U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Namibia, April 1995
Bureau of African Affairs
Prepared and released by the Bureau of African Affairs,
Office of Southern African Affairs
Official Name: Republic of Namibia
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Namibian(s).
Population (1995 est.): 1.6 million.
Annual growth rate (1995 est.): 3.4%.
Ethnic groups: Black 87%; White 6%; mixed race 7%.
Religions: Predominantly Christian; also indigenous beliefs.
Languages: English is the official language of Namibia; Afrikaans,
German, and various indigenous languages also are spoken.
Education: Years compulsory--to age 16. Attendance--whites nearly
100%; others 16%. Literacy--whites nearly 100%; others 30%.
Work force: Est. 200,000 in 1992.
Area: 823,145 sq. km. (320,827 sq. mi.); the size of Texas and
Cities: Capital--Windhoek (1991) pop. 160,000. Other cities--
Keetmanshoop, Luderitz, Oranjemund, Oshakati, Otjivarongo,
Swakopmund, Tsumeb, Walvis Bay.
Terrain: Varies from coastal desert to semiarid mountains and plateau.
Climate: Semi-desert and high plateau.
Type: Republic as of March 21, 1990.
Branches: Executive--President (elected for 5-year term). Legislative--
bicameral: National Assembly (78 members) and the National Council
(26 members). Judicial--Supreme Court, the High Court, and lower
Subdivisions: 13 administrative regions.
Major political parties: South West Africa People's Organization
(SWAPO), Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), United Democratic
Front of Namibia (UDF), Democratic Coalition of Namibia (DCN),
Monitor Action Group (MAG).
Suffrage: Universal adult.
GDP (1994): $5.8 billion.
Annual growth rate (1994): 5.8%.
Per capita GDP (1994): $3,600.
Inflation rate (1994): 11%.
Natural resources: diamonds, copper, gold, uranium, lead, tin, zinc,
salt, vanadium, fisheries, and wildlife.
Agriculture (8% of GDP in 1993): Products--beef , karakul (sheep)
pelts, wool, other meat, fish.
Mining (18% of GDP in 1993): Gem-quality diamonds, other.
Trade: Exports (1993)--$1.3 billion: diamonds, copper, lead, uranium,
beef, cattle, fish, karakul pelts. Imports (1993)--$1.1 billion: food
stuffs, construction material, manufactured goods. Major partners--
South Africa, Angola, Botswana, Germany, UK, US.
Official exchange rate: (1994): 3.5 Namibia dollars=U.S. $1.
Africans are of diverse ethnic origins. The principal groups are the
Ovambo, Kavango, Herero/Himba, Damara, mixed race ("Colored"
and Rehoboth Baster), white (Afrikaner, German, and Portuguese),
Nama, Caprivian (Lozi), Bushman, and Tswana.
The Ovambo make up about half of Namibia's people. The Ovambo,
Kavango, and East Caprivian peoples, who occupy the relatively well-
watered and wooded northern part of the country, are settled farmers
and herders. Historically, they have shown little interest in the central
and southern parts of Namibia, where conditions do not suit their
traditional way of life.
Until the early 1900s, these tribes had little contact with the Nama,
Damara, and Herero, who roamed the central part of the country vying
for control of sparse pastureland. German colonial rule destroyed the
war-making ability of the tribes but did not erase their identities or
traditional organization. People from the more populous north have
settled throughout the country in recent decades as a result of
urbanization, industrialization, and the demand for labor.
The modern mining, farming, and industrial sectors of the economy,
controlled by the white minority, have affected traditional African
society without transforming it. Urban and migratory workers have
adopted Western ways, but in rural areas, traditional society remains
Missionary work during the 1800s drew many Namibians to
Christianity. While most Namibian Christians are Lutheran, there are
also Roman Catholic, Methodist, Anglican, African Methodist
Episcopal, and Dutch Reformed Christians represented.
Modern education and medical care have been extended in varying
degrees to most rural areas in recent years. The literacy rate of Africans
is generally low except in sections where missionary and government
education efforts have been concentrated, such as Ovamboland. The
Africans speak various indigenous languages.
The minority white population is primarily of South African, British,
and German descent. About 60% of the whites speak Afrikaans (a
variation of Dutch); 30% speak German; and 10% speak English.
Bushmen (or San) are generally assumed to have been the earliest
inhabitants of the region. Later inhabitants include the Nama and the
Damara or Berg Dama. The Bantu-speaking Ovambo and Herero
migrated from the north in about the 14th century A.D.
The inhospitable Namib Desert constituted a formidable barrier to
European exploration until the late 18th century, when successions of
travelers, traders, hunters, and missionaries explored the area. The
1878, the United Kingdom annexed Walvis Bay on behalf of Cape
Colony, and the area was incorporated into the Cape of Good Hope in
1884. In 1883, a German trader, Adolf Luderitz, claimed the rest of the
coastal region after negotiations with a local chief. Negotiations
between the United Kingdom and Germany resulted in Germany's
annexation of the coastal region, excluding Walvis Bay. The following
year, the United Kingdom recognized the hinterland up to 20o east
longitude as a German sphere of influence. A region, Caprivi Strip,
became a part of South West Africa after an agreement on July 1, 1890,
between the United Kingdom and Germany. The British recognized
that the strip would fall under German administration to provide access
to the Zambezi River and German colonies in East Africa. In exchange,
the British received the islands of Zanzibar and Heligoland.
German colonial power was consolidated, and prime grazing land
passed to white control as a result of the Herero and Nama wars of
1904-08. German administration ended during World War I following
South African occupation in 1915.
On December 17, 1920, South Africa undertook administration of
South West Africa under the terms of Article 22 of the Covenant of the
League of Nations and a mandate agreement by the League Council.
The mandate agreement gave South Africa full power of administration
and legislation over the territory. It required that South Africa promote
the material and moral well being and social progress of the people.
When the League of Nations was dissolved in 1946, the newly formed
United Nations inherited its supervisory authority for the territory.
South Africa refused UN requests place the territory under a trusteeship
agreement. During the 1960s, as the European powers granted
independence to their colonies and trust territories in Africa, pressure
mounted on South Africa to do so in Namibia, which was then South
West Africa. In 1966, the UN General Assembly revoked South
Also in 1966, the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO)
began guerrilla attacks on Namibia, infiltrating the territory from bases
in Zambia. After Angola became independent in 1975, SWAPO
established bases in the southern part of the country. Hostilities
intensified over the years, especially in Ovamboland.
In a 1971 advisory opinion, the International Court of Justice upheld
UN authority over Namibia, determining that the South African
presence in Namibia was illegal and that South Africa therefore was
obligated to withdraw its administration from Namibia immediately.
The Court also advised UN member states to refrain from implying
legal recognition or assistance to the South African presence.
International Pressure for Independence
In 1977, Western members of the UN Security Council, including
Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United
Kingdom, and the United States (known as the Western Contact
Group), launched a joint diplomatic effort to bring an internationally
acceptable transition to independence for Namibia. Their efforts led to
the presentation in April 1978 of Security Council Resolution 435 for
settling the Namibian problem. The proposal, known as the UN Plan,
was worked out after lengthy consultations with South Africa, the
front-line states (Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia,
and Zimbabwe), SWAPO, UN officials, and the Western Contact
Group. It called for the holding of elections in Namibia under UN
supervision and control, the cessation of all hostile acts by all parties,
and restrictions on the activities of South African and Namibian
military, paramilitary, and police.
South Africa agreed to cooperate in achieving the implementation of
Resolution 435. Nonetheless, in December 1978, in defiance of the UN
proposal, it unilaterally held elections in Namibia which were
boycotted by SWAPO and a few other political parties. South Africa
continued to administer Namibia through its installed multi-racial
coalitions. Negotiations after 1978 focused on issues such as
supervision of elections connected with the implementation of the UN
Negotiations and Transition
Intense discussions between the concerned parties continued during the
1978-88 period, with the UN Secretary General's Special
Representative, Martti Ahtisaari, playing a key role. The 1982
Constitutional Principles, agreed upon by the front-line states,
SWAPO, and the Western Contact Group created the framework for
Namibia's democratic constitution. The U.S. Government's role as
mediator was critical throughout the period, one example being the
intense efforts in 1984 to obtain withdrawal of South African defense
forces from Southern Angola.
In May 1988, a U.S. mediation team, headed by Assistant Secretary of
State for African Affairs Chester A. Crocker, brought negotiators from
Angola, Cuba, and South Africa, and observers from the Soviet Union
together in London. Intense diplomatic maneuvering characterized the
next 7 months, as the parties worked out agreements to bring peace to
the region and make implementation of UN Security Council
Resolution 435 possible. On December 13, Cuba, South Africa, and the
People's Republic of Angola agreed to a total Cuban troop withdrawal
from Angola. The protocol also established a Joint Commission,
consisting of the parties with the United States and the Soviet Union as
observers, to oversee implementation of the accords. A bilateral
agreement between Cuba and the People's Republic of Angola was
signed in New York on December 22, 1988. On the same day a
tripartite agreement, in which the parties recommended initiation of the
UN Plan on April 1 and the Republic of South Africa agreed to
withdraw its troops, was signed. Implementation of Resolution 435
officially began on April 1, 1989, when South African-appointed
Administrator General Louis Pienaar officially began administrating
the territory's transition to independence. Special Representative Martti
Ahtisaari arrived in Windhoek to begin performing his duties as head
of the UN Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG).
The transition got off to a shaky start on April 1 because, in
contravention to SWAPO President Sam Nujoma's written assurances
to the UN Secretary General to abide by a cease-fire and repatriate only
unarmed insurgents, approximately 2,000 armed members of the
People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN), SWAPO's military
wing, crossed the border from Angola in an apparent attempt to
establish a military presence in northern Namibia. The special
representative authorized a limited contingent of South African troops
to aid the South West African police in restoring order. A period of
intense fighting followed, during which 375 PLAN fighters were
killed. At Mt. Etjo, a game park outside Windhoek, in a special
meeting of the Joint Commission on April 9, a plan was put in place to
confine the South African forces to base and return PLAN elements to
Angola. While the problem was solved, minor disturbances in the north
continued throughout the transition period. In October, under order of
the UN Security Council, Pretoria demobilized members of the
disbanded counterinsurgency unit, Koevoet (Afrikaans for crowbar),
who had been incorporated into the South West African police.
The 11-month transition period went relatively smoothly. Political
prisoners were granted amnesty, discriminatory legislation was
repealed, South Africa withdrew all its forces from Namibia, and some
42,000 refugees returned safely and voluntarily under the auspices of
the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
Almost 98% of registered voters turned out to elect members of the
constituent assembly. The elections were held in November 1989 and
were certified as free and fair by the special representative, with
SWAPO taking 57% of the vote, just short of the two-thirds necessary
to have a free hand in drafting the constitution. The Democratic
Turnhalle Alliance, the opposition party, received 29% of the vote. The
Constituent Assembly held its first meeting on November 21 and its
first act unanimously resolved to use the 1982 Constitutional Principles
as the framework for Namibia's new constitution.
By February 9, 1990, the Constituent Assembly had drafted and
adopted a constitution. March 21, independence day, was attended by
Secretary of State James A. Baker III to represent President Bush. On
that same day, he inaugurated the U.S. Embassy in Windhoek in
recognition of the establishment of diplomatic relations.
On March 1, 1994, the coastal enclave of Walvis Bay and 12 offshore
islands were transferred to Namibia by South Africa. This followed
three years of bilateral negotiations between the two governments and
the establishment of a transitional Joint Administrative Authority
(JAA) in November 1992 to administer the 300 square mile territory.
The peaceful resolution of this territorial dispute, which dated back to
1878, was praised by the U.S. and the international community, as it
fulfilled the provisions of U.N. Security Council 432 (1978) which
declared Walvis Bay to be an integral part of Namibia.
After 80 days, the Constituent Assembly produced a constitution which
established a multi-party system and a bill of rights. It also limited the
executive president to two five-year terms and provided for the private
ownership of property. The three branches of government are subject to
checks and balances, and a provision is made for judicial review. The
constitution also states that Namibia should have a mixed economy,
and foreign investment should be encouraged.
While the ethnic-based three-tier South African-imposed governing
authorities have been dissolved, the current government pledged for the
sake of national reconciliation to retain civil servants employed during
the colonial period. The government is still organizing itself both on a
national and regional level.
The Constituent Assembly converted itself into the National Assembly
on February 16, 1990, retaining all the members elected on a straight
The judicial structure in Namibia parallels that of South Africa. In
1919, Roman-Dutch law was declared the common law of the territory
and remains so to the present.
Elections were held in 1992, to elect members of 13 newly established
Regional Councils, as well as new municipal officials. Two members
from each Regional Council serve simultaneously as members of the
National Council, the country's second house of Parliament. Nineteen
of its members are from the ruling SWAPO party, and seven are from
the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA). In December 1994,
elections were held for the President and the National Assembly.
The constitution defined the role of the military as "defending the
territory and national interests." Namibia formed the National Defense
Force (NDF), comprised of former enemies in a 23-year bush war: the
PLAN and South West African territorial force. The British formulated
the force integration plan and began training the NDF, which consists
of five battalions and a small headquarters element. The UNTAG
Kenyan infantry battalion remained in Namibia for 3 months after
independence to assist in training the NDF and stabilize the north.
According to the Namibian Defense Ministry, enlistments of both men
and women will number no more than 7,500. Currently, Namibia has
no air force or navy. Defense and security account for less than 8% of
Defense cooperation at various levels has been explored with several
governments, including the United States. Areas of cooperation include
military education, training, and a fisheries program. A bilateral
International Military Education and Training (IMET) program was
concluded between the United States and Namibia in January 1991.
On May 21, 1990, Namibia signed a border-control agreement with
Angola but to date has not entered into defense agreements with any
Principal Government Officials
President--Sam S. Nujoma
Prime Minister--Hage Geingob
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Theo-Ben Gurirab
Ambassador to UN--Dr. Tunguru Huaraka
Ambassador to U.S.--Tuliameni Kalomoh
Namibia has about 40 political groups, ranging from modern political
parties to traditional groups based on tribal authority. Some represent
single tribes or ethnic groups while others encompass several. Most
participate in political alliances, some of which are multi-racial, with
frequently shifting membership.
SWAPO is the ruling party, and all but one of the new government's
first cabinet posts went to SWAPO members. Two deputy ministers are
from other parties. Formerly a Marxist oriented movement, SWAPO
now espouses the principles of multiparty democracy and a mixed
economy. SWAPO has been a legal political party since its formation
and was cautiously active in Namibia, although before implementation
of the UN Plan, it was forbidden to hold meetings of more than 20
people, and its leadership was subject to frequent detention. SWAPO
draws its strength principally, but not exclusively, from within the
Ovambo tribe. In December 1976, the UN General Assembly
recognized SWAPO as "the sole and authentic representative of the
Namibian people," a characterization other internal parties did not
The principal opposition party is the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance
(DTA), a coalition of several ethnically based parties, tribal chiefs, and
former SWAPO members. The DTA, which governed Namibia under
Pretoria's supervision for 10 years, holds 21 seats in the National
Assembly. Some of the smaller parties in the National Assembly also
are ethnically based. The United Democratic Front (4 seats), led by
Justus Garoeb of the Damara group, is comprised of ethnically based
parties and former SWAPO members allegedly tortured in SWAPO
camps in Angola. The Monitor Action Group (3 seats) is a conservative
party with support from the white community; it favors legislation to
protect minority rights, which comprises around 50% of Namibia's
The Namibian economy has a modern market sector, which produces
most of the country's wealth, and a traditional subsistence sector.
Namibia's average GDP per capita is relatively high among developing
countries but obscures one of the most unequal income distributions on
the African continent. Although the majority of the population engages
in subsistence agriculture and herding, Namibia has more than 200,000
skilled workers, as well as a small, well-trained professional and
The country's sophisticated formal economy is based on capital-
intensive industry and farming. However, Namibia's economy is
heavily dependent on the earnings generated from primary commodity
exports in a few vital sectors, including minerals, livestock, and fish.
Furthermore, the Namibian economy remains integrated with the
economy of South Africa, as the bulk of Namibia's imports originate
Since independence, the Namibian government has pursued free
market economic principles designed to promote commercial
development and job creation to bring disadvantaged Namibians into
the economic mainstream. To facilitate this goal, the government has
actively courted donor assistance and foreign investment. The liberal
Foreign Investment Act of 1990 provides for freedom from
nationalization, freedom to remit capital and profits, currency
convertibility, and a process for settling disputes equitably. Namibia is
also addressing the sensitive issue of agrarian land reform in a
In September 1993, Namibia introduced its own currency, the Namibia
dollar, which will remain linked to the South African Rand. There has
been widespread acceptance of the Namibia dollar throughout the
country and, while Namibia remains a part of the Southern African
Common Monetary Area, it now enjoys much greater flexibility in
Given its small domestic market but favorable location and a superb
transport and communications base, Namibia is a leading advocate of
regional economic integration. In addition to its membership in the
Southern African Development Community (SADC), Namibia
presently belongs to the Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
with South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Within SACU,
no tariffs exist on goods produced in and moving among the member.
Ninety percent of Namibia's imports originate in South Africa, and
many Namibian exports are destined for the South African market or
transit that country. Namibia's exports consist mainly of diamonds and
other minerals, fish products, beef and meat products, karakul sheep
pelts, and light manufactures. In recent years, Namibia has accounted
for about 5% of total SACU exports, and a slightly higher percentage
Namibia is seeking to diversify its trading relationships away from its
heavy dependence on South African goods and services. Europe has
become a leading market for Namibian fish and meat, while mining
concerns in Namibia have purchased heavy equipment and machinery
from Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada.
However, most imports from outside the customs union are subject to
tariff rates which are usually quite restrictive. Recently, some of the
smaller SACU members have called for reform of the customs union,
which is viewed by many as a protectionist vestige of South Africa's
apartheid past. Also, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT) is putting pressure on SACU to reduce its prohibitive tariffs
and other barriers to trade, which have tended to inhibit true
competition within the region.
In 1993, Namibia itself became a GATT signatory, and the Minister of
Trade and Industry represented Namibia at the Marrakech signing of
the Uruguay Round Agreement in April 1994. Namibia is also a
member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and
has acceded to the European Community/Union's Lome Convention.
Mining and Energy
Although beset in recent years by increasing global competition, slack
demand, and falling prices, mining remains Namibia's most important
economic sector. In 1993, mining contributed about 18% of GDP and
54% of exports.
High value, gem-quality diamonds remain Namibia's leading generator
of export earnings. Other important mineral resources are uranium,
copper, lead, and zinc. The country is also a source of gold, silver, tin,
vanadium, semi-precious gemstones, tantalite, phosphate, sulfur, and
During the pre-independence period, large areas of Namibia (including
offshore) were leased for oil prospecting. Some natural gas was
discovered in 1974 in the Kudu Field off the mouth of the Orange
River, but the extent of this find is not fully known. The Namibian
government has invited foreign firms to explore for hydrocarbons in
Namibia, with a view to lessening its dependence on South Africa for
its energy supply.
Early in 1993, the government awarded the first round of licenses to
several foreign consortia (including Chevron) to undertake offshore
exploration for oil. One of the concessionaires, Norsk Hydro, sank its
first exploratory well in late 1993, but the company has yet to reveal
whether this initial effort was successful. The government is
conducting a second petroleum licensing round, from October 1, 1994,
to July 31, 1995, during which all available offshore and onshore
blocks will be open for international bidding.
In November 1993, the Minister of Mines and Energy announced his
government's intention to proceed with the feasibility study of the
major Epupa Falls hydropower project on the Kunene River border
Namibian agriculture contributes only 8% of Namibia's GDP, but
approximately 70% of the Namibian population depends on
agricultural activities for livelihood, mostly in the subsistence sector. In
1993, agriculture products constituted roughly 7% of total Namibian
In the largely white-dominated commercial sector, agriculture consists
primarily of livestock ranching. Cattle raising is predominant in the
central and northern regions, while karakul sheep, goat, and ostrich
farming are concentrated in the more arid southern regions. Subsistence
farming is confined to the "communal lands" of the country's populous
north, where roaming cattle herds are prevalent and the main crops are
mahango (millet), sorghum, corn, and peanuts.
The government introduced its long-awaited agricultural land reform
legislation in September 1994, and a companion bill dealing with the
communal areas will be presented later. As the government addresses
the vital land and range management questions, water use issues and
The clean, cold South Atlantic waters off the coast of Namibia are
home to some of the richest fishing grounds in the world, with the
potential for sustainable yields of up to 1.5 million metric tons per year.
Commercial fishing and fish processing is becoming the fastest-
growing sector of the Namibian economy in terms of employment,
export earnings, and contribution to GDP.
The main species found in abundance off Namibia are pilchards
(sardines), anchovy, hake, and horse mackerel. There are also smaller
but significant quantities of sole, squid, deepsea crab, rock lobster, and
tuna. However, due to the lack of protection and conservation of the
fisheries and the overexploitation of these resources in the pre-
independence era, fish stocks have fallen to dangerously low levels.
This trend appears to have been halted and reversed since
independence, as the Namibian government is now pursuing a
conservative resource management policy along with an aggressive
fisheries enforcement campaign.
Manufacturing and Infrastructure
In 1993, Namibia's manufacturing sector contributed approximately
9% of GDP. Namibian manufacturing is inhibited by a small domestic
market, dependence on imported goods, limited supply of local capital,
widely dispersed population, small skilled labor force and high relative
wage rates, and subsidized competition from South Africa.
Since the March 1994 return of Walvis Bay from South Africa, there
has been interest in developing a free trade zone or export processing
zone in the harbor town. Walvis Bay is a well-developed, deep-water
port, and Namibia's fishing infrastructure is most heavily concentrated
there. The Namibian government expects Walvis Bay to become an
important commercial gateway to the Southern African region.
Namibia also boasts world-class civil aviation facilities and an
extensive, well-maintained land transportation network. Construction is
underway on two new arteries -- the Trans-Caprivi and Trans-Kalahari
Highways -- which will open up the region's access to Walvis Bay.
Furthermore, Telecom Namibia is in the process of procuring state-of-
the-art technology to modernize its already impressive communications
infrastructure, including the erection of three new satellite earth
stations which will link Namibia with the world.
While most Namibians are economically active in one form or another,
the bulk of this activity is in the informal sector, primarily subsistence
agriculture. In the formal economy, official estimates of unemployment
range from 25% to 35% the workforce. A large number of Namibians
seeking jobs in the formal sector are held back due to a lack of
necessary skills or training. The government is aggressively pursuing
education reform to overcome this problem.
Namibia's largest labor federation, the National Union of Namibian
Workers (NUNW) represents workers organized into seven affiliated
trade unions. At its September 1993 Congress, the rank-and-file agreed
to maintain the NUNW's close affiliation with the ruling SWAPO
party, despite the objections of some members.
Namibia follows a non-aligned foreign policy. Former SWAPO offices
abroad began performing some diplomatic functions after Namibia's
independence, and the government established 11 overseas embassies
in the first year of independence.
With a small army and a fragile economy, the Namibian government's
principal foreign policy concern is getting along with its powerful
neighbors. As its economy is closely tied to South Africa, Namibia's
relations with its former colonial metropole have been pragmatic.
Namibia's warm relations with Zambia and Angola, and other black-
ruled neighboring countries, are the result of those countries' support of
SWAPO during its 23-year war with South Africa. Relations with
Botswana are excellent; Namibia has looked to Botswana's democratic
institutions and market-based economy as models.
Namibia became the 160th member of the United Nations on April 23,
1990, and the 50th member of the British Commonwealth upon
U.S.-Namibian relations are characterized by shared democratic values
and the active role the United States played in helping Namibia reach
independence. Namibian independence had been a major U.S. foreign
policy goal for more than 10 years.
In keeping with its support of UN resolutions and International Court
of Justice advisory opinions regarding Namibia, the U.S. government
believed that the South African government should end its
administration of Namibia. The United States advocated a resolution of
the Namibian problem by peaceful means and supported practical
efforts to enable the people of Namibia to exercise their right to self-
determination and independence on the basis of UN Security Council
In the ensuing years, the United States played the principal role in
negotiations to achieve Namibian independence, a process that enjoyed
virtually unanimous international support. In 1988, U.S. diplomats
mediated a set of interlocking agreements that allowed implementation
of Resolution 435. Those agreements constituted a "peace without
losers," in which all parties achieved their security objectives in
southwestern Africa. The United States contributed over $100 million
From May 1970 until Namibia's independence, the U.S. government
discouraged American investment in Namibia. It announced that
investment rights acquired through the South African government
following termination of the mandate of 1966 would not be protected
against the claims of a future, lawful government in the territory. In
1986, Comprehensive Anti Apartheid Act sanctions were applied
against Namibia because it was a territory administered by South
Africa. All sanctions were lifted when Namibia reached independence.
Principal U.S. Embassy Officials
Ambassador--Marshall F. McCallie
Deputy Chief of Mission--Katherine H. Peterson
Public Affairs Officer--Helen Picard
Political Officer--Carl Troy
Economic/Commercial Officer--Philip Drouin
Consular Officer--Robert Bruton
USAID Officer--Edward Spriggs
Defense Attache--LTC Gary Walker
Peace Corps Country Director--Colden Murchison
The U.S. Embassy in Namibia is located at 14 Lossen Street,
Windhoek, (tel. 22-1601).
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