U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: South Africa, November 1994
Bureau of Public Affairs
Official Name: Republic of South Africa
Area: 1.2 million sq. km. (470,462 sq. mi.).
Capitals: Administrative--Pretoria Legislative--Cape Town. Judicial--
Other cities: Johannesburg, Soweto, Durban.
Terrain: Plateau, savanna, desert, mountains, coastal plains.
Climate: moderate; similar to southern California.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--South African(s).
Annual growth rate: 2.6%.
Population: 42.7 million (1993 est.).
Ethnic groups: African (black) 29.1 million; white 5.5 million; colored
(mixed race) 3.3 million; Asian (Indian) 1 million. Languages:
Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, North Sotho, South Sotho, Swati, Tsonga,
Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu (all official languages).
Religions: Predominantly Christian; traditional African, Hindu,
Muslim, Jewish. Education: Years compulsory--7 yrs. for all children
but not currently enforced. An estimated 2 million school-age children
do not attend school.
Health: Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)--66. Life
expectancy--65 yrs., women; 59 yrs., men.
Type: Executive--president; under the 1993 transitional constitution,
Independence: The Union of South Africa was created on May 31,
1910; became sovereign state within British empire in 1934; became a
Republic on May 31, 1961; left the Commonwealth in October 1968.
Nonracial, democratic constitution came into effect April 27, 1994;
rejoined the Commonwealth in May 1994.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state) elected to a five-year
term by the Parliament. Legislative--bicameral Parliament consisting of
490 members in two chambers. National Assembly (400 members)
elected by a system of proportional representation for a maximum five-
year term. Senate consisting of 90 members elected by the Provincial
Legislatures (10 senators from each province). Judicial--Supreme Court
consisting of Appellate Division in Bloemfontein and nine provincial
divisions. Constitutional Court with power to override Parliament.
Administrative subdivisions: Nine provinces: Northern Cape, Western
Cape, Eastern Cape, North-West, Northern Transvaal, Eastern
Transvaal, PVW (Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging), Orange Free
Political parties: African National Congress (ANC), National Party
(NP), Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), Vryheidsfront/Freedom Front (FF),
Democratic Party (DP), Pan-African Congress (PAC), African
Christian Democratic Party (ACDP). Suffrage--Citizens and permanent
residents 18 and older.
GDP (1993): $111.8 billion.
GDP growth rate (1993): 1.1%.
GDP per capita (1993): $2,815. Unemployment (1993): 46% (is
heaviest among blacks).
Natural resources: Almost all essential commodities, except petroleum
Manufacturing (1993): About 25% of GDP. A world leader in the areas
of railway rolling stock, synthetic fuels, and mining equipment and
Industry: Types--minerals, auto- mobiles fabricated material,
machinery, textiles, chemicals, fertilizer.
Trade: Exports (1993)--$6.7 billion: gold, other minerals and metals,
agricultural products. Major markets--U.S., Germany, Japan, United
Kingdom, other Sub-Saharan African countries. Imports (1993)--$5.2
billion: machinery, mining equipment, transportation equipment,
automobiles, computers, aircraft parts, rice, and office machinery parts.
Major suppliers--U.S., Germany, Japan, United Kingdom.
Finance and business services (1993): About 16% of GDP. Mining
(1993): 10% of GDP); world's largest producer and exporter of gold;
also significant coal production.
Official exchange rate (1993 avg.): Financial rand--4.30 rand=U.S.$1;
commercial rand--3.2 rand=U.S.$1.
Until 1991, South African law divided the population into four major
racial categories: Africans (black), whites, coloreds, and Asians.
Although this law has been abolished, many South Africans still view
themselves and each other according to these categories. Africans
comprise about 75% of the population and are divided into a number of
different ethnic groups. Whites comprise about 14% of the population.
They are primarily descendants of Dutch, French, English, and German
settlers who began arriving at the Cape in the late 17th century.
Coloreds are mixed race people, primarily descending from the earliest
settlers and the indigenous peoples. They comprise about 9% of the
total population. Asians descend from Indian workers brought to South
Africa in the mid-19th century to work on the sugar estates in Natal.
They constitute about 2% of the population and are concentrated in the
Kwazulu-Natal Province. Education is in a state of flux. Under the
apartheid system, schools were segregated and the quantity and quality
of education varied significantly across racial groups. Although the
laws governing this segregation have been abolished, the long and
arduous process of restructuring the country's educational system is just
beginning. The challenge is to create a single nondiscriminatory,
nonracial system which offers the same standards of education to all
People have inhabited Southern Africa for thousands of years.
Members of the Khoisan language groups are the oldest surviving
inhabitants of the land; however, only a few are left in South Africa
today, and they are located in the western sections. Most of today's
black South Africans belong to the Bantu language group, which
migrated south from central Africa, settling in the Transvaal region
sometime before AD 100. The Nguni, ancestors of the Zulu and Xhosa,
occupied most of the eastern coast by 1500.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach the Cape of Good
Hope, arriving in 1488. However, permanent white settlement did not
begin until 1652, when the Dutch East India Company established a
provisioning station on the Cape. In subsequent decades, French
Huguenot refugees, the Dutch, and Germans began to settle in the
Cape. Collectively, they form the Afrikaner segment of today's
The establishment of these settlements had far-reaching social and
political effects on the groups already settled in the area, leading to
upheaval in these societies and the subjugation of their people. By
1779, European settlements extended throughout the southern part of
the Cape and east toward the Great Fish River. It was here that Dutch
authorities and the Xhosa fought the first frontier war.
The British gained control of the Cape of Good Hope at the end of the
18th century. Subsequent British settlement and rule marked the
beginning of a long conflict between the Afrikaners and the English.
Beginning in 1836, partly to escape British rule and cultural hegemony
and partly out of resentment at the recent abolition of slavery, many
Afrikaner farmers (Boers) undertook a northern migration which
became known as the "Great Trek." This movement brought them into
contact and conflict with African groups in the area, the most
formidable of which were the Zulus. Under their powerful leader,
Shaka (1787-1828), the Zulus conquered most of the territory between
the Drakensburg Mountains and the sea (now Kwazulu-Natal). In 1828,
Shaka was assassinated and replaced by his half-brother Dingane. In
1838, Dingane was defeated and deported by the Voortrekkers (people
of the great trek) at the battle of Blood River. The Zulus, nonetheless,
remained a potent force, defeating the British in the historic battle of
Isandhlwana before themselves being finally conquered in 1879. In
1852 and 1854, the independent Boer Republics of the Transvaal and
Orange Free State were created. Relations between the republics and
the British Government were strained. The discovery of diamonds at
Kimberley in 1870 and the discovery of large gold deposits in the
Witwatersrand region of the Transvaal in 1886 caused an influx of
European (mainly British) immigration and investment. Many blacks
also moved into the area to work in the mines. The construction by
mine owners of hostels to house and control their workers set patterns
that later extended throughout the region. Boer reactions to this influx
and British political intrigues led to the Anglo-Boer Wars of 1880-81
and 1899-1902. British forces prevailed in the conflict and the
republics were incorporated into the British Empire. In May 1910, the
two republics and the British colonies of the Cape and Natal formed the
Union of South Africa, a self-governing dominion of the British
Empire. The Union's constitution kept all political power in the hands
In 1912, the South Africa Native National Congress was formed in
Bloemfontein and eventually became known as the African National
Congress (ANC). Its goals were the elimination of restrictions based on
color and the enfranchisement of and parliamentary representation for
blacks. Despite these efforts, the government continued to pass laws
limiting the rights and freedoms of blacks. In 1948, the National Party
(NP) won the all-white elections and began passing legislation
codifying and enforcing an even stricter policy of white domination
and racial separation known as "apartheid" (separateness).
In the early 1960s, following a protest in Sharpville in which 69
protesters were killed by police and 180 injured, the ANC and Pan-
African Congress (PAC) were banned. Nelson Mandela and many
other anti-apartheid leaders were convicted and imprisoned on charges
of treason. The ANC and PAC were forced underground and fought
apartheid through guerrilla warfare and sabotage. In May 1961, South
Africa relinquished its dominion status and declared itself a republic.
Later that year, it withdrew from the Commonwealth, in part because
of international protests against apartheid.
In 1984, a new constitution came into effect in which whites allowed
coloreds and Asians a limited role in the national government and
control over their own affairs in certain areas. Ultimately, however, all
power remained in white hands. Blacks remained effectively
disenfranchised. Popular uprisings in black and colored townships in
1976 and 1985 helped to convince some NP members of the need for
change. Secret discussions between those members and Nelson
Mandela began in 1986. In February 1990, State President F.W. de
Klerk--who had come to power in September 1989--announced the
unbanning of the ANC, the PAC, and all other anti-apartheid groups.
Two weeks, later Nelson Mandela was released from prison. In 1991,
the Group Areas Act, Land Acts, and the Population Registration Act--
the last of the so-called "pillars of apartheid"--were abolished. A long
series of negotiations ensued, resulting in a new constitution
promulgated into law in December 1993. The country's first nonracial
elections were held on April 26-29, 1994, resulting in the installation of
Nelson Mandela as President on May 10, 1994.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
South Africa is under a transitional constitution until 1999. The
constitution provides for some executive power-sharing among
political parties based on the proportion of the vote they received in the
April 1994 elections. Under the current constitution, there is a
bicameral Parliament, a president, and an independent judiciary.
The Parliament consists of two houses--the National Assembly and the
Senate--which are responsible for drafting the laws of the republic.
Under the current constitution the Parliament, when seated in joint
session, is called the Constitutional Assembly. This Assembly is
required, by April 1996, to draft and approve a new constitution which
is consistent with 34 constitutional principles. If this fails, it will be
dissolved and new elections held. If successful, it will remain in office
until 1999, when new elections, under the new constitution, will be
The National Assembly is comprised of 400 members elected by a
system of "list proportional representation." Each of the 19 parties that
appeared on the ballot submitted a rank-ordered list of candidates. The
voters then cast their ballots for one party. Seats in the Assembly were
allocated based on the percentage of votes each party received. In the
1994 elections, the ANC gained 252 seats in the Assembly, the NP 82,
the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) 43, the Vyheidsfront/Freedom Front
(FF) 9, the Democratic Party (DP) 7, the PAC 5, and the African
Christian Democratic Party (ACDP) 2. The Assembly also has specific
control over bills relating to monetary matters.
The Senate consists of 90 members, 10 from each of the nine provinces
created under the new constitution. Voters received a separate ballot to
elect provincial legislators, again utilizing the list proportional
representation system. Each of the Provincial Legislatures then chose
the 10 senators based on the distribution of seats among the competing
parties. The Senate has co-equal legislative powers with the National
Assembly, except for monetary bills. However, it is specifically
responsible for those laws which deal with the powers of the provinces.
The president is the executive head of state. Following the April 1994
elections, the National Assembly elected Nelson Mandela President. In
addition, both the largest and second-largest parties--the ANC and NP--
chose one deputy president each. The president's responsibilities
include assigning cabinet portfolios, signing bills into law, and serving
as commander-in-chief of the military. The president must work
closely with the executive deputy presidents and the cabinet. There are
27 seats on the cabinet; any party holding at least 20 in the Assembly is
entitled to a proportionate share of cabinet seats.
The third arm of the central government is an independent judiciary.
This judiciary is characterized by a Supreme Court that consists of two
sections--the Appellate Division and the Constitutional Court.
The Appellate Division (Court of Appeals) consists of the Supreme
Court in Bloemfontein and nine regional Supreme Courts. The
Supreme Courts hear cases involving serious crimes, including capital
offenses. There are a series magisterial courts that rule on lesser crimes.
The jury system was abolished in 1969 and, as a result, the presiding
judge or magistrate determines guilt or innocence. The new
constitution establishes a Constitutional Court with interpreting,
defending, and enforcing the constitution. The court will consist of a
president and 10 judges and will have the power to overturn any law or
executive act that it deems unconstitutional. Chapter three of the
constitution delineates over 25 fundamental rights of a South African
citizen which the court is tasked with protecting. The Constitutional
Court must rule on whether the constitution adopted by the
Constitutional Assembly or any of the provinces are consistent with the
current constitution's constitutional principles.
Some of the challenges facing the Government of South Africa include
raising the living standards of the majority of the population and
restructuring the systems of government, education, and security
forces. Beginning in May 1994, the government embarked on the
Reconstruction and Development Program to begin addressing the
inequities of apartheid.
Prior to April 27, 1994, South Africa was divided into four provinces
and 10 black "homelands," four of which were considered independent
by the South African Government. The new constitution abolished
these distinctions and replaced the system with nine provinces. Each
province has an elected legislature and chief executive--the provincial
premier. While appearing to be a quasi-federal system, the nature of the
relationship between the central and provincial governments has yet to
be determined. During the apartheid era, the armed wings of the ANC
and PAC waged an armed struggle against the regime. The new
government is now in the process of integrating these two forces and
those of the now-defunct homelands into a single national defense
The new constitution grants more than 25 inalienable and fundamental
rights to all South Africans. These rights include universal suffrage;
equal protection under the law; and freedom of assembly, movement,
religion, and expression. The constitution also includes the right to a
fair and public trial and freedom from political or extrajudicial killings,
arbitrary arrest, or detention. This constitution is the first in South
Africa to guarantee these rights to all people, regardless of race or
In the final years of apartheid, levels of political violence were
extremely high in South Africa. The Human Rights Commission
(HRC) reported that from July 1990 to March 1994, 13,464 people
died in political violence. Of that number, 4,139 died between July
1993 and March 1994. The often violent confrontations between
supporters of the ANC and IFP and the apparent random violence by
individuals or groups opposed to South Africa's transition to
democracy were thought to be major causes of this violence.
In most parts of the country, political violence dropped significantly
following the April elections. This is attributed, in part, to the
newfound freedom to air and address political grievances. However,
incidents of political violence remain high in Kwazulu/Natal Province
and in certain areas around Johannesburg.
In November 1993, the multi-party negotiating council agreed to repeal
those sections of the Public Safety Act and the Internal Security Act
which detained individuals without charging them with a crime. The
Human Rights Committee of South Africa reports that in the first half
of 1994, 270 detentions without trial were recorded. However, as of
late June 1994, no one was being held.
Principal Government Officials
State President--Nelson Mandela (ANC)
First Executive Deputy President--Thabo Mbeki (ANC)
Second Executive Deputy President--Frederik W. de Klerk (NP)
Justice--Dullah Omar (ANC)
Defense--Joe Modise (ANC)
Safety and Security--Sydney Mufamadi (ANC)
Education--Sibusiso Bengu (ANC)
Trade, Industry and Tourism--Trevor Manuel (ANC)
Foreign Affairs--Alfred Nzo (ANC)
Labor--Tito Mboweni (ANC)
Posts, Telecommunication and Broadcasting--Pallo Jordan (ANC)
Health--Nkosazana Dlamini (ANC)
Transport--Mac Maharaj (ANC)
Provincial Affairs and Constitutional Development--Roelf Meyer (NP)
Land Affairs--Derek Hanekom (ANC)
Public Enterprises--Stella Sigcau (ANC)
Public Service and Administration--Zola Skweyiya (ANC)
Housing--Joe Slovo (ANC)
Public Works--Jeff Radebe (ANC)
Correctional Services--Sipho Mzimela (IFP)
Finance--Chris Liebenberg (no party affiliation)
Agriculture--Kraai Van Niekerk (NP)
Sports and Recreation--Steve Tshwete (ANC)
Home Affairs--Mangosuthu Buthelezi (IFP)
Water Affairs and Forestry--Kader Asmal (ANC)
Environmental Affairs--Dawie de Villiers (NP)
Mineral and Energy Affairs--Roelf "Pik" Botha (NP)
Welfare and Population Development--Abe Williams (NP)
Arts, Culture, Science and Technology--Ben Ngubane (IFP)
Minister Without Portfolio--Jay Naidoo (ANC)
The Republic of South Africa maintains an embassy in the United
States at 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008;
tel. (202) 232-4400.
South Africa has a broad-based, industrialized economy that
paradoxically exhibits most of the characteristics associated with
developing economies: a division of labor between formal and informal
sectors, uneven distribution of wealth and income, a dependency on
commodity exports, and a legacy of government intervention.
The formal sector, based on mining and manufacturing, is well
developed. A smaller, but important, agricultural and service sector
exists. Despite a strong private sector, there has been substantial
government intervention in the economy. There also are a number of
large government-owned corporations.
Economic policy has concentrated on the formal sector, but since the
mid-1980s, the policy has sought to develop the informal sector,
focusing on education and training, job creation, and small business
assistance. The transition to a democratic, non-racial government,
begun in early 1990, stimulated a debate on future economic policies to
achieve sustained economic growth, redress the socioeconomic
disparities created by apartheid, and improve the standard of living for
the majority of the population.
The government is pursuing market-based policies, with the private
sector as generator of wealth and the government actively addressing
the inequities in health, education, housing, and social services. It has
embarked on a five-year, $10.5 billion Reconstruction and
Development Program which would implement programs to reduce
unemployment, provide free medical care to pregnant mothers and
children under age 6, electrify many homes in town-ships, and build 1
million new homes. To accomplish its goals without under-mining
business confidence, the government's first-year budget calls for
continued fiscal discipline and strict monetary controls. South Africa
aims to establish and maintain a pro-business environment and is
encouraging both foreign and domestic investment.
South Africa has a sophisticated financial structure with a large and
effective stock exchange. The South Africa Reserve Bank performs all
central banking functions. It is independent but, in practice, works
closely with the Department of finance to formulate and implement
The Exchange Control Department of the bank administers foreign
exchange control regulations. Exchange controls apply mainly to South
African residents, but foreign investors are affected by the dual-
exchange rate system for commercial and financial rand. All foreign
investment must be completed in financial rand (finrand) currency.
The finrand is used for investment and disinvestment purposes such as
investing in South African securities and specified unit trusts, purchase
of shares in new and existing companies, and the purchase of
commercial property. The commercial rand is used for all other
business transactions in South Africa. Although assets must be
purchased in finrand, all dividends, interest, and income are freely
remitted through the commercial rand.
Although there was press speculation that the finrand would be
abolished and a unitary system adopted, government and bank officials
set certain conditions for abolition of the dual-currency system, stating
that the system would remain in effect until the conditions were met.
Trade and Investment
South Africa has rich mineral resources; the only major mineral
products not found in South Africa are petroleum and bauxite. It is the
world's largest producer and exporter of gold and also exports a
significant amount of coal. The value-added processing of minerals to
produce ferroalloys, stainless steels, and similar products is a major
industry and an important potential growth area. The country's diverse
manufacturing industry is a world leader in several specialized sectors,
including railway rolling stock, synthetic fuels, and mining equipment
Agriculture accounts for about 6% of the gross domestic product,
including citrus fruits, corn, dairy products, sugarcane, tobacco, wine,
and wool. However, because of inadequate and erratic rainfall, only
about 15% of the land is suitable for arable farming. South Africa has
many developed irrigation schemes and generally is a net exporter of
The transportation infrastructure is well developed, supporting both
domestic and regional needs. The telecommunications and electrical
infrastructure provide "first-world" class service to white urban areas.
The economy is recovering from a five-year recession primarily due to
significant gains in the agricultural sector. South Africa's economic
future looks hopeful, with GDP expected to increase and the financial
rand expected to depreciate against the dollar. However, several factors
could alter these forecasts, including economic policies of the new
government, future commodity prices, and the duration of the rebound
in the global economy.
Exports and imports account for more than 38% of the GDP. With the
lifting of sanctions in 1993, the United States regained its position as
South Africa's principal trading partner. South Africa is the largest
export market for U.S. goods and services in Sub-Saharan Africa. In
1993, U.S. exports to South Africa totaled $2.4 billion, representing
about 14% of South Africa's total imports. Other major trading partners
are Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom. Trade with other Sub-
Saharan African countries, which represents a considerable portion of
South Africa's trade, has continued to increase substantially despite the
South Africa's protective import policies present barriers to foreign
goods. Importers must apply for import permits for goods. Tariff rates
range from 5% to 50%, with luxury goods as high as 60% and
automobiles at 100%. Any South African producer may petition for
tariff protection; approval is more likely where the producer has a
major share of the domestic market and can show that foreign
competition is eroding the company's market dominance. In 1993, the
South Africans submitted a Uruguay Round offer to rationalize their
tariff structure and to lower existing tariffs that the United States has
agreed to accept. In the short to medium term, there may be continuing
market access problems with some products, but the overall trend
should be toward trade liberalization.
Foreign investors generally receive national treatment, but they are
subject to certain lending limits. Local content rules apply in certain
industries. In 1990, South Africa eliminated legal restrictions against
foreign-owned financial institutions, which may now establish
subsidiaries or branches or acquire domestic banks.
The Import-Export Bank may provide assistance for U.S. exports to
South Africa. Such assistance can help open many markets in housing,
education, and health care to American exporters and provide a trade
promotion tool of the type already available to firms from most of
South Africa's other major trading partners. In November 1993, the
Overseas Private Investment Corporation signed a bilateral investment
encouragement agreement with South Africa. It can now assist U.S.
investors in that market with services such as political risk insurance
and identification of investment opportunities. The Trade and
Development Program also is actively exploring opportunities to fund
South African forces fought on the Allied side in World Wars I and II
and participated in the post-war UN force in Korea. South Africa was a
founding member of the League of Nations and in 1927 established a
Department of External Affairs with diplomatic missions in the main
West European countries and in the United States. At the founding of
the League of Nations, South Africa was given the mandate to govern
South-West Africa, now Namibia, which had been a German colony
before World War I. In 1990, South Africa granted independence to
Namibia with the exception of the enclave of Walvis Bay, which was
reintegrated into Namibia in March 1994. After South Africa held its
first non-racial election in April 1994, most sanctions imposed by the
international community were lifted. On June 1, 1994, South Africa
rejoined the Commonwealth, and on June 23, 1994, its credentials to
the UN General Assembly were accepted. South Africa also joined the
Organization of African Unity (OAU) and is beginning to play a
leading role. Following the elections, many countries established
diplomatic missions in South Africa. It now enjoys diplomatic relations
with more than 80% of UN member states. South Africa's principal
foreign policy objective is to develop good relations with all countries,
especially its neighbors. In an effort to focus on domestic problems,
South Africa is carefully considering to what degree it will participate
in world affairs.
U.S.-SOUTH AFRICAN RELATIONS
The United States has maintained an official presence in South Africa
since 1799, when an American consulate was opened in Cape Town.
The U.S. Embassy is located in Pretoria and consulates general are in
Johannesburg, Durban, and Cape Town. Americans and South African
also have many non-governmental ties; for example, black and white
American missionaries have a long history of activity in South Africa.
From the 1970s through the early 1990s, U.S.-South African relations
were severely affected by South Africa's racial policies. However, since
the establishment of the Government of National Unity in May 1994,
the United States has enjoyed an excellent bilateral relationship with
South Africa. In May 1994, the United States committed to South
Africa almost $600 million in aid to be distributed over three years.
The U.S. aid program is focusing on responding to specific requests
from South African and non-governmental organizations.
Principal U.S. Officials
Deputy Chief of Mission and Minister-Counselor--Priscilla Clapp
Economic Counselor--Michael Cleverley
Political Counselor--John Campbell
Administrative Counselor--John Collins
Public Affairs Officer--John Burns
Defense Attache--Kim Henningsen
USAID Director--Leslie "Cap" Dean
Agricultural Attache--James Benson
Consul General, Cape Town--Bismark Myrick
Consul General, Durban--Pamela Bridgewater
Consul General, Johannesburg--Alan McKee
Customs: A passport valid for at least six months is required, but a visa
is not required for regular passport holders on bona fide holiday,
business visits, or in transit. However, visas are required for extended
stays, employment, study, and diplomatic and official passport holders.
Evidence of a yellow fever vaccination is necessary if arriving from an
Health: The standard of community health is high, and city water is
potable. Medical facilities, good in urban areas and in the vicinity of
game parks and beaches, may be limited elsewhere. Avoid swimming
in fresh water, as it may be infested with disease-causing organisms.
Telecommunications: Calls to the U.S. can be dialed directly, and
connections are usually good. South Africa is six hours ahead of
eastern standard time.
Transportation: South Africa has a modern transportation network.
Published by the U.S. Department of State -- Bureau of Public Affairs -
- Office of Public Communication -- Washington, DC -- Managing
Editor: Peter A. Knecht
November 1994 -- Department of State Publication 8021 --
Background Notes Series -- This material is in the public domain and
may be reprinted without permission; citation of this source is
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.
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