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                       AMBASSADOR PHILIP WILCOX
                     STATE DEPARTMENT'S REPORT ON
                 "PATTERNS OF GLOBAL TERRORISM IN 1994"
                         FRIDAY, APRIL 28, 1994

     MR. BURNS:  Good afternoon.  Welcome to the State Department 
briefing.  I would like to begin today's briefing with a special 
session with Ambassador Philip Wilcox, the Department's principal 
officer on counterterrorism issues.

     Ambassador Wilcox assumed the office of Coordinator for 
Counterterrorism on August 17, 1994.  He is a career Foreign Service 
Officer.  He has served with great distinction in the Department in 
a variety of positions, most recently as Principal Deputy Assistant 
Secretary of State in the Bureau of the Intelligence and Research.

     He will be talking to you today about the State Department's 
report on "Patterns of Global Terrorism in 1994."  Following his 
briefing, I will be available for the regular briefing on other 

     Ambassador Wilcox, welcome.

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  Thank you, Nick.  Good afternoon.  It's 
just a coincidence that the publication of "Patterns of Terrorism," 
which the Secretary sent to the Congress today comes just a week 
after the Oklahoma City tragedy.

     The statutory mandate for "Patterns of Terrorism" is to report 
on international terrorists attacks, whereas the Oklahoma City 
crime, as you know, we're almost certain an entirely a domestic 

     The Secretary and the President have repeatedly stressed, as 
you know, that the threat of terrorism, both domestic and 
international, are among our very highest priorities.  For that 
reason, we publish this report annually, and we are making a major 
effort across the board to combat international terrorism here in 
the Department.

     "Patterns" is a detailed survey of politically-inspired 
violence against non-combatants involving citizens of more than one 
country, or the territory of more than one country.  This year, I am 
happy to report that you can all read it on the INTERNET.

     We prepare this report because of our mandate to coordinate an 
aggressive policy against international terrorism.  You may recall 
that last October the Secretary, in his Georgetown University 
speech, said that fighting terrorism and international crime were 
among the very highest priorities of this Administration.

     Working very closely with Justice, the FBI, and the 
intelligence community, we're building and reinforcing a stronger 
structure to combat international terrorism through cooperation and 
to complement our domestic efforts here at home.

     Our policy has three basics:  First, we don't make deals with 
terrorists.  We don't submit to blackmail.

     Second:  We identify those nations who sponsor international 
terrorism, and we bring to bear unilateral U.S. sanctions and we 
encourage other countries to join us in collective sanctions.

     Most important of all, we reinforce the rule of law against 
terrorists.  Terrorism is, above all, a crime and it's encouraging 
that increasingly other nations around the world regard it as a 
crime and are bringing to bear the full force of the law against 

     In support of these policies, working with other agencies, we 
have a very active agenda of consultations with other governments 
around the world who share our concern about terrorism.

     We have an anti-terrorism assistance program, which provides 
training to government officials around the world.  We've trained 
some 15,000 foreign officials in 80 countries over the last decade.  
We coordinate very closely with the Department of Defense and other 
U.S. agencies in a program of research and development on 
counterterrorism technology.  We have active, collaborative programs 
in this area with the U.K., with Canada, and with Israel.

     We're also working very closely with Treasury on the 
implementation of Executive Order 12947, which is designed to block 
any flow of funds from U.S. sources to terrorists organizations 
which threaten the Middle East peace process.

     I think you're all familiar with the State Department's rewards 
program, which provides up to $2 million in rewards for information 
that leads to the prevention or resolution of terrorist attacks 
against Americans.

     All these efforts, I am pleased to say, are showing some 
results.  As you may have read in your copy of "Patterns," the 
incidences of international terrorism in 1994 were actually down.  
There were 321 last year compared to 431 the previous year.  This 
contrasts to 665 acts of international terrorism in 1987, which was 
the peak year for international terrorism.

     Through a combination of very active diplomacy and law 
enforcement cooperation with other governments around the world, 
more terrorists are being arrested, prosecuted, or extradited as 
nations increasingly look to law enforcement as the best weapon 
against terrorists.

     There's less ambivalence in the world today that terrorism is 
simply a crime; whereas, in the past, there was often a tendency to 
tolerate terrorism, to look the other way, because of the political 
motivation of the terrorists.

     There's another reason for the decline in the incidence of 
international terrorism.  There are several other reasons.  The old 
Soviet Union was a refuge and a supporter of terrorists groups.  
It's now gone.  The new era in South Africa, the beginnings of peace 
in Northern Ireland are other factors in this recent decline in 
international terrorists incidents.

     But I want to emphasize that while this statistic is a positive 
one, it does mask some negative, new developments.  For example, 
domestic terrorism, which we do not record in a detailed, 
comprehensive way in our "Patterns," and political violence, in 
general, is probably more serious today than it has been in recent 
years.  So there's probably been a net increase in this kind of 

     Also, although the number of incidents of international 
terrorism are down, there's a trend toward an increase in casualties 
during the last two years.  Part of this is the bombing of the AMIA 
Cultural Center in Buenos Aires which took over 100 lives.  But 
there's also a tendency, which we see, of terrorists seeking out 
mass civilian targets and going after non-official civilian targets 
which are softer and less protected.

     Needless to say, there has been a sharp increase in terrorists 
attacks against the Middle East peace process, and there is a very 
dangerous and vicious rear-guard action led by Hamas and the 
Palestinian Islamic Jihad to destroy the peace process.  I emphasize 
that it's a rear-guard action.  We believe it will fail, but 
nevertheless it's a serious menace which we don't minimize.

     There are also other Islamic extremists groups who are 
confronting both the West and Israel, as well as the mainstream 
Islamic community, who are waging campaigns of terror in such places 
as Algeria, Egypt, and Pakistan.

     Iran is still the leading sponsor of state-sponsored terrorism.  
It continues to assassinate dissidents abroad.  It maintains direct 
support for the Hizbollah, which is one of the most dangerous and 
lethal terrorist organizations.  It continues to support the fatwa 
against Salmon Rushdie, and it is using its resources -- money, 
materiel -- to support those groups which are using terrorism 
against the peace process; and the Iranian propaganda against the 
peace process continues at a virulent level.

     Libya, another one of the state's sponsors, continues to defy 
the mandate of the Security Council.  It has refused to yield up the 
suspects in the Pan Am 103 bombing and the UTA 772 bombings.

     The threat of terrorism, using materials of mass destruction, 
is also a serious problem and it has been made more real and 
tangible by the recent gas attacks in the Tokyo subways.  The Tokyo 
attacks raise another worrisome new specter, and that is, terrorism 
committed by psychotics or deviant religious elements.  It's a more 
difficult kind of terrorism to understand and to monitor and deter.

     All of these dangers, as well as the growing sophistication and 
mobility, technical competence, the ingenuity of terrorists, their 
ability to use modern communications, makes them a more dangerous 
threat around the world.  So we must -- notwithstanding the decline 
and the incidents of international terrorism -- recognize that it is 
still a very, very serious threat to our national security and to 
that of our friends, and to redouble our efforts abroad just as 
we're doing here at home.

     I can't over-emphasize the need for these kinds of efforts that 
I've described against international and domestic terrorism, per se, 
including the new omnibus counterterrorism legislation which the 
President has proposed.  But I want to stress something else also.  
Our counterterrorism strategy abroad is only as good and only as 
strong as our foreign policy.  In order for this policy -- our 
counterterrorism policies -- to succeed, in order for us to 
cooperate effectively with foreign governments at every level -- as 
we've been able to do in the past -- requires a strong U.S. 
engagement across the board, supported by adequate American 
resources throughout the world to protect our political, economic, 
and security interests.

     No less important, countering terrorism goes beyond the 
counterterrorism techniques, the law enforcement, and other means 
that I've described.  It means, strengthening and maintaining our 
traditional role in helping to resolve those tough political, 
social, and economic conflicts which are one of the breeding grounds 
for terrorism.

     Thanks very much.  I'll be glad to take your questions.

     Q     I realize that a decision was taken above your pay grade, 
but was the invitation of Gerry Adams to the White House consistent 
with your first pronouncement there on policy not to deal with 
terrorists?  I ask also because Margaret Thatcher, last night, 
wondered how President Clinton would have felt if the Oklahoma 
bombers had been invited to 10 Downing Street.

     Other occasions -- I suppose the argument has been "one man's 
terrorist is another man's freedom fighter."  Was that invitation 
consistent with that policy?

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  We don't accept that formulation that "one 
man's terrorist is another's freedom fighter."  Terrorism is 
terrorism.  We make no bones about it.

     There was a very strong basis and evolution which led us to 
believe that there was a real prospect for a peace process in 
Northern Ireland.  We were right.  That process is unfolding.  Our 
various initiatives have helped to promote that process.

     Terrorists can be redeemed.  Over history, some of them have 
been.  Unfortunately, it doesn't happen very often.  If individuals 
or groups who have committed acts of terrorism, who have paid the 
price, want to cleanse themselves of that, we welcome that.  That 
goes for nation-
states who sponsor acts of terrorism.  They're not indelibly branded 
as nation-states if they want to take the right steps to get rid of 
that taint.


     Q     CIA Director-designate John Deutch said on Wednesday at 
his confirmation hearings that there are dangerous linkages that we 
see now among drug cartels, organized crime, and terrorists.  I'm 
wondering if you could expand on that?  Do you see the same signs?

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  Yes.  There is a lot of money that is 
raised by the drug cartels which is being used to fund terrorist 
acts, particularly in Latin America.  There is a strong nexus 
between the wave of domestic terrorist acts there and the narcotics 

     The narcotics money that is being laundered throughout the 
world is often mingled with money that's being made by the various 
international criminal syndicates.  So there is a clear nexus here.

     Some terrorist groups, like the Hizbollah, have been involved 
in some kinds of narcotics activities.  Not all of them, but some of 
these international groups.  The domestic terrorist groups in Latin 
America are often involved directly in narcotics affairs.

     Q     Do you see any domestic impact on the United States from 
any of this, or is it mostly domestic impacts in Latin America and 
other places?  Is there any domestic --

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  There is definitely an impact of domestic 
terrorism on the United States.  It threatens American tourists, 
American citizens, who are in those countries, and if an American is 
a victim of terrorism in any country, it becomes by definition an 
act of international terrorism.

     But certainly the wave of violence that is promoted and funded 
by narcotics money in Latin America is a very definite threat to 

     Q     Ambassador Wilcox, does the Clinton Administration think 
the bombing in Israel by Baruch Goldstein, which you mention in this 
report, is an act of international terrorism?

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  It is an act of terrorism.  I'm not aware 
that there were American citizens or dual nationals who were victims 
of that terrorist incident, and because of the unresolved status of 
the West Bank, we do not and have not traditionally included acts of 
terrorism committed in those areas as acts of international 

     Q     You mentioned -- I think at the beginning you said 
terrorism is an act of political violence against non-combatants.  
In that sense, would you regard an attack on an Israeli army patrol 
as an act of terrorism?  Or take a British army patrol in Northern 
Ireland, would that be an act of terrorism?

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  Let me read you our full definition, then 
I'll see if I can interpret.  Terrorism is premeditated, politically 
motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-
national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence 
an audience.

     That is one definition of terrorism.  That comes from a U.S. 

     There's a great debate about the definition of terrorism, and 
one can argue that this may be inadequate, too broad or too narrow.  
This is the one, however, we use for purposes of our analysis and 
gathering information.

     Military forces who are on active duty are not considered -- we 
do not consider them non-combatants.  Military forces who are off-
duty, such as those Israeli soldiers who were killed at the bus stop 
at Beit Lid were non-combatants and were victims of terrorism.

     Q     Mr. Wilcox, do you share Secretary Perry's concern that 
North Korea might become a supplier of either fissile materials or 
atomic devices, supplying those to terrorists like Hizbollah or 
others that might in turn use them on this country.  Are you 
concerned about that, and are we prepared to counter this kind of 
ultimate terrorism?

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  We are deeply concerned about the prospect 
of terrorists getting a hold of nuclear, biological and chemical 
substances and using them for terrorist purposes.  North Korea is 
one of the seven nations listed as a state sponsor of terrorism by 
the United States.

     North Korea has not engaged directly in acts of terrorism since 
the 1987 bombing of the airliner, but it still continues to harbor 
terrorist elements inside North Korea and therefore still qualifies 
as a state sponsor.

     North Korea and South Korea and the United States, as you know, 
are engaged in an elaborate and complex dialogue on how to adopt a 
new form of nuclear-powered technology which would not pose a threat 
of proliferation.

     But I know of no information which suggests that North Korea 
has diverted any kind of radiological substance that might have 
found its way into the hands of terrorists.

     Q     Since the Oklahoma City bombing, a lot of attention has 
been given to what might be called "Cyber-terror" -- the 
proliferation of everything from inflammatory rhetoric to bomb-
building recipes on the INTERNET.  Have you seen anything similar 
internationally, and do you have any evidence that extremist or 
terrorist groups within the United States are communicating with 
groups -- I don't know, getting trade craft instructions or 
encouragement from groups abroad?

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  I worry a lot about it, as we all do.  The 
spread of information about terrorist technology is a grave threat.  
It's more and more accessible to terrorists anywhere.  We do have a 
Constitution and a First Amendment in this country which is a 
serious constraint to the control of that kind of information.  But, 
believe me, it's a very worrisome thing.

     MR. BURNS:  One more question, please.

     Q     Could you answer the second part of the question about 
connections between the foreign terrorists and domestic?

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  The domestic terrorists who are being 
charged with the Oklahoma City incident or just in general?

     Q     In general.

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  There are certainly links between 
extremists elements in this country and their counterparts elsewhere 
on the right and on the left, and there are links between religious 
extremist groups in this country and their counterparts overseas, 
and that's a very dangerous problem.

     It is a problem that the Department of State, the U.S. 
intelligence community and the FBI work on together, so that we can 
combine information from the domestic and the overseas sector and 
monitor and arrest, if necessary, these terrorists.

     Q     Can you be more specific about particular groups that 
have linkages, foreign and domestic?

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  There are elements in this country which 
are connected with Hamas, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, with Kach 
and Kahane Chai, for example, and there are others as well.

     Q     Ambassador, one of the international terrorist 
organizations, PKK, (inaudible) narcotic activities in Europe and 
also in the United States?

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  I know of no narcotics activities by the 
PKK in the United States.  You're quite right that they have been 
involved in narcotics trafficking in Western Europe and elsewhere.

     Q     Thank you very much.

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  Thank you.

     Q     The linkage between Iran and Algerian terrorists?  What 
is the help provided by Iranian Government to the Algerian Islamic 

     AMBASSADOR WILCOX:  There's information in a domain which I'm 
not able to discuss here because that information is classified, so 
I think I won't have any comment on that question.

     Q     Thank you.

     (Ambassador Wilcox concluded his briefing at 1:15 p.m., after 
which Spokesman Burns opened the Daily Press Briefing.)


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