals, High
Courts, Resident Magistrate Courts, district
courts, primary courts.  Zanzibar:  High Court,
people's district courts, kadhis courts
(Islamic courts).
Political parties:  Chama Cha Mapinduzi --
Revolutionary Party, Party for Democracy and
Development, Mageuzi National Convention for
Construction and Reform, Civic United Front,
Union for Multi-party Democracy, National
League for Democracy.
Suffrage:  Universal at 18.
Administrative subdivisions:  25 regions (20 on
mainland, 3 on Zanzibar, 2 on Pemba).
Flag:  Diagonal yellow-edged black band from
lower left to upper right; green field at upper
left, blue field at lower right.

Economy
GDP (1992):  $3.6 billion.
Annual growth rate:  3.6% (est. 1991). Per
capita income:  $260.
Natural resources:  Hydroelectric potential,
coal, iron, gemstone, gold, natural gas,
nickel, diamonds.
Agriculture (60% of GDP):  Products--coffee,
cotton, tea, tobacco, cloves, sisal, cashew
nuts, maize.
Industry (9% of GDP):  Types--textiles,
agribusiness, light manufacturing, oil
refining, construction.
Trade:  Exports--$440 million:  coffee, cotton,
tea, sisal, diamonds, cashew nuts, tobacco and
cloves.  Major markets--U.K., Germany, India,
Japan, Italy, and Far East.  Imports--$1.4
billion:  petroleum, consumer goods, machinery
and transport equipment, used clothing,
chemicals, pharmaceuticals.  Major suppliers--
U.K., Germany, Japan, India, Italy, U.S.
Official exchange rate:  335 Tanzanian
shillings=U.S.$1.  (###)


PEOPLE
Population distribution in Tanzania is
extremely uneven.  Density varies from 1 person
per square kilometer (3/sq. mi.) in arid
regions to 51 per square kilometer (133/sq.
mi.) in the mainland's well-watered highlands
and 134 per square kilometer (347/sq. mi.) on
Zanzibar.  More than 80% of the population is
rural.  Dar es Salaam is the capital and
largest city; Dodoma, located in the center of
Tanzania, has been designated to become the new
capital by the end of the decade.

The African population consists of more than
120 ethnic groups, of which the Sukuma, Haya,
Nyakyusa, Nyamwezi, and Chaga have more than 1
million members.  The majority of Tanzanians,
including such large tribes as the Sukuma and
the Nyamwezi, are of Bantu stock.  Groups of
Nilotic or related origin include the nomadic
Masai and the Luo, both of which are found in
greater numbers in neighboring Kenya.  Two
small groups speak languages of the Khoisan
family peculiar to the Bushman and Hottentot
peoples.  Cushitic-speaking peoples, originally
from the Ethiopian highlands, reside in a few
areas of Tanzania.

Although much of Zanzibar's African population
came from the mainland, one group known as
Shirazis traces its origins to the island's
early Persian settlers.  Non-Africans residing
on the mainland and Zanzibar account for 1% of
the total population.  The Asian community--
including Hindus, Sikhs, Shi'a and Sunni
Muslims, and Goans--has declined by 50% in the
past decade to 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000
on Zanzibar.  An estimated 70,000 Arabs and
10,000 Europeans reside in Tanzania.

Each ethnic group has its own language, but the
national language is Kiswahili, a Bantu-based
tongue with strong Arabic borrowings.


HISTORY
Tanganyika/Tanzania
Northern Tanganyika's famed Olduvai Gorge has
provided rich evidence of the area's
prehistory, including fossil remains of some of
humanity's earliest ancestors.  Discoveries
suggest that East Africa may have been the site
of human origin.

Little is known of the history of Tanganyika's
interior during the early centuries of the
Christian era.  The area is believed to have
been inhabited originally by ethnic groups
using a click-tongue language similar to that
of Southern Africa's Bushmen and Hottentots.
Although remnants of these early tribes still
exist, most were gradually displaced by Bantu
farmers migrating from the west and south and
by Nilotes and related northern peoples.  Some
of these groups had well-organized societies
and controlled extensive areas by the time the
Arab slavers, European explorers, and
missionaries penetrated the interior in the
first half of the 19th century.

The coastal area first felt the impact of
foreign influence as early as the 8th century,
when Arab traders arrived.  By the 12th
century, traders and immigrants came from as
far away as Persia (now Iran) and India.  They
built a series of highly developed city and
trading states along the coast, the principal
one being Kilwa, a settlement of Persian origin
that held ascendancy until the Portuguese
destroyed it in the early 1500s.

The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama explored
the East African coast in 1498 on his voyage to
India.  By 1506, the Portuguese claimed control
over the entire coast.  This control was
nominal, however, because the Portuguese did
not colonize the area or explore the interior.
Assisted by Omani Arabs, the indigenous coastal
dwellers succeeded in driving the Portuguese
from the area north of the Ruvuma River by the
early 18th century.  Claiming the coastal
strip, Omani Sultan Seyyid Said (1804-1856)
moved his capital to Zanzibar in 1841.

European exploration of the interior began in
the mid-19th century.  Two German missionaries
reached Mt. Kilimanjaro in the 1840s.  British
explorers Richard Burton and John Speke crossed
the interior to Lake Tanganyika in 1857.  David
Livingstone, the Scottish missionary-explorer
who crusaded against the slave trade,
established his last mission at Ujiji, where he
was "found" by Henry Morton Stanley, an Anglo-
American journalist-explorer, who had been
commissioned by the New York Herald to locate
him.

German colonial interests were first advanced
in 1884.  Karl Peters, who formed the Society
for German Colonization, concluded a series of
treaties by which tribal chiefs in the interior
accepted German "protection."  Prince Otto von
Bismarck's government backed Peters in the
subsequent establishment of the German East
Africa Company.

In 1886 and 1890, Anglo-German agreements were
negotiated that delineated the British and
German spheres of influence in the interior of
East Africa and along the coastal strip
previously claimed by  the Omani sultan of
Zanzibar.  In 1891, the German Government took
over direct administration of the territory
from the German East Africa Company and
appointed a governor with headquarters at Dar
es Salaam.

Although the German colonial administration
brought cash crops, railroads, and roads to
Tanganyika, European rule provoked African
resistance, culminating in the Maji Maji
rebellion of 1905-07.  The rebellion, which
temporarily united a number of southern tribes
and ended only after an estimated 120,000
Africans had died from fighting or starvation,
is considered by most Tanzanians to have been
one of the first stirrings of nationalism.

German colonial domination of Tanganyika ended
after World War I when control of most of the
territory passed to the United Kingdom under a
League of Nations mandate.   After World War
II, Tanganyika became a UN trust territory
under British control.  Subsequent years
witnessed Tanganyika moving gradually toward
self-government and independence.

In 1954, Julius K. Nyerere, a schoolteacher
who was then one of only two Tanganyikans
educated abroad at the university level,
organized a political party--the Tanganyika
African National Union (TANU).  TANU-supported
candidates were victorious in the Legislative
Council elections of September 1958 and
February 1959.  In December 1959, the United
Kingdom agreed to the establishment of internal
self-government following general elections to
be held in August 1960.  Nyerere was named
chief minister of the subsequent government.

In May 1961, Tanganyika became autonomous, and
Nyerere became prime minister under a new
constitution.  Full independence was achieved
on December 9, 1961.  Mr. Nyerere  was elected
President when Tanganyika became a republic
within the Commonwealth a year after
independence.

Zanzibar
An early Arab/Persian trading center, Zanzibar
fell under Portuguese domination in the 16th
and early 17th centuries but was retaken by
Omani Arabs in the early 18th century.  The
height of Arab rule came during the reign of
Sultan Seyyid Said, who encouraged the
development of clove plantations, using the
island's slave labor.

The Arabs established their own garrisons at
Zanzibar, Pemba, and Kilwa and carried on a
lucrative trade in slaves and ivory.   By 1840,
Said had transferred his capital from Muscat to
Zanzibar and established a ruling Arab elite.
The island's commerce fell increasingly into
the hands of traders from the Indian
subcontinent, whom Said encouraged to settle on
the island.

Zanzibar's spices attracted ships from as far
away as the United States.  A U.S. consulate
was established on the island in 1837.  The
United Kingdom's early interest in Zanzibar was
motivated by both commerce and the
determination to end the slave trade.  In 1822,
the British signed the first of a series of
treaties with Sultan Said to curb this trade,
but not until 1876 was the sale of slaves
finally prohibited.

The Anglo-German agreement of 1890 made
Zanzibar and Pemba a British protectorate.
British rule through a sultan remained largely
unchanged from the late 19th century until
after World War II.

Zanzibar's political development began in
earnest after 1956, when provision was first
made for the election of six non-government
members to the Legislative Council.  Two
parties were formed:  the Zanzibar Nationalist
Party (ZNP), representing the dominant Arab and
Arabized minority, and the Afro-Shirazi Party
(ASP), led by Abeid Karume and representing the
Shirazis and the African majority.

The first elections were held in July 1957, and
the ASP won three of the six elected seats,
with the remainder going to independents.
Following the election, the ASP split; some of
its Shirazi supporters left to form the
Zanzibar and Pemba People's Party (ZPPP).  The
January 1961 election resulted in a deadlock
between the ASP and a ZNP-ZPPP coalition.

On April 26, 1964, Tanganyika united with
Zanzibar to form the United Republic of
Tanganyika and Zanzibar, renamed the United
Republic of Tanzania on October 29.

United Republic of Tanzania
TANU and the Afro-Shirazi Party of Zanzibar
were merged into a single party, Chama Cha
Mapinduzi (CCM Revolutionary Party), on
February 5, 1977.  On April 26, 1977, the union
of the two parties was ratified in a new
constitution.  The merger was reinforced by
principles enunciated in the 1982 union
constitution and reaffirmed in the constitution
of 1984.

The elections that followed the granting of
self-government in June 1963 produced similar
results.  Zanzibar received its independence
from the United Kingdom on December 19, 1963,
as a constitutional monarchy under the sultan.
On January 12, 1964, the African majority
revolted against the sultan, and a new
government was formed with the ASP leader,
Abeid Karume, as president of Zanzibar and
chairman of the Revolutionary Council.  Under
the terms of its political union with
Tanganyika in April 1964, the Zanzibar
Government retained considerable local
autonomy.

Abeid Karume was named First Vice President of
the union government, a post he held until his
assassination in April 1972.  Aboud Jumbe, a
fellow member of the ASP and the Revolutionary
Council, was appointed to succeed Karume.  In
1981, 32 persons were selected to serve in the
Zanzibar House of Representatives.  The
election marked the first poll since the 1964
revolution.  In 1984, Jumbe resigned and was
replaced by Ali Hassan Mwinyi as both President
of Zanzibar and First Vice President of
Tanzania.  In the election of 1985, Mwinyi was
elected President of the United Republic of
Tanzania; Idris Wakil was elected President of
Zanzibar and Second Vice President of Tanzania.
In 1990, Wakil retired and was replaced as
President of Zanzibar by Salmin Amour.

In 1977, Nyerere merged TANU with the Zanzibar
ruling party, the ASP, to form the CCM as the
sole ruling party in both parts of the union.
The CCM was to be the sole instrument for
mobilizing and controlling the population in
all significant political or economic
activities.  He envisioned the party as a "two-
way street" for the flow of ideas and policy
directives between the village level and the
government.

President Nyerere handed over power to his
successor, President Ali Hassan Mwinyi, in
1985.  Nyerere retained his position as
Chairman of the ruling party for five more
years, but in 1990, this post also was passed
on to Mwinyi, who started his last five-year
term at that time.  Nyerere retired from formal
politics but remains influential behind the
scenes.

In 1990, in response to the currents of
democracy sweeping much of the world, Tanzania
began making substantial changes to its
political system (see below).


GOVERNMENT
Tanzania is changing  from a single-party state
with a strong central executive to a more
democratic multi-party system.  Currently, the
president is assisted by two vice-presidents.
One of the vice- presidents serves as prime
minister and carries an administrative
portfolio.  Selected from the National Assembly
body, this vice-president is the government's
leader in the National Assembly.  The other
vice-president functions as President of
Zanzibar and must be a Zanzibari citizen.  The
president and the National Assembly are elected
concurrently by direct popular vote for five-
year terms.  If the president dissolves the
assembly, he or she must stand for election as
well.  The president indicated in his New
Year's Eve speech on December 31, 1991, that
the current parliament would serve out its
term, due to expire in 1995.  The president
must select the cabinet from among National
Assembly members but has the power to appoint
up to 15 members of the assembly.

The unicameral National Assembly has 255
members, 180 of whom are elected from the
mainland and Zanzibar.  At present, all are
members of the CCM.  The remaining members were
appointed by the government and various "mass
organizations" associated with the party.
Assembly actions are valid for Zanzibar only in
specifically designated union matters.
Zanzibar's own elected House of Representatives
has jurisdiction over all non-union matters.

Tanzania has a five-level judiciary combining
the jurisdictions of tribal, Islamic, and
British common law.  Appeal is from the primary
courts through the district courts, resident
magistrate courts, to the high courts,  and
Court of Appeals.  Judges are appointed by the
Chief Justice, except those for the Court of
Appeals and the High Court, who are appointed
by the president.  The Zanzibari court system
parallels the legal system of the union, and
all cases tried in Zanzibari courts, except for
those involving constitutional issues and
Islamic law, can be appealed to the Court of
Appeals of the union.

For administrative purposes, Tanzania is
divided into 25 regions--20 on the mainland, 3
on Zanzibar, and 2 on Pemba.  Since 1972, a
decentralization program on the mainland has
worked to increase the authority of the
regions.  On July 1, 1983, the government
reinstated 99 district councils to further
increase local authority.  Of the 99 councils
operating in 86 districts, 19 are urban and 80
are rural.  The 19 urban units are classified
further as city (Dar es Salaam), municipal
(Arusha, Dodoma, Tanga), and town councils (the
remaining 15 communities).

On the mainland, regional commissioners are
also ex-official members of the National
Assembly.  The regional and area commissioners
are assisted by appointed development directors
and other functional managers, who form a
council charged with administering the region
or district in close collaboration with CCM
party officials.  Following the 1982 Party
Congress, two new positions--regional and
district party secretary--were created to
assist in coordinating the activities between
the party and the political jurisdictions.

Constitutional and legal changes due to multi-
party politics may affect many of the
arrangements described above.

Principal Government Officials
President--Ali Hassan Mwinyi
First Vice-President and Prime Minister--John
Samuel Malecela
President of Zanzibar and Second Vice-President-
-Dr. Salmin Amour
Deputy Prime Minister-- Augustine Mrema
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Joseph Rwegasira
Ambassador to the United States--Charles
Nyirabu
Ambassador to the United Nations--vacant

Tanzania maintains an embassy in the United
States at 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC
20008 (tel. 202-939-6125).


POLITICAL CONDITIONS
President Ali Hassan Mwinyi was elected for a
second five-year term in 1990.  Salmin Amour
became President of Zanzibar and second Vice
President of the Union.  In a 1990 cabinet
shuffle, President Mwinyi replaced Prime
Minister Joseph Warioba with John Samuel
Malecela, a former foreign minister and
diplomat.  Julius Nyerere retired from his post
as CCM party chairman in 1990 and transferred
that position to President Mwinyi.

In the beginning Tanzania sought to achieve
political and economic development within an
authoritarian framework.  Since 1962, Nyerere
had used the Kiswahili word ujamaa (familyhood)
to describe the ideal of communal cooperation
his government sought to foster.  Goals were
set forth in more conventional socialist terms
in the TANU constitution and reaffirmed in
February 1967 in a party document, the Arusha
Declaration.  The declaration, which enunciated
the principles of socialism and self-reliance,
asked that the government nationalize the means
of production, prepare development plans that
Tanzania could carry out without depending on
foreign assistance, and place greater emphasis
on improving rural living standards.

The CCM was granted political supremacy over
the government by the constitution of 1977 and
still remains a primary source of policy in the
social, political, and economic fields.  Nearly
all top government leaders were provided by
CCM, which plays a leading role in the
government scheme of nation-building and whose
control structure is closely interwoven with
the government's.

In early 1986, however, Nyerere admitted that
the party was moribund, particularly at local
levels, and began a campaign to inject new life
into the CCM.  These initiatives failed, and by
1989, when the East European socialist regimes
began to collapse, the party  reluctantly
conceded the need for fundamental reforms.

Reforms of the political process met with
considerable criticism.  Tanzania's single-
party politics made a mockery of democratic
procedures through its electoral practices.  No
candidate was permitted to stand for office
without the approval of the senior leadership
of the ruling party.  Voters were expected
merely to ratify the party's choices and
coercive measures--withholding ration
allotments, for example--were commonly used to
"encourage" participation in registration and
voting.  To address this problem, President
Mwinyi in 1991 appointed a special commission
under Chief Justice Francis Nyalali to examine
and recommend fundamental reforms of the
political system.

At the end of 1991, Tanzania began another
attempt at democratic and economic reform in
order to change its autocratic single-party
state system.  Low pay combined with obsessive
secrecy and lack of accountability had led to
massive fraud, misfeasance, corruption, and a
disregard for the leadership's code.  The
Zanzibar Declaration of 1991 began reform in
earnest primarily because the problems could no
longer be hidden.

In January and February 1992, the government
decided to adopt multi-party democracy.  Legal
and constitutional changes led to the
registration of 11 political parties.  Two
parliamentary by-elections (won by the CCM) in
early 1994, which were contested by most
parties, were the first-ever multi-party
elections in Tanzanian history.  Local
elections are planned for August 1994 and
general elections for 1995.


ECONOMY
Tanganyika/Tanzania
Substantial measures have been taken to
liberalize the Tanzanian economy along market
lines and encourage both foreign and domestic
private investment.

In early 1986, the Government of Tanzania
embarked on an adjustment program to dismantle
state economic controls and encourage more
active participation of the private sector in
the economy.  The program included a
comprehensive package of policies which reduced
the budget deficit and improved monetary
control, substantially depreciated the
overvalued exchange rate, liberalized the trade
regime, removed most price controls, eased
restrictions on the marketing of food crops,
freed interest rates, and initiated a
restructuring of the financial sector.

With the establishment of an institutional
framework for the privatization of parastatal
enterprises, reduction in this costly and
inefficient area has also begun.

The reform program increased external
resources, food production, and food and non-
traditional exports.  During the 1986-92
period, both GDP and exports increased at an
average of about 4% per year, after near GDP
stagnation  in 1993.  The government also
launched programs to rehabilitate key
infrastructure (roads, railways, and ports).

However, Tanzania's economy remains
overwhelmingly donor dependent, with as much as
40% of GDP consisting of external aid.
Furthermore, the public sector still accounts
for more than 70% of GDP, and periodic foreign
exchange shortages and an inefficient
bureaucracy and legal system hamper business
enterprise.

Agriculture dominates the economy, providing
over 60% of GDP and 85% of employment.  Cash
crops, including coffee, tea, cotton, cashews,
sisal, cloves, and pyrethrum make up 48% of
export earnings.  The volume of all major
crops, both cash and goods, which have been
marketed through official channels has
increased over the past few years, but large
amounts of produce never reach the market.
Poor pricing and unreliable cash flow to
farmers continue to frustrate the agricultural
sector.

Accounting for less than 10% of GDP, Tanzania's
industrial sector is one of the smallest in
Africa.  It grew 12% during the late 1980s but
continues to show overall signs of decline.  It
has been hit hard recently by persistent power
shortages caused by low rainfall in the
hydroelectric dam catchment area, a condition
compounded by years of neglect and bad
management at the state-controlled electric
company.

Main industrial activities include producing
raw materials, import substitutes, and
processed agricultural products.  Foreign
exchange shortages and mismanagement continue
to deprive factories of much needed spare parts
and have reduced factory capacity to less than
30%.

Despite Tanzania's past record of political
stability, an unattractive investment climate
has discouraged foreign investment.  Government
steps to improve that climate include redrawing
tax codes, floating the exchange rate,
licensing foreign banks, and creating an
investment promotion center to cut red tape.
In terms of mineral resources and the largely
untapped tourism sector, Tanzania could become
a viable and attractive market for U.S. goods
and services.

Zanzibar
Zanzibar's economy is based primarily on the
production of cloves (90% grown on the island
of Pemba), the principal foreign exchange
earner.  Exports have suffered recently with
the downturn in the clove market.  Tourism is
an increasingly promising sector, and a number
of proposals are being considered for new
hotels and resorts.

The Government of Zanzibar has been more
aggressive than its mainland counterpart in
instituting economic reforms and has legalized
foreign exchange bureaus on the islands.  This
has loosened up the economy and dramatically
increased the availability of consumer
commodities.  Furthermore, with external
funding, the government plans to make the Port
of Zanzibar a free port.  Rehabilitation of
current port facilities and plans to extend
these facilities will be the precursor to the
free port.  The island's manufacturing sector
is limited mainly to import substitution
industries, such as cigarettes, shoes, and
processed agricultural products.  In 1992, the
government designated two export-producing
zones and encouraged the development of
offshore financial services.  Zanzibar still
imports much of its staple requirements,
petroleum products, and manufactured articles.


FOREIGN RELATIONS
Along with many other Third World nations,
Tanzania based its foreign policy on the
concept of nonalignment with both major power
blocs.  Former President Nyerere defined
nonalignment as the right of small nations to
determine their own policies in their own
interests and to have an influence in world
affairs that accords with the right of all
people to live equally.

Tanzania played an important role in several
regional and international organizations
including the Non-Aligned Movement, the front-
line states, Southern Africa Development
Coordination Conference, the Organization of
African Unity (OAU), the United Nations, and
its specialized and related agencies.

As one of Africa's best-known elder statesmen,
Nyerere has been involved in many of these
organizations, particularly as former chairman
of the six front-line states concerned with
southern Africa and as former chairman of the
OAU (1984-85).  Tanzania supports the tenets of
majority rule and self-determination for all of
southern Africa and has been a principal
supporter of liberation groups in that part of
the continent.

In recent years, Tanzania has joined with many
other developing countries to support a new
international economic order.  Tanzania
advocates measures to stabilize international
commodity prices and provide balance-of-
payments support for countries facing
unfavorable terms of trade.  It acknowledges
the need for structural adjustment in
developing economies but also stresses the
importance of developed country cooperation in
the transfer of resources and technology, debt
settlement, and increasing access to primary
commodity markets.

Tanzania enjoys particularly close ties with
neighboring Uganda, Zambia, and Mozambique.  In
1977, the Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ugandan
partnership in the East African Community,
established 10 years earlier, was dissolved.
The breakup resulted in suspension of nearly
all trade between Tanzania and Kenya and
closure of the border to most tourist travel.
The border was re-opened in 1984, and relations
with Kenya have improved significantly.


U.S.-TANZANIAN RELATIONS
The United States enjoys cordial relations with
the United Republic
of Tanzania.  The United States has
historically sought to assist Tanzania's
economic and social development through
bilateral and regional programs administered by
the U.S. Agency for International Development
(USAID).  From 1953 to 1992, total US economic
assistance was $480 million in loans, grants,
and PL 480 Title II (Food for Peace).

In the 1970s, USAID focused on strengthening
national institutions in agriculture and, to a
lesser degree, on health.  In agriculture, food
crops and livestock were emphasized.  Health
care assistance has supported labor
development, particularly training for maternal
and child care health aides.  Training is an
important part of the USAID program, and almost
2,000 Tanzanians have received either long- or
short-term training, primarily in the United
States.

The AID program of the 1990s, however, is
emphasizing improving   the rural
transportation network, private enterprise
development, and family planning.

The Peace Corps program, revitalized in 1979,
provides assistance in wildlife management,
teaching, forestry, and agricultural mechanics
on both the mainland and on Zanzibar.  There
are about 80 volunteers.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officers
Ambassador--Peter Jon de Vos
Deputy Chief of Mission--Steven Browning
Director, USAID--Dale B. Pfeiffer
Public Affairs Officer (USIS)--Gregory Lynch
Peace Corps Director--James E. Mayer

The U.S. embassy in Tanzania is located at 36
Laibon Road, Dar es Salaam.  The consulate in
Zanzibar was closed on June 15, 1979.  (###)


Travel Notes
Customs:  Visas and inoculations against
cholera and yellow fever are required for
entry.

Climate and clothing:  Lightweight, tropical
clothing is worn year-round, although in the
cooler season (June-September), a light wrap is
useful in the evenings.  Due to cultural
sensitivities, conservative dress is
recommended.

Health:  Community sanitation is poor. Tapwater
is not potable.  Boil and filter water, and
prepare fruits and vegetables carefully.

Telecommunications:  Direct-dial telephone and
cable services are available to the United
Kingdom, United States, and other parts of the
world.  Tanzania is eight standard time zones
ahead of eastern standard time and does not
observe daylight-saving time.

Transportation:  Dar es Salaam is served by
several international airlines.  Taxis are
available 24 hours at certain locations; fare
should be agreed upon in advance.  Buses and
trains generally are overcrowded.  Traffic
moves on the left.


Further Information
Available from the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC
20402:

American University.  Tanzania:  A Country
Study.
Key Officers of Foreign Service Posts  (Guide
for Businesses).

For information on economic trends, commercial
development, production, trade regulations, and
tariff rates, contact the International Trade
Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce,
Washington, DC 20230.  (###)


Published by the United States Department of
State -- Bureau of Public Affairs -- Office of
Public Communication -- Washington, DC
May 1994 -- Managing Editor:  Peter Knecht

Department of State Publication 8097 --
Background Notes Series
Contents of this publication are not
copyrighted unless indicated.  If not
copyrighted, the material may be reproduced
without consent; citation of the publication as
the source is appreciated.  Permission to
reproduce any copyrighted material (including
photos and graphics) must be obtained from the
original source.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents --
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC
20402.
(###)

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