U.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Botswana, October 1997
Released by the Office of Southern African Affairs, Bureau of African 

Official Name: Republic of Botswana


Area: 582,000 sq. km. (224,710 sq. mi.), about the size of Texas. 
Cities: Capital-Gaborone (pronounced ha-bo-ro-neh), pop. 174,583 (1996). 
Other towns--Francistown (84,075), Selebi-Phikwe (44,581), Molepolole 
(42,169), Kanye (34,202), Serowe (31,782), Mahalapye (30,294), Lobatse 
(29,172), Maun (28,969), Mochudi (28,224). 
Terrain: Desert and savanna. 
Climate: Mostly subtropical.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Motswana (sing.), Batswana (pl.). 
Population (1996 est.): 1.49 million. 
Annual growth rate (1996): 3%.
Ethnic groups: Tswana 55%-60%; Kalanga 25%-30%; Kgalagadi, Herero, 
Basarwa ("Bushmen"), Khoi ("Hottentots"), whites 5%-10%.
Religions: Christianity 60%, indigenous beliefs 40%.
Languages: English (official), Setswana, Ikalanga. 
Education: Adult literacy (1993)--68.9%.
Health (1991): Life expectancy--60 years. Infant mortality rate--
Work force (1995): 234,500.

Type: Republic, parliamentary democracy.
Independence: September 30, 1966. 
Constitution: March 1965. 
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state and head of government), 
cabinet. Legislative--popularly elected National Assembly; advisory 
House of Chiefs. Judicial--High Court, Court of Appeal, local and 
customary courts, industrial/labor court. 
Administrative subdivisions: 5 town councils and 9 district councils. 
Major political parties: Botswana Democratic Party (BDP)--31 seats, 
Botswana National Front (BNF)--13 seats, Botswana Peoples Party (BPP), 
Botswana Freedom Party (BFP). 
Suffrage: Universal at 21. 
Flag: Blue field with horizontal, white-edged black band in the center.

Economy (1995)
GDP: $4.5 billion. 
Annual growth rate: 3.1%.
Per capita GDP: $3,000. 
Natural resources: Diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, soda ash, salt, gold, 
Agriculture (4% of GDP): Products--ivestock, sorghum, white maize, 
millet, cowpeas, beans. 
Industry: Types--mining (33% of GDP): diamonds, copper, nickel, coal; 
manufacturing (assembly), textiles, construction, tourism, beef 
Trade (1995): Exports--$2.2 billion: diamonds, vehicles, nickel, copper, 
meat products, textiles, hides and skins. Partners--Switzerland, South 
Africa, Zimbabwe, EU. Imports--$1.5 billion: machinery, transport 
equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals, minerals, fuels. Major 
suppliers--South Africa, Zimbabwe, EU, U.S. 
Annual avg. economic aid: $20 million.

The Batswana, a term inclusively used to denote all citizens of 
Botswana, also refers to the country's major ethnic group (the "Tswana" 
in South Africa), which came into the area from South Africa during the 
Zulu wars of the early 1880s. Prior to European contact, the Batswana 
lived as herders and farmers under tribal rule.

In the late 19th century, hostilities broke out between the Batswana and 
Boer settlers from the Transvaal. After appeals by the Batswana for 
assistance, the British Government in 1885 put "Bechuanaland" under its 
protection. The northern territory remained under direct administration 
and is today's Botswana, while the southern territory became part of the 
Cape Colony and is now part of the northwest province of South Africa; 
the majority of Setswana-speaking people today live in South Africa.

Despite South African pressure, inhabitants of the Bechuanaland 
Protectorate, Basutoland (now Lesotho), and Swaziland in 1909 asked for 
and received British assurances that they would not be included in the 
proposed Union of South Africa. An expansion of British central 
authority and the evolution of tribal government resulted in the 1920 
establishment of two advisory councils representing Africans and 
Europeans. Proclamations in 1934 regularized tribal rule and powers. A 
European-African advisory council was formed in 1951, and the 1961 
constitution established a consultative legislative council.

In June 1964, Britain accepted proposals for democratic self-government 
in Botswana. The seat of government was moved from Mafikeng, in South 
Africa, to newly established Gaborone in 1965. The 1965 constitution led 
to the first general elections and to independence in September 1966. 
Seretse Khama, a leader in the independence movement and the legitimate 
claimant to traditional rule of the Batswana, was elected as the first 
president, re-elected twice, and died in office in 1980. The presidency 
passed to the sitting vice president, Ketumile Masire, who was elected 
in his own right in 1984 and re-elected in 1989 and 1994.


Botswana has a flourishing multiparty, constitutional democracy. Each of 
the elections since independence has been freely and fairly contested 
and has been held on schedule. The country's small white minority and 
other minorities participate freely in the political process. There are 
two main rival parties and a number of smaller parties. In 1994, the 
Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) won 27 of 40 contested National Assembly 
seats and the Botswana National Front (BNF) won 13. The opposition out-
polled the ruling BDP in most urban areas. The openness of the country's 
political system has been a significant factor in Botswana's stability 
and economic growth. General elections are held at least every five 
years. The next national election is in 1999.

The president has executive power and is chosen by the national election 
following country-wide elections. The cabinet is presidentially selected 
from the National Assembly; it consists of a vice president and a 
flexible number of ministers, currently 11. The National Assembly has 40 
elected and four appointed members; it is expanded following each census 
(every 10 years).

The advisory House of Chiefs represents the eight principal sub-groups 
of the Batswana tribe, and four other members are elected by the sub-
chiefs of four of the districts. A draft of any National Assembly bill 
of tribal concern must be referred to the House of Chiefs. Chiefs and 
other leaders preside over customary, traditional courts, though all 
persons have a right to request that their case be considered under the 
formal, British-based legal system.

The roots of Botswana's democracy lie in Setswana traditions, 
exemplified by the Kgotla, or village council, in which the powers of 
traditional leaders were limited by custom and law. Botswana's High 
Court has general civil and criminal jurisdiction. Judges are 
presidentially appointed and may be removed only for cause and after a 
hearing. The constitution has a code of fundamental human rights 
enforced by the courts, and Botswana has a good human rights record.

Local government is administered by nine district councils and five town 
councils. District commissioners have executive authority and are 
appointed by the central government and assisted by elected and 
nominated district councilors and district development committees. There 
has been ongoing debate about the political, social, and economic 
marginalization of the Basarwa (Bushmen). The government's policies for 
remote area dwellers continue to spark controversy and to be revised in 
response to domestic and donor concerns.

Although there is a government-owned newspaper and the government 
operates the only national radio network, there is an active, 
independent press (mostly weekly newspapers). Foreign publications are 
sold without restriction in Botswana.

Principal Government Officials
President--Sir Ketumile Masire
Vice President--Festus G. Mogae
Ambassador to the United States--Archibald Mogwe
Ambassador to the United Nations--L. J. M. J. Legwaila

Botswana maintains an embassy at 3400 International Drive NW., Suite 7-
M, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-244-4990; fax 202-244-4164). Its 
mission to the United Nations is at 103 E. 37th Street, New York, NY 
10017 (tel. 212-889-2277; fax 212-725- 5061).


Since independence, Botswana has had an impressive economic growth rate, 
averaging over 10% per year from 1976 through 1991. Growth in formal 
sector employment has averaged about 10% per annum over Botswana's first 
30 years of independence. Recently, the government has maintained budget 
surpluses and substantial foreign exchange reserves totaling about $4.6 
billion in 1996.

Botswana's impressive economic record has been built on a foundation of 
diamond mining, with prudent fiscal policies, international financial 
and technical assistance, and careful foreign policy ensuring success.


Two large mining companies, Debswana (formed by the government and South 
Africa's Debeers in equal partnership) and Bamangwato Concessions, Ltd. 
(BCL-also with substantial government equity participation) operate in 
the country. 

Since the early 1980s, the country has become the world's largest 
producer of quality diamonds. Three large diamond mines have opened 
since independence. Debeers prospectors discovered diamonds in northern 
Botswana in the early 1970s. The first mine began production at Orapa in 
1972, followed by the smaller mine at Lethakane. What has become the 
single-richest diamond mine in the world opened in Jwaneng in 1982. 
Botswana produced a total of 16.8 million carats of diamonds from the 
three Debswana mines in 1995.

BCL, which operates a copper-nickel mine at Selebi-Phikwe, has had a 
troubled financial history but remains an important employer. Similarly, 
a soda ash operation at Sua Pan, opened in 1991 and supported by 
substantial government investment, has been a continual money loser.


More than one-half of the population lives in rural areas and is largely 
dependent on subsistence crop and livestock farming. Agriculture meets 
only a small portion of food needs and contributes just 4% to GDP--
primarily through beef exports-but it remains a social and cultural 
touchstone. Cattle raising in particular dominated Botswana's social and 
economic life before independence. The national herd was approximately 
2.5 million in the mid-1990s, though the government-ordered slaughter of 
the entire herd in Botswana's northwest Ngamiland District in 1995 has 
reduced the number by at least 200,000. The slaughter was ordered to 
prevent the spread of "cattle lung disease" to other parts of the 

Private Sector Development and Foreign Investment

Botswana seeks to diversify its economy away from minerals, the earnings 
from which have leveled off. In 1994-95, non-traditional sectors of the 
economy grew at over 5%, partially offsetting a slight decline in the 
minerals sector. Foreign investment and management have been welcomed in 
Botswana as keys to diversification, and light manufacturing, tourism, 
and financial services have all generated opportunities for profit.

U.S. investment in Botswana is growing. In the early 1990s, two American 
companies, Owens Corning and Lazare Kaplan, made major investments in 
production facilities in Botswana. A brick-making plant in Lobatse 
started in 1992 with participation by Interkiln Corporation of Houston. 
An American Business Council (ABC) with over 30 member companies was 
inaugurated in 1995.

Because of history and geography, Botswana has long had deep ties to the 
economy of South Africa. The Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU), 
comprised of Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland, and South Africa, 
dates from 1910. Under this arrangement, South Africa has collected 
levies from customs, sales, and excise duties for all five members, 
sharing out proceeds based on each country's portion of imports. The 
exact formula for sharing revenues and the decision-making authority 
over duties (held, until at least 1996, exclusively by the Government of 
South Africa) have become increasingly controversial, and the members 
began renegotiating the arrangement in 1995. While the Customs Union has 
benefited Botswana through duty-free access to the much larger South 
African market, SACU has also made prohibitive the import of non-South 
African capital and consumer goods. Following South Africa's accession 
to the World Trade Organization (WTO-Botswana is also a member), many of 
the SACU duties are declining, making American products more 

Botswana's currency--the pula--is fully convertible and is valued 
against a basket of currencies heavily weighted toward the South African 
rand. Profits and direct investment can be repatriated with virtually no 
restriction from Botswana.

Gaborone is host to the 12-nation Southern Africa Development Community 
(SADC). A successor to the Southern Africa Development Coordination 
Conference (SADCC), which focused its efforts on freeing regional 
economic development from dependence on apartheid in South Africa, SADC 
incorporates South Africa and has a broad mandate to encourage growth, 
development, and integration in Southern Africa. The Regional Center for 
Southern Africa (RCSA), which implements the U.S. Agency for 
International Development's (USAID) Initiative for Southern Africa 
(ISA), is headquartered in Gaborone as well.

Transportation and Communications

A sparsely populated, arid country about the size of Texas, Botswana has 
nonetheless managed to incorporate much of its interior into the 
national economy. An "inner circle" highway connecting all major towns 
and district capitals is almost completely paved, and the all-weather 
Trans-Kalahari Highway will connect the country (and through it South 
Africa's commercially dominant Guateng Province) to Walvis Bay in 
Namibia upon completion before the turn of the century. A fiber-optic 
telecommunications network has been completed in Botswana connecting all 
major population centers.


The president is commander in chief of the Botswana Defense Force (BDF). 
A defense council is presidentially appointed. The BDF was formed in 
1977 in response to the Rhodesian conflict and raids into Botswana. It 
has over 8,000 members.

Botswana is modernizing and expanding the BDF and plans to acquire 
modern air and armor capabilities. Following positive political changes 
in South Africa and the region, the BDF's missions have increasingly 
focused on anti-poaching activities, disaster-preparedness, and foreign 
peace-keeping. The United States has been the largest single contributor 
to the development of the BDF, and a large segment of its officer corps 
has received U.S. training. It is considered an apolitical and 
professional institution.


Botswana has put a premium on economic and political integration in 
Southern Africa. It has sought to make SADC a working vehicle for 
economic development, and it has promoted efforts to make the region 
self-policing in terms of preventative diplomacy, conflict resolution, 
and good governance. It has welcomed post-apartheid South Africa as a 
partner in these efforts.

Botswana has formal diplomatic relations with most African countries and 
many European nations and Arab countries. A number of ambassadors 
accredited to Botswana reside in Harare, Zimbabwe, or in Lusaka, Zambia. 
Botswana receives development aid from many sources. It is a member of 
international organizations such as the United Nations and the 
Organization of African Unity (OAU). In 1996, it will complete a two-
year term on the UN's Security Council, where it established a record of 
consensual, constructive participation. Botswana joins the African 
consensus on most major international matters.


The United States considers Botswana a force for stability in Africa, 
and it has been a major partner in development from the country's 
independence. U.S. Peace Corps will close out its presence in December 
1997, bringing to an end 30 years of well-regarded assistance in 
education, business, health, agriculture, and the environment. 
Similarly, the USAID ended a longstanding partnership with Botswana in 
1996, after successful programs emphasizing education, training, 
entrepreneurship, environmental management, and reproductive health. 
Botswana will continue to benefit along with its neighbors in the region 
from USAID's initiative for Southern Africa. The United States operates 
a major Voice of America (VOA) relay station in Botswana serving most of 
the African continent. In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 
initiated a tuberculosis monitoring program in Botswana.

Principal U.S. Officials

Ambassador--Robert Krueger
Deputy Chief of Mission--Gillian Milovanovic
USAID Regional Center Director--Valerie Dickson-Horton
Public Affairs Officer--Steve Lauterbach
Peace Corps Director--Francis Hammond
Office of Defense Cooperation--Ltc. James Smaugh

The U.S. Embassy is on Embassy Drive off Khama Crescent-PO Box 90, 
Gaborone (tel. 267-353-982; fax 267-356-947). USIS is at the Embassy. 
USAID is located at the former Barclay's Training Center, off the 
Molepolole Road on Lebatlane Road. Peace Corps is located on the Old 
Lobatse Road. 


The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program provides 
Travel Warnings and Consular Information Sheets. Travel Warnings are 
issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel 
to a certain country. Consular Information Sheets exist for all 
countries and include information on immigration practices, currency 
regulations, health conditions, areas of instability, crime and 
security, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. posts in 
the country. Public Announcements are issued as a means to disseminate 
information quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively short-
term conditions overseas which pose significant risks to the security of 
American travelers. Free copies of this information are available by 
calling the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202-647-5225 or via the fax-
on-demand system: 202-647-3000. Travel Warnings and Consular Information 
Sheets also are available on the Consular Affairs Internet home page: 
http://travel.state.gov and the Consular Affairs Bulletin Board (CABB). 
To access CABB, dial the modem number: (301-946-4400 (it will 
accommodate up to 33,600 bps), set terminal communications program to N-
8-1 (no parity, 8 bits, 1 stop bit); and terminal emulation to VT100. 
The login is travel and the password is info (Note: Lower case is 
required). The CABB also carries international security information from 
the Overseas Security Advisory Council and Department's Bureau of 
Diplomatic Security. Consular Affairs Trips for Travelers publication 
series, which contain information on obtaining passports and planning a 
safe trip abroad, can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-
7954; telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250.

Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be 
obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-
5225. For after-hours emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-

Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-hour, 7-
day a week automated system ($.35 per minute) or live operators 8 a.m. 
to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday ($1.05 per minute). The number is 1-900-
225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778). Major credit card users (for a flat rate 
of $4.95) may call 1-888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648) 

Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers 
for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at 
(404) 332-4559 gives the most recent health advisories, immunization 
recommendations or requirements, and advice on food and drinking water 
safety for regions and countries. 

A booklet entitled Health Information for International Travel (HHS 
publication number CDC-95-8280) is available from the U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.

Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and 
customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to 
travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a country's 
embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see "Principal 
Government Officials" listing in this publication). 

U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous areas 
are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country 
(see "Principal U.S. Embassy Officials" listing in this publication). 
This may help family members contact you in case of an emergency. 

Further Electronic Information: 
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network. Available on the Internet, 
DOSFAN provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign policy 
information. Updated daily, DOSFAN includes Background Notes; Dispatch, 
the official magazine of U.S. foreign policy; daily press briefings; 
Country Commercial Guides; directories of key officers of foreign 
service posts; etc. DOSFAN's World Wide Web site is at 

U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published on a semi-annual basis 
by the U.S. Department of State, USFAC archives information on the 
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network, and includes an array of 
official foreign policy information from 1990 to the present. Contact 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. 
Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. To order, call (202) 512-1800 or 
fax (202) 512-2250.

National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department of 
Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related information. It is 
available on the Internet (www.stat-usa.gov) and on CD-ROM. Call the 
NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-1986 for more information. 

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