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Title: 1995 Patterns of Global Terrorism
Author:  U.S. Department of State
Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism
Release Date:  April 1996


                   Patterns of GlobalTerrorism: 1995



     Contents:

Introduction
The Year in Review
Africa Overview
  Angola
  Chad
  Ethiopia
  Sierra Leone
  Somalia
Asia Overview
  Afghanistan
  Cambodia
  India
  Japan
  Pakistan
  Sri Lanka
Europe and Eurasia Overview
  Austria
  Croatia
  France
  Georgia
  Germany
  Greece
  Italy
  Russia
  Spain
  Turkey
  Ukraine
  United Kingdom
Latin America Overview
  Argentina
  Colombia
  Guatemala
  Panama
  Peru
Middle East Overview
  Algeria
  Egypt
  Israel and the Occupied Territories/Palestinian Autonomous Areas
  Jordan
  Lebanon
  Morocco
  Saudi Arabia
  Tunisia
Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism
  Cuba
  Iran
  Iraq
  Libya
  North Korea
  Sudan
  Syria

Appendixes
  A.  Chronology of Significant Terrorist Incidents, 1995
  B.  Background Information on Major Groups Discussed in the Report

______________________________________





                   Patterns of GlobalTerrorism: 1995

Introduction

Acts of international terrorism in 51 countries in 1995 continued to 
threaten civil society and peacemaking, including the Israeli-
Palestinian peace process, while international cooperation to combat 
terrorism intensified. Terrorists failed to achieve ultimate political 
goals, as in the past, but they continued to cause major political, 
psychological, and economic damage.

Lethal acts of international terrorism and the number of deaths declined 
in 1995, but a gas attack in Japan raised the spectre of mass casualties 
by chemical terrorism. Except for Iran, which actively continued to 
support terrorism in 1995, international pressure and sanctions largely 
contained terrorism by other state sponsors such as Libya and Iraq. 
Furthermore, individual and group-sponsored terrorist acts overshadowed 
state-sponsored terrorism. Many of these terrorists—some loosely 
organized and some representing groups— claimed to act for Islam and 
operated, increasingly, on a global scale. These transnational 
terrorists benefit from modern communications and transportation, have 
global sources of funding, are knowledgeable about modern explosives and 
weapons, and are more difficult to track and apprehend than members of 
the old established groups or those sponsored by states. Many of these 
transnational terrorists were trained in militant camps in Afghanistan 
or are veterans of the Afghan war. In 1995 a conspiracy discovered in 
the Philippines to bomb US airliners over the Pacific and led by the 
suspected mastermind of the World Trade Center bombing, exemplified this 
kind of transnational terrorism.

Terrorism by extremist individuals or groups claiming to act for 
religious motives continued to dominate international terrorism in 1995. 
In Israel new suicide bombings by radical Islamic Palestinians and the 
assassination of Prime Minister Rabin by a Jewish Israeli extremist 
continued previous efforts by terrorists to derail the peace process. 
Islamic extremists also waged a series of terrorist acts in Egypt, 
France, Algeria, and Pakistan.

Ethnic-based terrorism also continued in 1995. The Kurdish group, the 
Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), pressed its terrorist campaign in Turkey 
and Western Europe. Terrorist attacks or threats erupted in the 
Caucasus, and Tamil separatists used terrorism to advance their cause in 
Sri Lanka.

One of the most chilling terrorist acts of the year was the gas attack 
on the Tokyo subway by the Aum Shinrikyo cult, indicating that terrorism 
involving materials of mass destruction is now a reality.

Hostage taking continued to be a major form of terrorist activity, 
especially in countries like Colombia, where terrorists often have been 
able to extort ransom payments.

This report describes attacks of international terrorism by country and 
region and patterns that can be derived from these attacks. It comments 
on, but does not provide details on, domestic terrorism and other forms 
of political violence. These are more widespread phenomena than 
international terrorism, which involve citizens or property of more than 
one country.

The United States believes that implementing a strict counterterrorist 
policy is the best way to reduce the global terrorist threat. US policy 
follows three general rules:

--  First, make no deals with terrorists or submit to blackmail. We have 
found over the years that this policy works.

--  Second, treat terrorists as criminals, pursue them aggressively, and 
apply the rule of law.

--  Third, bring maximum pressure on states that sponsor and support 
terrorists by imposing economic, diplomatic, and political sanctions and 
by urging other states to do likewise.

Nations around the world are working together increasingly to fight 
terrorism through law enforcement cooperation. Several governments 
turned over major terrorists to US authorities for prosecution in 1995, 
including the reputed mastermind of the World Trade Center bombing, 
Ramzi Ahmed Yousef. Some of Yousef's suspected gang members also were 
apprehended by other governments and extradited or rendered to US 
authorities.

Another major victory for the rule of law occurred in October, when a US 
court convicted Umar Abd al-Rahman and nine codefendants of conspiring 
to wage a war of urban terrorism against the United States.

Several multilateral conferences on counterterrorism in 1995 were a sign 
of recognition that international cooperation against terrorists is 
critical. Argentina, for example, convened a regional ministerial 
meeting on counterterrorism in August in the wake of two major car 
bombings in Buenos Aires in 1992 and 1994. Senior officials from Chile, 
Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, the United States, and the host nation 
discussed practical measures against the threat posed in the region.

The Group of Seven plus Russia also held an unprecedented 
counterterrorist conference at the ministerial level in Ottawa in 
December, responding to a mandate from the heads of state at the Halifax 
Summit in June. In their Declaration, the ministers of the G-7 and 
Russia pledged to take action in the following areas:

--  Strengthening the sharing of intelligence on terrorism.
--  Pursuing measures to prevent the terrorist use of nuclear, chemical, 
and biological materials.
--  Inhibiting the movement of terrorists.
--  Enhancing measures to prevent the falsification of documents.
--  Depriving terrorists of funds.
--  Increasing mutual legal assistance.
--  Strengthening protection of aviation, maritime, and other 
transportation systems against terrorism.

--  Working toward universal adherence to international treaties and 
conventions on terrorism by the year 2000.

The United States, for its part, has made progress in many of these 
areas. For example, the Clinton administration has sought to increase 
the use of extradition as a counterterrorist tool. We are engaged in an 
active program of negotiating new and updated extradition treaties with 
nations around the world. At year's end, five new extradition treaties 
were pending before the US Senate for advice and consent to 
ratification, and nearly 20 others were at various stages of 
negotiation.

In addition, President Clinton signed an Executive Order in January 1995 
blocking the assets in the United States of terrorists and terrorist 
groups who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process and 
prohibiting financial transactions with these groups.

President Clinton and Secretary Christopher stressed the high priority 
of counterterrorist efforts in their addresses to the 50th United 
Nations General Assembly in October. In his UNGA speech, President 
Clinton challenged all the world's governments to negotiate and sign an 
international declaration on citizen security, including a call for 
enhanced cooperation on counterterrorism.

Last year, at the dedication of a memorial in Arlington National 
Cemetery to commemorate those killed in 1988 in the Pan Am 103 bombing, 
President Clinton said: "Today, America is more determined than ever to 
stand against terrorism, to fight it, to bring terrorists to answer for 
their crimes." More and more nations are demonstrating that same 
determination as the international battle against terrorism gets 
stronger each year.

Legislative Requirements

This report is submitted in compliance with Title 22 of the United 
States Code, Section 2656f(a), which requires the Department of State to 
provide Congress a full and complete annual report on terrorism for 
those countries and groups meeting the criteria of Section (a)(1) and 
(2) of the Act. As required by legislation, the report includes detailed 
assessments of foreign countries where significant terrorist acts 
occurred and countries about which Congress was notified during the 
preceding five years pursuant to Section 6(j) of the Export 
Administration Act of 1979 (the so-called terrorism list countries that 
have repeatedly provided state support for international terrorism). In 
addition, the report includes all relevant information about the 
previous year's activities of individuals, terrorist organizations, or 
umbrella groups known to be responsible for the kidnapping or death of 
any US citizen during the preceding five years and groups known to be 
financed by state sponsors of terrorism.

Definitions

No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance. For the 
purposes of this report, however, we have chosen the definition of 
terrorism contained in Title 22 of the United States Code, Section 
2656f(d). That statute contains the following definitions:

--  The term "terrorism" means premeditated, politically motivated 
violence perpetrated against noncombatant(1) targets by subnational 
groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.

--  The term "international terrorism" means terrorism involving 
citizens or the territory of more than one country.

--  The term "terrorist group" means any group practicing, or that has 
significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism. 

The US Government has employed this definition of terrorism for 
statistical and analytical purposes since 1983. Domestic terrorism is 
probably a more widespread phenomenon than international terrorism. 
Because international terrorism has a direct impact on US interests, it 
is the primary focus of this report. However, the report also describes, 
but does not provide statistics on, significant developments in domestic 
terrorism.

Note

Adverse mention in this report of individual members of any political, 
social, ethnic, religious, or national group is not meant to imply that 
all members of that group are terrorists. Indeed, terrorists represent a 
small minority of dedicated, often fanatical, individuals in most such 
groups. It is those small groups—and their actions—that are the subject 
of this report.

Furthermore, terrorist acts are part of a larger phenomenon of 
politically inspired violence, and at times the line between the two can 
become difficult to draw. To relate terrorist events to the larger 
context, and to give a feel for the conflicts that spawn violence, this 
report will discuss terrorist acts as well as other violent incidents 
that are not necessarily international terrorism.

Ambassador Philip C. Wilcox, Jr.
Coordinator for Counterterrorism

____________________
(1) For purposes of this definition, the term "noncombatant" is 
interpreted to include, in addition to civilians, military personnel who 
at the time of the incident are unarmed and/or not on duty. For example, 
in past reports we have listed as terrorist incidents the murders of the 
following US military personnel: Col. James Rowe, killed in Manila in 
April 1989; Capt. William Nordeen, US defense attache killed in Athens 
in June 1988; the two servicemen killed in the La Belle disco bombing in 
West Berlin in April 1986; and the four off-duty US Embassy Marine 
guards killed in a cafe in El Salvador in June 1985. We also consider as 
acts of terrorism attacks on military installations or on armed military 
personnel when a state of military hostilities does not exist at the 
site, such as bombings against US bases in Europe, the Philippines, or 
elsewhere.
____________________



                     Patterns of GlobalTerrorism: 1995


The Year in Review

In most countries, the level of international terrorism in 1995 
continued the downward trend of recent years, and there were fewer 
terrorist acts that caused deaths last year than in the previous year. 
However, the total number of international terrorist acts rose in 1995 
from 322 to 440, largely because of a major increase in nonlethal 
terrorist attacks against property in Germany and in Turkey by the 
Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). (The PKK also committed lethal acts of 
terrorism.) The decline in lethal acts of international terrorism was 
not matched by a reduction in domestic terrorism or other forms of 
political violence that continued at a high level.

International terrorist attacks against US interests rose to 99 in 1995 
from 66 in 1994, and the number of US citizens killed rose from four to 
12. The total number of fatalities from international terrorism 
worldwide declined from 314 in 1994 to 165 in 1995, but the number of 
persons wounded increased by a factor of ten—to 6,291 persons; 5,500 
were injured in a gas attack in the Tokyo subway system in March.

Significant acts of international terrorism during the year were:

--  Two US employees of the US Consulate in Karachi, Jacqueline Keys Van 
Landingham and Gary C. Durell, were killed on 8 March when their shuttle 
bus came under armed attack. A third employee, Mark McCloy, was injured.

--  On 20 March members of the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo placed 
containers of the deadly chemical nerve agent sarin on five trains of 
the Tokyo subway system during the morning rush hour. The cultists then 
punctured the containers, releasing poisonous gas into the trains and 
subway stations. The attack killed 12 persons, but despite the extreme 
toxicity of sarin, 5,500 escaped with injuries, including two US 
citizens. The attack was the first major use of chemical weapons by 
terrorists.

--  Two US missionaries, Steve Welsh and Timothy Van Dyke, were killed 
by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) during a 
confrontation with a Colombian Army patrol on 19 June . The guerrillas 
kidnapped the two New Tribes Mission members in January 1994 initially 
to force the withdrawal of US military personnel engaged in military 
assistance projects in Colombia. FARC later changed this demand to a 
monetary ransom. Four other US citizens still were held hostage by 
guerrillas in Colombia as of the end of 1995.

--  On 26 June gunmen attempted to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni 
Mubarak during his visit to Ethiopia. The attempt was foiled by 
Ethiopian counterterrorist forces and Egyptian security forces. Al-
Gama'at al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group or IG) claimed responsibility, and 
the suspects are believed to have fled to Sudan.

--  Terrorists bombed the Riyadh headquarters of the Office of the 
Program Manager/Saudi Arabian National Guard on 13 November, killing 
seven people, including five US citizens, and seriously injuring 42 
others.

Western Europe experienced more international terrorist attacks during 
1995 than any other region. However, most of the 272 incidents that 
occurred there were the low-level PKK arson attacks mentioned above. 
There were only 11 attacks in Western Europe that were lethal, that is, 
that resulted in the death of one or more victims.

In Israel, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by a Jewish 
Israeli extremist in November, and Palestinian terrorists continued a 
series of massive suicide bombings and shootings in Israel, killing 47.

A high level of terrorism continued in Algeria by the Armed Islamic 
Group (GIA), and terrorists probably associated with the GIA launched a 
series of bombings or attempted bombings in France.

There was no known international involvement in the 19 April bombing of 
a federal building in Oklahoma City, which killed 168 people and wounded 
more than 500.

Twelve US citizens were killed in international terrorist attacks last 
year. In addition to the two US Consulate employees killed in Karachi, 
the two missionaries killed in Colombia, and the five citizens killed in 
Riyadh, a US tourist was murdered in Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge, a US 
citizen was killed in a suicide attack on an Israeli bus in Gaza, and 
another died in a similar attack on a bus in Jerusalem. Forty-eight US 
citizens were wounded during all of 1995.

Various foreign governments cooperated with the United States in 1995 in 
arresting and transferring to US custody major international terrorist 
suspects wanted for alleged violation of US counterterrorism laws. Ramzi 
Ahmed Yousef, who is under indictment as a key figure in the bombing in 
1993 of the World Trade Center in New York City, was arrested and 
extradited to the United States by Pakistan in February. In August, Eyad 
Mahmoud Ismail Najim, a suspected accomplice of Yousef's in the New York 
bombing, was rendered to the United States by Jordan. In April, Abdul 
Hakim Murad was arrested and handed over to US custody by the 
Philippines for suspected involvement with Yousef in a plot to blow up 
US aircraft over Asia, and Wali Khan Amin Shah—another suspected 
coconspirator in this plot—was rendered to the United States by another 
foreign government in December.

On 1 October, Shaykh Umar Abd al-Rahman and nine codefendants were 
convicted in Manhattan federal court of conspiring to bomb the United 
Nations, the FBI building in New York, the Lincoln and Holland tunnels, 
and other New York landmarks, and for the terrorist bombing in 1993 of 
the World Trade Center. Abd al-Rahman, known as the "Blind Shaykh," also 
was found guilty of plotting to murder Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, 
and defendant El Sayyid Nosair also was convicted of "murder in aid of 
racketeering" in relation to the death of Rabbi Meir Kahane in 1990. 
Trial evidence showed that Abd al-Rahman was the leader of an 
organization whose aim was to wage a self-styled "holy war" of terror 
against the United States because he considered it an enemy of Islam. 
Abd al-Rahman and Nosair were sentenced to life in prison; the others 
received prison terms ranging from 25 to 57 years.

Senior HAMAS official Musa Abu Marzuq, who is suspected of involvement 
in terrorist activities in Israel, was detained in New York on 25 July 
as he tried to enter the United States—where he had lived previously as 
a legal permanent resident—after immigration officials found his name on 
a watchlist of suspected terrorists. Israel has requested his 
extradition. At year's end, that request was pending before US courts.

Africa Overview

Ten international terrorist attacks occurred in Africa last year, down 
from 24 during 1994. Ethiopia was the scene of an attempted 
assassination of visiting Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak by members of 
an Egyptian terrorist group. Other attacks—primarily kidnappings—
occurred in Angola, Chad, Sierra Leone, and Somalia.

Angola

The United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM) was attacked by 
unknown perpetrators on 11 November. Two handgrenades were thrown into 
the UNAVEM III campsite in Cabinda city, seriously injuring one 
Bangladeshi police observer and damaging the facility.

Chad

On 18 March, an American UN worker, a Malian, and two Chadians were 
kidnapped in the city of Mao by the Movement for Democracy and 
Development, an armed Chadian opposition group. The US citizen was 
released on 27 March.

Ethiopia

Ethiopian counterterrorist forces foiled an assassination attempt 
against visiting Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak on 26 June. Mubarak 
had just arrived in Addis Ababa to attend the Organization of African 
Unity (OAU) summit when several members of the Egyptian extremist al-
Gama'at al-Islamiyya (also known as the Islamic Group, or IG) attacked 
his motorcade. Ethiopian forces killed five of the attackers and 
captured three others. Ethiopia and Egypt have charged the Government of 
Sudan with complicity in the attack and harboring suspects and pursued 
the matter in both the OAU and the United Nations.

On 26 February, unknown assailants threw two grenades into the USAID 
compound in Addis Ababa, damaging the facility's windows and three 
vehicles. No one was injured.

Sierra Leone

The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) took several foreigners hostage in 
the first half of 1995 in an apparent attempt to force foreigners out of 
the country. On 5 January, a Swiss national working for a French-owned 
lumber firm was taken hostage. On 18 January, two Britons, a German, a 
Swede, and a dual Swiss/Australian—all employed by the Swiss-owned 
Sierra Leone Ore and Metal Company (Sieromco)—were kidnapped. On 25 
January, six Italian nuns and one Brazilian nun were taken hostage. The 
seven nuns were released on 21 March, and the others were released on 20 
April. On 23 May, three Lebanese businessmen were abducted.

Somalia

On 30 April, a foreign businessman was kidnapped and killed near the 
southern port city of Chisimayu, probably by radical Islamic extremists 
as a political statement against the presence of foreigners.



Asia Overview

The most serious terrorist attack in Asia in 1995 was the nerve gas 
attack on the Tokyo subway system in March carried out by the religious 
cult Aum Shinrikyo. The attack—the first large-scale use of chemical 
agents by terrorists—apparently was meant to destabilize Japan and pave 
the way for the cult to seize control of the nation. The attack killed 
12, injured thousands, and damaged Japan's sense of security. Japanese 
authorities have since arrested the leaders of Aum Shinrikyo and 
suppressed the organization. The Khmer Rouge murdered a US tourist in 
Cambodia in January, the only terrorist-related death of a US citizen in 
East Asia last year.

The East Asia/Pacific region was also the locale of a plot, discovered 
by the Philippine Government, by Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and his accomplices 
to assassinate the Pope and plant bombs on US airliners flying over the 
Pacific.

In the South Asia region, the continued presence of Islamic militant 
training camps in Afghanistan contributed to terrorist incidents in 
Europe, Africa, the Middle East, East Asia, and South Asia. Camps are 
supported by nearly all Afghan factions, and the nominal Rabbani 
government does not exercise control or authority over much of 
Afghanistan. The Rabbani regime has been accused by the Government of 
Pakistan of sponsoring a spate of bombings and assassinations in the 
Peshawar area in late October and early November.

A group of Kashmiri and non-Kashmiri terrorists kidnapped six Westerners 
in Indian-held Kashmir in July, demanding the release of militants 
belonging to the Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA), a militant group based in 
Pakistan. One hostage was killed and another escaped. Other Kashmiri 
groups claimed responsibility for bombings at Republic Day celebrations 
in Kashmir in January and at the office of the BBC correspondant in 
Kashmir in September. Credible reports continue to indicate official 
Pakistani support for militant groups fighting in Kashmir, including 
some groups that engage in terrorism, such as the HUA. The Sikh 
terrorist group, Babbar Khalsa, assassinated the Punjab Chief Minister 
in August.

Two US Consulate employees were assassinated in Karachi in March. The 
Egyptian Embassy in Islamabad was destroyed by a bomb in November, and 
three Egyptian groups claimed responsibility. In February, Pakistan 
extradited Ramzi Yousef, alleged mastermind of the World Trade Center 
bombing, to the United States.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan, which lacks an effective or recognized central government, 
remained a training ground for Islamic militants and terrorists in 1995. 
Nearly all of the factions competing for political power, including the 
nominal government in Kabul led by Burhanuddin Rabbani, are involved to 
some extent in harboring or facilitating camps that have trained 
terrorists from many nations who have been active in worldwide terrorist 
activity. Terrorists who trained in camps in Afghanistan perpetrated 
attacks in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, East Asia, and South Asia, 
including the World Trade Center bombing in 1993, the attempted 
assassination of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Ethiopia in June, 
bombings in France by Algerian militants, and the Manila-based plot to 
attack Western interests. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, suspected of involvement 
in this plot as well as the World Trade Center bombing in 1993, is 
linked to Afghan training. The group that claimed responsibility for the 
bombing in November of the Egyptian Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, also 
has extensive ties to the Afghan network.

Individuals who trained in Afghanistan in 1995 were involved in wars or 
insurgencies in Kashmir, Tajikistan, Bosnia, Chechnya, and the 
Philippines. In Tajikistan, the government claimed in May to have 
arrested a group of Afghan-trained Tajiks who were responsible for 
attacking a bus carrying Russian border guards in Dushanbe in February. 
Manila claims that veterans of Afghan camps are working with Philippine 
opposition groups that attacked and destroyed a village in April.

The Rabbani regime in Kabul has done little to curb the training of 
foreign militants. Indeed, one regime backer, Abd al-Rasul Sayyaf, 
continues to harbor and train potential terrorists in his camps in 
Afghanistan and Pakistan; the Government of Pakistan raided his 
facilities near Peshawar in November after the bombing of the Egyptian 
Embassy in Islamabad. The Rabbani regime did arrest foreign militants 
from camps run by other factions. Many remain in jail in Kabul, but some 
have been released.

Kabul has been accused by Islamabad of sponsoring a spate of bombings in 
the Peshawar area in late October and early November. Pakistani 
authorities claim to have arrested one Afghan in connection with the 
first bombing incident. The Taliban, an Afghan opposition movement that 
Kabul has accused Islamabad of supporting, forced a privately chartered 
Russian-flagged transport aircraft from Tatarstan to land on 3 August, 
and the seven-man crew was still held hostage in Qandahar at year's end. 
The Taliban has claimed that the crew members are prisoners of war, 
since the aircraft was carrying munitions for the Kabul regime. The 
group has demanded that, in exchange for the crew, Russia cease its aid 
to Kabul and provide information on thousands of Afghans who the Taliban 
claim have been missing since the Afghan-Soviet war.

Cambodia

The Khmer Rouge (KR) continued to decline in strength, relying on rural 
banditry and terror to support its policy of undermining the duly 
elected government. The KR threat was strongest in the north and west, 
particularly along the Thai border. However, in this region there is no 
official US presence and only a small number of US citizens or other 
Westerners, who work mostly with the UN and NGOs. Nevertheless, on 15 
January a group of bandits, believed to have included Khmer Rouge, 
killed a US citizen, Susan Ginsburg Hadden, wounded her husband, and 
killed her Cambodian guide while the victims were touring temple areas 
near Angkor Wat. Several people were tried and sentenced to 15-to-20-
year prison terms in connection with the killings. The government also 
followed up on past KR atrocoties; six Khmer Rouge were sentenced to 15-
year terms (five in absentia) for the murders of two Britons and an 
Australian in April 1994.

India

India continues to face significant security problems as a result of 
insurgencies in Kashmir and the northeast. A group of Kashmiri and non-
Kashmiri terrorists kidnapped six Westerners—two US citizens, two 
Britons, a German, and a Norwegian—hiking near Srinagar, Kashmir, in 
July. The Norwegian hostage was beheaded, one US citizen escaped, and 
the others—still held captive at year's end—have been threatened with 
execution if India does not release several prisoners belonging to the 
Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA), a militant group headquartered in Pakistan.

Bombings claimed by Kashmiri groups occurred throughout the year, 
including explosions in a stadium in Kashmir during Republic Day 
festivities on 26 January. The targets were primarily Indian Government 
officials, military offices, and infrastructure facilities, but most of 
those killed and wounded were civilians. Kashmiri terrorists also 
targeted journalists in Srinagar. An AFP correspondent in Srinagar was 
killed on 7 September by a package bomb intended for the BBC 
correspondent. There are credible reports of official Pakistani support 
for militants fighting in Kashmir, including for the groups that claimed 
responsibility for the bombings.

In October, India signed an intelligence-sharing agreement with Egypt to 
combat international terrorism and organized crime.

The Government of India has been largely successful in controlling the 
Sikh separatist movement in Punjab State, but Sikh groups committed 
several acts of terrorism in India in 1995. The Babbar Khalsa group 
assassinated the Punjab Chief Minister outside his offices in Chandigarh 
on 31 August. Another Sikh group, the Khalistan Liberation Force, 
claimed responsibility for the bombing of three civilian targets in New 
Delhi and Panjpit on 26 September. Indian authorities suspect that the 
same Sikh group is responsible for a bombing in New Delhi on 21 
November, which was claimed by both Sikh and Kashmiri groups. India 
claims that Pakistan harbors and supports Sikh militant groups. Pakistan 
claims that India supports a Pakistani separatist group in Sindh 
Province, which Islamabad claims has carried out terrorist attacks in 
Karachi.

Japan

In 1995, Japan suffered the world's first large-scale terrorist chemical 
gas attack when a Japanese religious cult, Aum Shinrikyo or Aum Supreme 
Truth, attacked the Tokyo subway system on 20 March. Five subway trains 
were simultaneously attacked, killing 12 persons and sending about 5,500 
to area hospitals for treatment of symptoms of chemical poisoning from 
sarin gas. Foreigners, including two US citizens, one Swiss, one 
Irishman, and two Australians, were among those who sought treatment for 
chemical exposure. After an investigation, the Japanese police also 
charged the Aum for the sarin gas attack on June 1994 in Matsumoto that 
killed seven and injured about 500. Most of the suspected perpetrators 
of the gas attack and most of the group's leaders—including its founder 
Shoko Asahara—have been arrested and are awaiting trial.

On 15 November, an unknown perpetrator placed explosives on a powerline 
pylon, causing minor damage but no injury or power outage to a US 
military housing complex near Tokyo, five days before President Clinton 
was scheduled to visit the city.

Pakistan

Two US employees of the US Consulate in Karachi were killed by unknown 
gunmen on 8 March. On 19 November, the Egyptian Embassy in Islamabad was 
destroyed by a car bomb, for which three Egyptian militant opposition 
groups claimed responsibility. Pakistan continues to experience 
terrorist-related violence as a result of domestic conflicts and 
instability in Afghanistan. Pakistan claimed that the current Afghan 
regime was behind a spate of bombings and assassinations in the Peshawar 
area in October and November. Pakistan claims that India provides 
support for separatists in Sindh Province, especially in Karachi, where 
terrorism and other violence resulted in over 100 deaths each month 
during 1995.

Pakistan took steps in 1995 to curb the activities of Afghan mujahedin 
and sympathetic Arabs and Pakistanis in the Pakistani regions that 
border Afghanistan. In February, Pakistan arrested and extradited to the 
United States Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, suspected of masterminding the World 
Trade Center bombing in 1993 and a plot against US airlines in East Asia 
in 1995. Pakistan's discovery through subsequent investigations that 
Yousef had plotted to assassinate Prime Minister Bhutto led to arrests 
of his associates throughout Pakistan. Islamabad also undertook a 
partial crackdown in several Pakistani cities on nongovernmental 
organizations suspected of aiding militant organizations and terrorists. 
Under an extradition treaty with Egypt signed in late 1994, Pakistan 
returned to Egypt several suspected terrorists before the Egyptian 
Embassy bombing. As a result of this bombing, Pakistan rounded up 
suspects and their associates in several Pakistani cities, including a 
refugee camp in Pakistan run by Afghan leader Abd al-Rasul Sayyaf.

The Government of Pakistan acknowledges that it continues to give moral, 
political, and diplomatic support to Kashmiri militants but denies 
allegations of other assistance. There continued to be credible reports 
in 1995, however, of official Pakistani support to militants fighting in 
Kashmir, including Pakistani, Afghan, and Arab nationals, some of whom 
engage in terrorism. One Pakistan-backed group, Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA), 
is believed to be linked to Al-Faran, the group that claimed 
responsibility for the kidnapping in July in Kashmir of two US citizens, 
two Britons, a German, and a Norwegian. One US citizen escaped. The 
Norwegian was later beheaded, and at year's end the other hostages were 
still being held. In October there were reports that HUA was involved in 
an arms-smuggling ring with Pakistani military officers accused of 
plotting to overthrow the Bhutto government. Other Pakistan-backed 
groups claimed responsibility for numerous bombings in Kashmir, 
including one against foreign journalists.

Philippines

The Philippine Government continued its efforts to negotiate a 
settlement with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF); its cease-
fire with the group mostly was observed while the talks continued. Other 
Islamists and leftist groups, however, continued to use terrorism to 
achieve their aims.

On 6 January, Philippine police in Manila discovered a plot by foreign 
Islamic extremists to place bombs on US airliners flying over the 
Pacific. They also made plans to assassinate the Pope, who was about to 
visit the Philippines, and to attack foreign embassies. The plots were 
directed by Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, the alleged mastermind of the World 
Trade Center bombing in New York City in February 1993. Yousef escaped 
but was later arrested in Pakistan and extradited to the United States. 
Abdul Hakim Murad, another suspected conspirator, was arrested by 
Philippine officials and handed over to the United States.

On 26 March the leftist Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB) hurled a grenade at 
the Singapore Airlines offices in Manila, damaging an armored car in the 
parking lot of an adjacent bank. The group claimed the attack was to 
show its displeasure with Singapore's decision to execute a Philippine 
maid who had pleaded guilty to murder.

In December threats from the Abu Sayyaf Group led Philippine authorities 
to arrest 30 Filipinos and foreigners allegedly engaged in plans to 
carry out terrorist attacks in Manila. In response to Abu Sayyaf and ABB 
activities, the Philippine Government urged passage of legislation 
designed to facilitate police counterterrorist operations. Public 
opposition to the legislation, however, makes quick passage unlikely.

Also in December, the ABB carried out three ambushes, resulting in the 
death of a prominent Philippine-Chinese industrialist, his driver, and a 
small boy. ABB claimed the attacks were in response to labor violations 
at factories owned by the murdered industrialist and others. President 
Ramos called the attacks "a declaration of war" and ordered police to 
high alert, resulting in the arrest of a number of ABB operatives.

Sri Lanka

The separatist group Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) continued 
to plague the government in 1995, with insurgency and terrorism directed 
against senior Sri Lankan political and military leaders, economic 
infrastructure-related facilities, and civilians. The LTTE withdrew from 
government-initiated peace talks in April and renewed its attacks. The 
government then launched the largest offensive of the 12-year war. 
Although the LTTE suffered heavy casualties, and at least temporarily 
lost its main base on the Jaffna Peninsula, it continued to pose a 
serious terrorist threat. In October, in their first attack on Sri 
Lanka's economic infrastructure in several years, the Tigers attacked 
oil and natural gas storage facilities in the Colombo suburbs and 
significantly reduced Sri Lanka's oil storage capability. The Tigers 
also conducted or planned suicide bombings against Indian Prime Minister 
Rao, Sri Lankan Army headquarters, other senior military and government 
officials, and government offices in Colombo.

The LTTE has refrained from targeting Western tourists possibly out of 
fear that foreign governments would crack down on Tamil expatriates 
involved in fundraising activities abroad. In July, however, the Ellalan 
Force, an LTTE front group, exploded bombs in Colombo's zoological 
gardens, in a park, and on a beach frequented by tourists; there were no 
casualties. They intended to damage the tourist trade rather than to 
harm foreigners. These attacks followed a threat by the Ellalan Force to 
carry out bomb strikes in Colombo unless the government agreed to 
investigate the military's alleged use of civilians as human shields.



Europe and Eurasia Overview

The number of lethal terrorist incidents in Europe declined from 46 in 
1994 to 11 in 1995, although the total number of incidents rose from 88 
to 272. In Eurasia, however, the total number dropped from 11 in 1994 to 
five in 1995. Most of the terrorist incidents that occurred in Europe 
and Eurasia were acts of arson or vandalism against Turkish-owned 
businesses largely in Germany. These acts are widely believed to be the 
work of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK); several European nations 
permit the PKK to operate known front companies within their borders.

Islamic extremists upset with French Government policy toward the 
conflict in Algeria are suspected of being responsible for terrorist 
bombings in France during 1995 that left eight dead and 160 wounded. The 
bombers targeted subways, markets, and other public places to achieve a 
maximum effect. Islamic extremists also probably conducted a car bombing 
in front of police headquarters in Rijeka, Croatia, which killed the 
driver of the car. The Egyptian al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group 
or IG) claimed responsibility.

Radical nationalism and xenophobia provoked a campaign of letter bombs 
directed at foreigners in Austria and in Germany, where neo-Nazi 
violence against foreigners continued. The terrorist group Basque 
Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) continued its campaign of murder and 
intimidation in Spain, including an attack on Partido Popular leader 
Jose Maria Aznar, and Spanish police in August foiled a plot to 
assassinate King Juan Carlos. In Greece the indigenous leftist 
Revolutionary Organization 17 November and other domestic terrorist 
groups continued to threaten US and Turkish diplomats and to target 
Greek business interests.

In Turkey, the PKK continued to engage in terrorism with the goal of 
creating a separate state. In addition, Marxist terrorist groups and 
Islamist radicals conducted terrorist attacks aimed at official Turkish 
interests and progovernment figures. The Marxist Revolutionary People's 
Liberation Party/Front, known by the Turkish initials DHKP/C—the 
successor to the group formerly known as Dev Sol—apparently continued to 
target US interests. The PKK also continued to attack sites frequented 
by US and other tourists but at a level sharply reduced from its height 
in 1993.

Austria

Attacks on foreigners that began in 1993 continued in 1995, killing four 
and injuring another 11 persons, including two in neighboring Germany. 
In June a third series of letter bombs linked to neo-Nazi elements 
included two that were mailed from Austria to an Austrian-born black TV 
commentator in Munich and to the mayor of Luebeck, injuring colleagues 
of the intended victims. The letters carried the logo of the Bajuwarian 
Liberation Front (also known as the Bavarian Liberation Army), an 
obscure rightwing group that had claimed responsibility for a number of 
attacks in Austria. In December another round of bombings was timed to 
try to embarrass Austrian authorities. Two of four letter bombs in a 
public mailbox exploded as the trial of two rightwing suspects in the 
bombings of December 1993 was wrapping up. (They were acquitted.)

On 20 September a leftwing group called the Red Daughters of Rage 
firebombed a German pharmaceutical firm in Vienna that was hosting US 
visitors and flying a US flag. The group claimed the firm was affiliated 
with a US genetic company that they alleged was involved in forced 
sterilization in developing countries. A leftwing group calling itself 
the Cell for Internationalism claimed responsibility for a similar 
firebombing the next day against the American International School. The 
same group claimed it was also involved in a firebombing on 20 December 
against an American Express office in Salzburg.

In February, Austrian officials released suspected Abu Nidal terrorist 
Bahij Younis from a Vienna prison, where he had served 13 years for 
complicity in the murder in 1981 of the president of the Austro-Israeli 
Society Nittel in Vienna. Younis is also believed to have masterminded 
the attack against a synagogue in Vienna in 1981. In March, Austria 
extradited to Belgium Rajeh Heshan Mohamed Baghdad, a PLO terrorist 
sentenced to life in 1982 for his role in a murder and terrorist attack 
in 1981.

Croatia

A car bomb detonated outside police headquarters in Rijeka on 20 
October, injuring 29 bystanders and killing the driver of the car. The 
Egyptian organization al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (also known as the Islamic 
Group or IG) claimed responsibility for the bombing. The car bomb was 
detonated to press Croatian authorities into releasing IG spokesman 
Tala'at Fuad Kassem, who had been detained by Croatian police in Zagreb 
on 12 September. After the bombing, Croatian authorities said Kassem was 
no longer in the country.

France

A series of terrorist incidents in France in 1995 appeared to be the 
work of Algerian extremists. In July a cofounder of the Algerian 
opposition group Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), Abdelbaki Sahraoui, was 
murdered in Paris. Suspicion focused on another Algerian opposition 
group, the Armed Islamic Group (GIA), which had earlier put Sahraoui on 
a "death list" for his supposed conciliatory posture toward the Algerian 
Government.

A blast on 25 July in a Paris metro station kicked off a campaign of 
eight bombings or attempted bombings in France. Eight people were killed 
and 160 wounded in the attacks, which were staged in train stations, 
markets, and other public places to maximize civilian casualties. 
Although there were various claims of responsibility for the blasts, 
suspicions centered on the violent Islamic opposition to the Algerian 
Government. Some commentators argued that the GIA wanted to punish the 
Government of France for its supposed support for the Algerian 
Government; others claimed that the bombings were in retribution for the 
killing of four Algerian hijackers of an Air France Airbus in December 
1994.

French police achieved a breakthrough in September when they traced 
fingerprints found on an unexploded bomb—discovered on high-speed train 
tracks near Lyon—to a French citizen of Algerian descent, Khaled Kelkal. 
The police killed Kelkal in a shootout later that month. In November 
fingerprints found on another unexploded device and other information 
led police to arrest several more people of North African descent, two 
of whom were formally charged with involvement in the bombings. There 
were no additional terrorist blasts in 1995 following these arrests. The 
French judiciary may reveal more about its understanding of the 
structure behind the crimes when the judicial cases against the accused 
come to trial.

In August assailants threw a molotov cocktail at a Turkish sporting and 
cultural association in Paris, injuring six and causing minor damage. 
The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) probably is responsible.

Georgia

On 29 August unidentified assailants attempted to assassinate President 
Eduard Schevardnadze by detonating a car bomb near his motorcade as it 
left the presidential compound in T'bilisi. Schevardnadze suffered minor 
injuries, but four of his bodyguards were injured, one seriously.

Six armed men detonated a small bomb in front of the residence of the 
Russian Ambassador to Georgia on 9 April, shattering windows and causing 
minor damage to nearby houses. The Algeti Wolves claimed responsibility 
for that attack and for an armed assault two hours later on Russian 
troops in the city, citing Russian involvement in Chechnya as the reason 
for both attacks. There were no injuries.

Germany

Authorities continued to pursue and prosecute Red Army Faction (RAF) 
members. In September, a German court sentenced RAF member Sieglinde 
Hofmann to life imprisonment for assisting in five murders and three 
attempted murders, including the bomb attack in 1979 in Belgium on then-
NATO Commander Alexander Haig. In October, Johannes Weinrich, a former 
RAF member and alleged deputy to international terrorist Illych Ramirez 
Sanchez (Carlos), was indicted in Berlin for transporting explosives 
into Germany that were later used to bomb the French cultural center; 
Weinrich had been extradited to Germany from Yemen. Germany released 
several former RAF terrorists who had served from 11 to 20 years of 
their sentences.

Although German officials say the RAF has largely disintegrated, they 
worry about successor organizations that have assumed the RAF's 
ideological mantle. The emerging Anti-Imperialist Cells (AIZ), for 
example, mounted several bombing attacks against German interests in 
1995. Among far-right groups, German authorities noted an increasing 
tendency to link up with neo-Nazi groups abroad, especially through the 
use of electronic communication networks.

The number of arson attacks with proven or probable connections to 
foreign extremist groups were more than five times those carried out in 
1994, largely because of two waves of attacks in March-April and July-
August by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). In more than 200 attacks 
on Turkish establishments—some of which may have been "copycat" attacks 
perpetrated by antiforeigner Germans rather than the PKK—two foreigners 
died and several others were injured. Although Germany banned the PKK 
and several associated Kurdish organizations in 1993, new PKK front 
organizations appear frequently in Germany, thus presenting a continuing 
problem for the government.

Attacks against US interests were rare, although US-owned Chrysler 
dealerships were targeted to protest the scheduled execution in the 
United States of convicted murderer Mumia Abu Jamal. In Kassel, vandals 
smashed car and showroom windows, and, elsewhere, the Anti-Imperialistic 
Group Liberty for Mumia Abu Jamal claimed responsibility for firebombing 
a vehicle parked outside a dealership.

In November a group calling itself Anti-Imperialist Freedom Connection 
for Benjamin claimed responsibility for setting fire to and destroying a 
vehicle belonging to a German-Spanish automobile joint venture; the 
claim letter protested the deportation trial of Benjamin Ramos-Vega, a 
member of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist group.

Greece

Greek leftist and anarchist groups in 1995 again conducted numerous 
terrorist attacks against public and private Greek and foreign targets. 
The Revolutionary Organization 17 November, for example, fired two 
rockets at a MEGA TV station facility in March, causing extensive damage 
but no casualties. Greek terrorist groups also conducted several 
operations against foreign interests, including the August bombings of 
the American Express and Citibank offices in Athens.

Greece had some counterterrorist successes in 1995, including the 
successful conviction of Georgios Balafas, a suspected 17 November 
terrorist sentenced to 10 years in prison for stockpiling weapons. Greek 
counterterrorist efforts, however, could benefit from the passage of 
tougher, more comprehensive counterterrorist regulations. Since 1975 no 
one has been convicted of any of 17 November's terrorist attacks, 
including the murder of four US officials and a Greek employee of the US 
Embassy. While official statements indicate the government's resolve to 
confront Greece's domesticterrorist problem, frequent turnover of key 
personnel involved in the fight against terrorism—three public order 
ministers in the past year—hampers these efforts.

Greek authorities continued in 1995 to deny public Turkish charges that 
the anti-Turkish Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) conducts operational 
terrorist training and receives assistance in Greece. As is the case in 
certain other European countries, however, Greece permits the PKK to 
operate a known front organization in Athens. In May it also allowed the 
successor group to Dev Sol, another anti-Turkish and anti-US terrorist 
group, to open an office in Athens under its new name, the Revolutionary 
People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C).

Italy

In the culmination of what journalists said was a two-year 
investigation, Milan police arrested 11 persons on 26 June at Milan's 
Islamic Center and made additional arrests a few days later. Police 
officials told the press that the group provided support for an 
international network of Islamic terrorist organizations, including the 
Egyptian al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group or IG). A police 
spokesman also said the arrestees maintained contact with the "Blind 
Shaykh," Umar Abd al-Rahman, who was convicted in October for conspiring 
to commit terrorism in the United States. Charges against the accused 
include conspiracy, extortion, armed robbery, falsifying documents, and 
arms smuggling.

On the basis of a French warrant, Italian police arrested former Red 
Army Faction member Margo Froehlich in October. A German national, she 
was wanted for complicity in a Paris attack in 1982 carried out by 
international terrorist Illych Ramirez Sanchez (Carlos) that killed one 
person and injured 63.

Russia

On the afternoon of 13 September, a rocket-propelled grenade hit the 
sixth floor of the US Embassy in Moscow. The grenade penetrated the wall 
and exploded inside, causing some damage to office equipment but no 
casualties. No group claimed responsibility.

In December 1995, Russia participated in a first-of-its-kind 
counterterrorism ministerial conference that was called by the heads of 
the G-7 nations plus Russia at their June summit in Halifax.

Spain

In 1995, Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorists conducted 
attacks on Spanish rail lines and stations, banks, police officers, and 
political figures—including the assassination of the Partido Popular 
mayoral candidate in San Sebastian and the attempted assassination of 
the leading contender for the prime ministership. In addition, ETA 
targeted French interests in Spain in 1995. In February a suspected ETA 
bomb exploded at a French-owned bank. Following a joint Spanish-French 
operation that thwarted a plot to assassinate King Juan Carlos while he 
vacationed in Majorca last August, suspected ETA members or supporters 
tossed molotov cocktails at a Citroen car dealership in Navarre, 
destroying five vehicles. In mid-December suspected ETA members 
detonated a car bomb in Madrid, one of the worst attacks in years that 
claimed at least six lives and wounded 15others.

Turkey

Turkey continued its vigorous pursuit of several violent leftist and 
Islamic extremist groups, especially the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), 
responsible for terrorism in Turkey.

The PKK launched hundreds of attacks in 1995 in Turkey, including 
indiscriminate bombings in areas frequented by Turkish and foreign 
civilians, as part of its campaign to establish a breakaway state in 
southeastern Turkey. For example, the group set off a bomb outside a 
cafe/grocery store in Izmir on 17 September, killing five and wounding 
29. The PKK also continued—albeit with less success—its three-year-old 
attempt to drive foreign tourists away from Turkey by attacking tourist 
sites. In August two US citizens were injured by shrapnel in a bombing 
of Istanbul's popular Taksim Square. Moreover, the PKK continued to 
expand its activities in Western Europe, especially in Germany, where 
its members frequently attacked ethnic Turks and Turkish commercial 
establishments.

A successor to the Marxist/Leninist Devrimci Sol (Dev Sol)—known as the 
Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C)—and several 
Islamic extremist groups were active in 1995. Dev Sol has been 
responsible for several anti-US attacks since 1990, and the DHKP/C 
continues to target US citizens. In July the group took over a 
restaurant in Istanbul, holding several civilians—including three US 
tourists—hostage. All of the hostages eventually were released unharmed. 
Loosely organized Islamic extremist groups, such as the Islamic Movement 
Organization and IBDA-C, continued to launch attacks against targets 
associated with Turkish official facilities and functions. They may have 
been responsible for the attempted assassination in June of a prominent 
Jewish community leader in Ankara.

Ukraine

On 24 May, an explosive device detonated near the Austrian Airlines 
office in the Odessa airport in southern Ukraine. Austrian Airlines is 
the only Western airline that flies out of Odessa. Press reports said 
the device consisted of about six pounds of plastic explosive. There 
were no injuries. No group claimed responsibility for the attack, which 
may not have been politically motivated.

United Kingdom

The cease-fires begun in the autumn of 1994, led by the Provisional 
Irish Republican Army (PIRA) and followed by other Republican splinter 
groups and the three major Loyalist paramilitaries, still held at year's 
end. Nevertheless, sporadic incidents of politically motivated killings, 
arson, attempted bombings, punishment beatings, and abductions were 
reported. No progress was made on the decommissioning of weapons, and 
paramilitaries were combat ready. In November, Irish and British police 
forces intercepted a van loaded with hundreds of pounds of explosives in 
Ireland near the border with Northern Ireland. Authorities believe a 
Republican fringe group known as the Irish National Liberation Army 
(INLA) was intending to attack British security forces in Northern 
Ireland. A subsequent police sweep of the area discovered another cache 
of explosives and bombmaking equipment at a farm a few miles from the 
first operation.

In January an unidentified assailant shot and killed a Sikh newspaper 
editor. The victim may have been killed because of his support for an 
independent Sikh state in India. No one claimed responsibility.

A British court ruled on 25 July to extradite Kani Yilmaz, European 
chief of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), to Germany, where he faces 
charges of conspiracy to commit arson. The ruling sparked a large crowd 
of PKK supporters to battle London police, pelting them with bottles, 
bricks, and road signs, injuring more than a dozen police officers and 
an unknown number of others. The United Kingdom permits the PKK to 
operate a known front organization within its borders.



Latin America Overview

International terrorist activity rose in Latin America mostly due to the 
high number of attacks against international entities in Colombia. In 
1995 the number of attacks in that country increased by 85 percent to 76 
attacks. In all of Latin America, however, a total of eight 
international terrorist attacks last year were lethal.

Guerrillas continued to target the democratic process in Colombia 
through intimidation and violence. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of 
Colombia (FARC) held at least four US citizens hostage at the end of the 
year. The group killed two US missionaries in June after kidnapping them 
in 1994. Ransoms continued to provide guerrillas with significant 
income, making up for a decrease in protection payments from coca 
growers, who had lower production as a result of the government's 
eradication program. Government efforts to negotiate a peaceful 
settlement were met with increased guerrilla violence.

There were no international terrorist incidents reported in Argentina 
during 1995. The investigation into the bombing in 1994 of the Argentine 
Jewish Mutual Association remains unsolved. The Government of Argentina 
organized and hosted a regional counterterrorist conference in August in 
an effort to encourage cooperation in countering the international 
terrorist threat.

Peru successfully continued to counter its terrorist organizations, 
significantly lowering the level of violence in the country. While 
Peru's terrorist organizations, Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path or SL) 
and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) have significantly 
declined in strength, they still have the capacity to inflict damage 
against international targets. At year's end, the Government of Peru was 
planning to host an Organization of American States (OAS) conference on 
terrorism in 1996, which will focus on promoting cooperation among 
Western Hemisphere nations in combating terrorism while protecting human 
rights.

Argentina

Throughout 1995 the Argentine Government continued its investigation of 
the bombing in July 1994 of the Jewish community center building (AMIA) 
that killed nearly 100 persons. In September, Investigating Judge Juan 
Jose Galeano filed additional charges against detained suspect Carlos 
Telleldin, accusing him of criminal conspiracy relating to the stolen-
car ring that allegedly provided the van used in the attack on the AMIA. 
The police detained other suspects in December to review their possible 
roles in the bombing attack.

The investigation into the bombing in March 1992 of the Israeli Embassy 
failed to develop any new leads. Paraguay extradited seven suspected 
terrorists to Argentina, where they were released after questioning. The 
Argentine Supreme Court now has responsibility for the case. The 
Iranian-backed Lebanese Hizballah remains the key suspect in both the 
1992 and 1994 attacks.

One of Argentina's most wanted fugitives, Enrique Gorriaran Merlo, was 
detained on 28 October in Mexico and expelled shortly thereafter to 
Buenos Aires to stand trial. Gorriaran was involved in the kidnapping of 
the general manager of an Exxon refinery and managed the negotiations 
for the captive's release after a ransom was paid. Gorriaran was also an 
organizer of an attack on a military base in 1989 that left nearly 40 
dead. He had been a leader of Argentina's People's Revolutionary Army 
(ERP), a largely leftist urban terrorist group that operated in the 
1970s, and he personally took responsibility for the assassination of 
former Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza in Paraguay in 1980. If 
convicted of the several charges, Gorriaran faces life imprisonment.

Argentina took a leading role in regional cooperation against 
international counterterrorism in 1995. Buenos Aires hosted a regional 
counterterrorist conference in August to improve cooperation among its 
neighbors—Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, as well as the United 
States and Canada. The Government of Argentina also is pressing for 
greater cooperation with Brazil and Paraguay to improve border controls 
in the "triborder" area, where their three frontiers meet. Argentina 
will introduce a new machine-readable passport in early 1996.

Colombia

Colombia continued to be wracked by violence in 1995, suffering numerous 
terrorist bombings, murders, and kidnappings for ransom. Drug 
traffickers, leftist insurgents, paramilitary squads, and common 
criminals committed scores of crimes with impunity, killing their 
targets as well as many innocent bystanders. Although most of the 
politically motivated violence was directed at local targets, Colombia 
recorded 76 international terrorist incidents during 1995, the highest 
number in Latin America and nearly twice the 41 such incidents in 1994. 

The nation's two main guerrilla groups—the Revolutionary Armed Forces of 
Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN)—intensified 
political violence during the year, ignoring offers for peace talks with 
the government. Rebel attacks against oil pipelines owned jointly by the 
Government of Colombia and Western companies escalated, accounting for 
most of the international incidents in Colombia in 1995. 

Kidnapping for ransom continued to be a profitable business in Colombia; 
leftist guerrillas conducted approximately half of all abductions in the 
country, increasing their war chests by several million dollars. 
Colombians were the primary victims, but many foreign nationals also 
were abducted. At year's end, FARC rebels held at least four US 
citizens, three of whom were detained in 1993 and one in 1994. In August 
presumed FARC guerrillas released one US citizen kidnapped near Cali in 
1994. Another US citizen, kidnapped in January, was released in April.

Kidnappings of foreigners sometimes have ended with the murder of the 
hostage. A British citizen kidnapped by guerrillas in June was found 
dead in August near Bogota. The guerrillas also kidnapped and 
subsequently released a UK Embassy employee. In June, FARC guerrillas 
murdered two US missionaries, held since January 1994, during a chance 
encounter with a Colombian army patrol. Police have issued arrest 
warrants for eight guerrillas suspected of kidnapping the two 
missionaries.

Despite President Samper's willingness to negotiate with the nation's 
guerrilla organizations, FARC and ELN insurgents did not demonstrate a 
sincere desire to pursue a negotiated settlement in 1995. Instead, they 
continued to attack government forces and other targets. On the 
anniversary of President Samper's inauguration in August, FARC rebels 
attacked a police counternarcotics base in Miraflores (in Guaviare 
Department), killing six and wounding 29 police officers. Unknown 
assailants, possibly guerrillas, bombed a sculpture in a crowded 
Medellin square, which left 28 persons dead and injured more than 175. 
FARC guerrillas operating in areas of heavy coca cultivation often fired 
on—and in one case shot down—government aircraft engaged in US-supported 
drug eradication efforts.

Twice during 1995, President Samper declared a "state of internal 
commotion," invoking exceptional measures because of increased violence 
nationwide and the assassination on 2 November of Conservative Party 
patriarch Alvaro Gomez Hurtado. On that date, President Samper announced 
that he was empowering the military, governors of the 32 departments 
(states), and all mayors to authorize the evacuation of civilians from 
municipalities to combat illegal armed groups, including the guerrilla 
organizations operating in Colombia.

Guatemala

Guatemala's 35-year-old insurgency continues at a low level, as talks 
toward a negotiated settlement progress. The three major armed guerrilla 
groups—the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR), the Revolutionary 
Organization of the People in Arms (ORPA), and the Guerrilla Army of the 
Poor (EGP)—are allied in the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union 
(URNG), along with the Communist Guatemalan Workers' Party (PGT).

In April a bomb was detonated outside the Presidential Palace during a 
visit by UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali. Evidence points to 
guerrilla involvement, but no group claimed responsibility. In May 
presumed guerrillas fired on a US Embassy antinarcotics helicopter on a 
training flight over Palin. The aircraft sustained minor damage.

Panama

The bombing in July 1994 of a commuter airliner that killed all 21 
persons aboard, including three US citizens, remained under 
investigation in 1995. Panama has made no arrests but continues to 
cooperate closely with US authorities.

Progress was made in two other terrorist cases. Pedro Miguel Gonzalez, 
one of the suspects in the murder in 1992 of US Army Corporal Zak 
Hernandez, turned himself over to Panamanian authorities in January 
1995; his case had not yet gone to trial by the end of the year. Two 
others sought in connection with the murder of the US serviceman 
remained at large. Juan Barria, who confessed to having murdered a US 
citizen and a US Embassy employee during Operation Just Cause in 1989, 
was convicted after a jury trial on 19 November.

Peru

Peruvian Government security forces in 1995 continued to reduce the 
activities of Peru's terrorist organizations—Sendero Luminoso (Shining 
Path or SL) and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA). Numerous 
detentions, casualties, and defections further weakened the two groups, 
and continued arrests of several terrorist leaders kept the level of 
violence by these groups low compared to previous years. Most of the 
violence in 1995 took place in rural areas, particularly the coca-rich 
Upper Huallaga Valley. Violence in Lima and other cities declined. In 
Lima there were two car bombings, the lowest number in years.

Police arrests helped disrupt Sendero's terrorist plans for the national 
elections in April 1995. In a major coordinated operation, 
counterterrorist police arrested approximately 20 members of Sendero 
Luminoso in the cities of Lima, Callao, Huancayo, and Arequipa. Among 
those captured was Sendero Central Committee member, and number-two 
leader of Sendero militants still at large, Margi Clavo Peralta. Clavo 
later publicly announced her support for peace talks with the 
government, which jailed Sendero leader and founder Abimael Guzman first 
advocated in 1993.

Three years after the capture of SL chieftain Guzman, the Maoist 
terrorist group is struggling, attempting to rebuild and resolve its 
leadership problems. Sendero Luminoso has become less active, its 
operations smaller and less sophisticated. While SL's capability to 
target international targets has diminished, it retains the capability 
to cause considerable harm, and its "anti-imperialist" animus has not 
changed. In May the group detonated a car bomb in front of a luxury Lima 
hotel, killing four and injuring several dozen persons. In July, Sendero 
terrorists killed a Peruvian employee of a US mining company after 
seeking by name a US geologist who had left the site a few days earlier. 

On 1 December the number-two leader of MRTA still at large, Miguel 
Rincon, surrendered to police after a firefight that followed a raid of 
a MRTA safehouse. The police arrested more than a dozen other MRTA 
members and uncovered weapons and explosives in the residence. The 
police effort inflicted a severe blow to the weakened terrorist 
organization, disrupting its plans to conduct attacks.



Middle East Overview

The deadliest terrorist attack against US interests in the Middle East 
since the 1983 bombing of the Marine barracks in Beirut took place on 13 
November in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A vehicle bomb badly damaged the 
headquarters of the Office of the Program Manager/Saudi Arabian National 
Guard (OPM/SANG), a military training mission. Seven persons, including 
five US citizens, were killed and 42 were wounded. Several shadowy 
groups, including the "Islamic Movement for Change," claimed 
responsibility for the incident. Saudi Arabian authorities are 
aggressively investigating the incident in close cooperation with the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Fatalities from extremist violence in Egypt rose slightly above 1994 
totals. Nevertheless, Egyptian authorities continued a successful 
crackdown against extremists, arresting some important leaders and 
confining violence to upper Egypt. In November, al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya 
(the Islamic Group or IG) renewed efforts to target Egypt's tourist 
industry. In two shooting attacks against trains traveling through Qina 
and Al Minya Governorates in upper Egypt, two Europeans and 10 Egyptians 
were wounded.

For the first time, Egyptian extremists extended their campaign of 
violence outside Egypt's borders. The IG claimed responsibility for an 
assassination attempt against Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in 
Ethiopia in June, and in November the Egyptian Embassy in Islamabad, 
Pakistan, was bombed, killing 16 and wounding 60. Both the IG and the 
Jihad Group claimed responsibility for this attack.

In Algeria widespread terrorism continued the trend of recent years. 
Armed insurgents turned increasingly to the use of indiscriminate 
bombings in their offensive against the government, deemphasizing their 
reliance on military-style attacks on Algerian security units. While 
attacks against foreigners in Algeria decreased overall, Islamic 
militants expanded their offensive to include targets overseas and US 
targets in Algeria. In November, Islamic militants set fire to a US 
Embassy warehouse; this was consistent with threats against foreign—
including US—interests in Algeria issued by the Armed Islamic Group 
(GIA). The same group is suspected of responsibility for the murder in 
Paris in July of a prominent activist from the Islamic Salvation Front—
another Algerian Islamist opposition group—as well as a bombing campaign 
in Paris that killed eight persons and wounded scores.

Elsewhere in North Africa, incidents of terrorist violence were low. 
Tunisian authorities maintained effective control of the internal 
security situation and, in particular, closely followed the activities 
of the Tunisian Islamic Front, which claimed responsibility for the 
murders of four policemen and has warned all foreigners to leave 
Tunisia. In Morocco, an Egyptian detonated a bomb in the consular 
section of the Russian Embassy, evidently to protest Russian policy in 
Chechnya. Islamic extremists continued efforts to smuggle weapons 
through Morocco into Algeria to support extremists there.

In Israel and the occupied territories/Palestinian autonomous areas, 
incidents of political violence and terrorism continued to plague the 
Palestinian-Israeli peaceprocess. On 4 November, a Jewish Israeli 
extremist assassinated Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin at a propeace rally 
in Tel Aviv. In subsequent statements the assassin said he acted to 
protest Rabin's peace process policies.

The overall number of anti-Israeli attacks declined to 33 in 1995 from 
79 in 1994 due to a change in the nature of attacks, that is, less 
frequent but more lethal suicide bombings. Casualty figures thus 
remained high, with 45 Israeli soldiers and civilians killed, two US 
civilians killed, and nearly 280 persons wounded in 1995, compared to 55 
persons killed and more than 150 wounded in the previous year. The 
Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS) and the Palestine Islamic Jihad 
(PIJ) claimed responsibility for most of these attacks, including 
several devastating suicide bombings. Chairman Yasir Arafat's 
Palestinian Authority (PA) launched a campaign to crack down on Islamic 
militants while at the same time initiating political dialogue with 
HAMAS to bring it into the political process. HAMAS announced a 
temporary suspension of military activities in August while engaging in 
talks with the PA; there were no major HAMAS attacks against Israelis 
through the end of 1995.

Lebanon witnessed small improvements in the internal security situation 
during the year, including in Beirut. Despite government efforts to 
extend its control, however, many parts of the country remained outside 
the central government's authority. The terrorist organization Hizballah 
has yet to be disarmed and still operates freely in several areas of the 
country, particularly the south. Incidents of internal political 
violence continued to trouble many parts of the country.

Algeria

The security situation in Algeria did not improve substantially in 1995. 
Accurate casualty figures are difficult to acquire, but as many as 
50,000 Algerians—militants, security personnel, and civilians—have died 
as a result of the nearly four-year-old insurgency. Islamic extremists 
slowed their attacks against foreign nationals inside Algeria in 1995, 
but suspicions centered on the Algerian Armed Islamic Group (GIA) for a 
series of terrorist attacks in France in July, September, and October.

Last year extremists carried out their first attack against a US target 
in Algeria since Islamic militants began targeting foreigners in 1993. 
On 9 November, Islamic extremists set fire to a warehouse belonging to 
the US Embassy. The militants threatened the life of the Algerian 
security guard because he was working for the United States, and they 
specifically demanded to know whether there were any US citizens 
present. The GIA probably carried out the attacks. The group had 
threatened to strike US and other foreign targets in Algeria, and the 
modus operandi of the attack was consistent with past GIA operations 
against foreign facilities.

The GIA was responsible for the deaths of 31 foreigners in Algeria in 
1995, compared to at least 64 in 1994. Most of the foreigners killed 
were "soft targets," such as teachers and nuns. From July to October a 
terrorist bombing campaign in France began against civilian targets, 
killing eight persons and wounding 160. Suspicion centered on the GIA as 
a protest of French support for Algiers. Suspicion also focused on the 
GIA for the death of FIS leader Abdelbaki Sahraoui in Paris in July; the 
group earlier had published Sahraoui's name in a list of FIS members 
marked for death due to their conciliatory posture toward negotiating 
with the Algerian regime.

Algerian militants changed their tactics slightly in 1995, relying more 
heavily on the use of homemade bombs—especially car bombs—and decreasing 
their reliance on more traditional military-style attacks on Algerian 
security units. The GIA claimed responsibility for the suicide car 
bombing of a police headquarters in downtown Algiers in January that 
killed more than 40 persons. Insurgents stepped up attacks on 
infrastructure targets this year, disabling bridges and electric power 
facilities throughout the country. In May, GIA commandos attacked 
foreign workers along a newly constructed gas pipeline, killing five. 
The GIA continued its attacks against civilian targets, killing women 
for refusing to wear the hidjab, intellectuals, and others it perceived 
as "cooperating" with the regime and "spreading Western influence." Over 
25 journalists were killed in 1995, making Algeria the most dangerous 
place in the world for practitioners of this profession.

Violence in Algeria slowed significantly in the weeks before the 
presidential election on 16 November, primarily because of extraordinary 
measures employed by the security services. As these security measures 
were relaxed, however, Algeria's fragmented Islamic movement continued 
to attack foreigners; two Latvian sailors were shot within two weeks 
after the elections.

Egypt

Fatalities from Islamic extremist violence rose slightly in 1995, with 
the number of victims—including noncombatants and police—and extremists 
killed increasing from 286 in 1994 to 375 in 1995. Violence primarily 
was confined to provinces in upper Egypt; there were no attacks in Cairo 
or urban areas further north.

Al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group or IG) continued to be the most 
active Islamic extremist organization in Egypt in 1995. All attacks 
occurred in upper Egypt, with much of the violence shifting from Asyu't—
the previous center of conflict—to Al Minya Governorate, specifically 
around Mallawi. Some attacks also occurred in Qina Governorate. Police 
and security elements were the focus of many attacks. The IG also is 
believed to have been the culprit in the deaths of at least 28 Coptic 
Christians and at least 20 Muslims alleged to be police informants. In 
November, the IG also resumed its efforts to damage Egypt's tourist 
industry, claiming responsibility for two shooting attacks that month 
against trains traveling through Qina and Al Minya Governorates to 
tourist sites in upper Egypt. Two Europeans and 10 Egyptians were 
wounded in the attacks. The IG claims of responsibility were accompanied 
by warnings for all foreign tourists to leave the country.

Egypt has stepped up its counterterrorist campaign, preventing Islamic 
extremists from carrying out attacks in Cairo and other urban areas to 
the north. A police sweep in Al Minya in September resulted in the 
arrest of a key leader of the IG's military wing, who had been sought 
since the assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981.

During 1995, Egyptian Islamic extremist groups took their campaign of 
violence outside Egypt for the first time. The IG claimed responsibility 
for an assassination attempt against Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in 
Ethiopia on 26 June. The IG also took responsibility for a car bombing 
in Rijeka, Croatia, in October that injured 29 Croatian nationals and 
killed the car's driver. The IG accused the Croatian Government of 
having arrested a visiting Gama'at member who had been living in 
Denmark. Both the IG and the Jihad Group claimed responsibility for the 
bombing on 19 November of the Egyptian Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan. 
Sixteen persons were killed in the attack and another 60 were injured. 
The previously unknown International Justice Group also took 
responsibility for the bombing in Pakistan, as well as for the shooting 
death of an Egyptian diplomat in Geneva on 13 November.

Israel and the Occupied Territories/Palestinian Autonomous Areas

Yigal Amir, a Jewish extremist associated with the little-known 
"Fighting Jewish Organization" (EYAL), assassinated Prime Minister 
Yitzhak Rabin at a propeace rally in Tel Aviv on 4 November. Amir 
claimed to have acted alone, but Israeli security forces charged several 
other alleged conspirators. Israel also stepped up its investigations of 
EYAL and other extremist groups that may have had a hand in the murder. 
Kach and Kahane Chai—which Israel outlawed as terrorist groups after the 
Hebron massacre in February 1994—remained active in 1995, though they 
maintained lower profiles.

The overall number of anti-Israeli attacks instigated by Palestinians 
declined to 33 in 1995 from 79 in 1994 due to a change in the nature of 
attacks, that is, to less frequent but more lethal suicide bombings. 
Casualty figures remained high, with 45 Israeli soldiers and civilians 
and two US citizens killed and nearly 280 persons wounded in 1995, 
compared to 55 persons killed and more than 150 wounded the previous 
year. The increased lethality of the attacks was due mainly to 
Palestinian extremist groups' increased use of suicide bombings, which 
killed 39 and wounded 252.

The Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS) conducted five major anti-
Israeli attacks in 1995 as part of its campaign to derail the peace 
process. The group claimed responsibility for three devastating suicide 
bombings, including the bombing on 21 August of a bus in Jerusalem's 
Ramat Eshkol neighborhood that resulted in the death of a US citizen, 
Joan Davenny, and three Israelis, and the wounding of more than 100 
civilians. Following that operation, HAMAS temporarily suspended its 
military activities and entered into talks with the Palestinian 
Authority (PA), in which HAMAS discussed the possibility of ending anti-
Israeli attacks and participating in the Palestinian elections on 20 
January 1996. There were no major HAMAS attacks against Israelis from 
the August suicide bus bombing through the end of 1995.

Other Palestinian groups that reject the peace process also attacked 
Israelis. The Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ)-Shaqaqi Faction claimed 
responsibility for five suicide bombings that killed a total of 29 
persons and wounded 107. One bus bombing on 9 April killed a US citizen, 
Alisa Flatow, and seven Israelis and wounded 41 other persons. Although 
the group suffered a strong blow when its leader, Fathi Shaqaqi, was 
assassinated in Malta on 26 October, it remained capable of striking at 
Israeli targets. On 2 November, the PIJ carried out two suicide bomb 
attacks against Israeli targets in Gaza to retaliate for Shaqaqi's 
murder, which the group believes Israel sponsored. No Israelis were 
killed in the attacks. The Democratic Front for the Liberation of 
Palestine (DFLP) and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine 
(PFLP) also claimed responsibility for several attacks against Israelis 
that occurred outside Palestinian Authority (PA) held areas in the West 
Bank.

The PA increased its effort to rein in Palestinian violence against 
Israelis in 1995. The PA security apparatus stepped up its campaign to 
register and confiscate weapons, thwart terrorist plots, and convict 
Palestinians responsible for anti-Israeli acts. The PA thwarted a PIJ 
attack planned for 10 June. In August, the Palestinian Police Force 
arrested a HAMAS terrorist who was preparing a bomb to be set off in 
Israel. Arafat and other senior PA officials regularly condemned acts of 
terrorism as they occurred, especially the Rabin assassination.

Israel's vigilant border security appeared to effectively prevent 
infiltrations from Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. Israeli troops on 12 
August, for instance, captured a heavily armed guerrilla attempting to 
infiltrate into Israel from Jordan. Hizballah and Palestinian 
rejectionist groups continued to launch occasional—nine times in 1995—
Katyusha rocket salvos into northern Israel from southern Lebanon. The 
most serious rocket attacks occurred in November, when militants in 
Lebanon fired 30 to 40 Katyushas into northern Israel over a two-day 
period, wounding six Israeli civilians.

Jordan

Jordanian security and police closely monitor secular and Islamic 
extremists inside the country, detaining individuals suspected of 
involvement in violent acts aimed at destabilizing the government or its 
relations with other states. Jordanian authorities detained dozens of 
persons in terrorist-related cases in 1995, including six members of the 
Islamic Renewal Movement planning to attack foreign interests and two 
individuals suspected of shooting a French diplomat in February. In late 
July, Jordan arrested a suspect in the World Trade Center bombing, 
pursuant to a request from the United States, and rendered him to US law 
enforcement authorities in early August.

Jordan's peace treaty with Israel—signed on 26 October 1994—commits the 
two parties to cooperate against terrorism. Amman maintains tight 
security along its border with Israel and has stopped individuals 
attempting to infiltrate into the West Bank.

Several Palestinian rejectionist groups maintain a closely watched 
presence in Jordan, including the Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ), 
Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), Popular Front 
for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), Popular Front for the Liberation 
of Palestine–General Command (PFLP-GC), and the Islamic Resistance 
Movement (HAMAS). The government in April warned HAMAS spokesman Ibrahim 
Ghawsha, a Jordanian citizen, not to issue statements supportive of 
anti-Israeli violence, as this was in violation of Jordanian law. Under 
that law, Jordan expelled two senior HAMAS leaders in May for making 
inflammatory statements against Israel. The two did not hold Jordanian 
citizenship.

Lebanon

There was incremental improvement in the Lebanese security environment 
in 1995 as the Lebanese Government struggled to expand its authority 
throughout the country. The situation in the Beirut metropolitan area is 
somewhat improved but remains dangerous. Large sections of Lebanon, 
however, remain effectively beyond the central government's control. 
There is a risk to Westerners, in particular, in uncontrolled areas such 
as in the south and the Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley). An unknown number of 
Lebanese civilians were killed, injured, or displaced in the fighting in 
southern Lebanon this year.

While the government has limited the activities of many violent 
individuals and groups in Lebanon, the terrorist organization Hizballah 
has yet to be disarmed and continues to operate as a separate polity 
within the country. For example, Hizballah has announced that it will 
operate a separate judicial system based on Islamic jurisprudence within 
areas under its direct control.

Hizballah's animosity toward the United States continues. In its public 
rhetoric, the group routinely denounces the United States. In March, 
Hizballah leader Fadlallah stated that Hizballah "continue(s) to oppose 
US policy everywhere." Hizballah also continues to make public 
statements condemning the Middle East peace process.

Militia personnel in February kidnapped two individuals and held them 
for four days before releasing them. Thousands of people seized during 
the Lebanese Civil War remain unaccounted for.

Ahmad al-Assad'ad, the son of former Lebanese Parliament speaker Kamel 
al-Assad'ad, apparently escaped injury on 3 July when handgrenades were 
thrown at him during a rally in Nabatiyah in southern Lebanon.

In August gunmen shot and killed Shaykh Nizar al-Halbi, the chairman of 
the Sunni fundamentalist group "Islamic Charitable Projects 
Association," as he left his home in a West Beirut neighborhood. A group 
calling itself the "Usama Kassass Organization" claimed responsibility. 
Two suspects subsequently were arrested.

A car bombing in Jibshit killed a local Hizballah security official in 
November. No one has claimed responsibility for the attack.

In December, Lebanese security forces reportedly broke up a terrorist 
ring operating in northern Lebanon. This ring was planning to begin a 
violent campaign of assassinations and bombings that month.

There were developments in several terrorism trials. In May, the 
Judicial Council trying Lebanese Forces Leader Samir Ja'ja on charges of 
domestic terrorism—for the bombing in February 1994 of a Maronite Church 
in Zuq Mikha'il that killed 11 and wounded 59—issued an indefinite 
continuance (Sine Die) that suspended the trial. A second defendant, 
Lebanese Forces Deputy Commander Fu'ad Malik, was granted bail on 17 May 
for medical reasons. Ja'ja remains imprisoned for the assassination of 
Dany Chamoun, a political rival, in 1990.

In June, Lebanon's Permanent Military Court sentenced (in absentia) two 
defendants to death for the Beirut car bombing in December 1994 that 
killed Hizballah member Fu'ad Mughniyah and two others. Two other 
defendants received prison sentences.

By the end of the year, following a number of postponements, a Lebanese 
court was set to proceed with the trial of three members of the Popular 
Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) for the murders in 1976 of 
US Ambassador to Lebanon Francis E. Meloy and US diplomat Robert 0. 
Waring.

Several Palestinian groups that use terrorism to express their 
opposition to the Middle East peace process maintain an active presence 
in Lebanon. These include the Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS), the 
Abu Nidal organization (ANO), the Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and the 
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine–General Command (PFLP-GC). 
These organizations conduct terrorist training in southern Lebanon.

Morocco

There were few terrorist-related incidents in Morocco in 1995. The first 
terrorist attack against a foreign diplomat in Morocco since 1985 
occurred on 28 February, however, when an Egyptian citizen detonated a 
bomb strapped to his body at the consular department of the Russian 
Embassy. Although Moroccan officials initially suspected that the bomber 
had ties to Islamic militants, subsequent investigations led Moroccan 
officials to believe that the man was acting alone, and that the attack 
was carried out to demonstrate his solidarity with the Chechen people.

Islamic extremists in Morocco continued their efforts to smuggle weapons 
into Algeria to support Islamic opposition elements there. In mid-
October, Moroccan authorities arrested 16 persons in the eastern 
province of Oujda whom the Moroccans alleged were transporting weapons 
to Algeria's Islamic Salvation Front. Four of those arrested were 
Algerians, strengthening the government claims that the arms were 
intended for Algerian insurgents.

Saudi Arabia

On 13 November, a car bomb exploded outside the Riyadh headquarters of 
the Office of the Program Manager/Saudi Arabian National Guard 
(OPM/SANG). Seven persons died in the blast, five of whom were US 
citizens, and 42 were injured. At least three groups claimed 
responsibility for the attack, including the Islamic Movement for 
Change, the Tigers of the Gulf, and the Combatant Partisans of God. The 
Saudi Government is aggressively investigating this attack with the 
assistance of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Tunisia

Tunis maintained effective control of the security situation in 1995, 
paying special attention to Islamic dissidents, but did not prosecute 
any individuals for specific acts of terrorism. In May the extremist 
Tunisian Islamic Front (FIT) issued a warning that all foreigners in 
Tunisia should leave, but it did not follow up with any concrete threats 
or attacks. The group also claimed responsibility for a number of 
operations in Tunisia, including the murders of four policemen. Tunisian 
authorities have not confirmed or denied the claims.

There are allegations that the FIT is working in conjunction with the 
Algerian Armed Islamic Group (GIA), and that its members may be training 
in GIA camps. Several Tunisians were taken into custody in 1995 for 
alleged involvement with the GIA network in Europe. The FIT claimed 
responsibility for an attack in February against a Tunisian border post 
on the Tunisia-Algeria border in which seven border guards were killed, 
but some officials blame the GIA—possibly in conjunction with the FIT—
for the attack. As of 31 December, there were no similar incidents.



Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism 

The United States and its allies continue to focus on raising the costs 
for governments that support, tolerate, and engage in international 
terrorism. It is widely recognized that state support for terrorist 
groups enhances their capabilities and makes law enforcement efforts to 
counter terrorism more difficult. To pressure states to stop such 
support, US law imposes trade and other restrictions on countries 
determined by the Secretary of State to have repeatedly provided support 
for acts of international terrorism by supporting, training, supplying, 
or providing safehaven to known terrorists. The United States currently 
lists Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria as state 
supporters of terrorism. The list is sent annually to Congress, although 
countries can be added or removed at any time circumstances warrant.

Cuba no longer is able to actively support armed struggle in Latin 
America or other parts of the world because of severe ongoing economic 
problems. While there was no direct evidence of its sponsorship of 
terrorist acts in 1995, the Cuban Government continued to provide 
safehaven for several international terrorists. Cuba has not renounced 
political support for groups that engage in international terrorism.

Iran continued in 1995 to be the world's most active supporter of 
international terrorism. Although Tehran tried to project a moderate 
image in the West, it continued to assassinate dissidents abroad and 
maintained its support and financing of groups that pose a threat to US 
citizens. Iranian authorities reaffirmed the validity of the death 
sentence imposed on British author Salman Rushdie, although some Iranian 
officials claimed that the Government of Iran would not implement the 
fatwa. No specific acts of terrorism attributed to the Iranian-backed 
Lebanese Hizballah in 1995 were on the scale of the July 1994 bombing of 
a Jewish cultural center in Buenos Aires, which is believed to have been 
perpetrated by Hizballah. Hizballah continued attempts to undermine the 
Middle East peace process and oppose Western interests throughout the 
Middle East. Iran also supports other radical organizations that commit 
terrorism in opposition to the peace process, including HAMAS, the 
Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and the Popular Front for the Liberation 
of Palestine–General Command (PFLP-GC). It also provides safehaven to 
the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a terrorist group fighting for an 
independent Kurdish state that carried out numerous terrorist acts in 
1995 against Turkish interests.

During 1995 several acts of political violence in northern Iraq matched 
Baghdad's pattern of using terrorism against the local population and 
regime defectors. These included a bombing attack on the Iraqi National 
Congress and the poisoning of a number of regime defectors. Iraq 
continues to provide a safehaven for various terrorist groups.

Libya continued for another year its defiance of the demands of UN 
Security Council Resolutions adopted in response to its involvement in 
the bombings of Pan Am flight 103 (1988) and UTA flight 772 (1989). 
These resolutions demand that Libya turn over for trial the two 
intelligence agents indicted for the PA 103 bombing, cooperate with US, 
UK, and French authorities in investigating the Pan Am and UTA bombings, 
pay compensation to victims, and cease all support for terrorism. 
Instead, Libya continued to foster disingenuous "compromises" aimed at 
diluting or evading the resolutions. It also continued hosting terrorist 
groups like the Abu Nidal organization (ANO). Further, an investigation 
into the murder of PIJ leader Fathi Shaqaqi in Malta in October 1995 
revealed that he had long been a Libyan client. Tripoli also continued 
to harass and intimidate the Libyan exile community; it is believed to 
be responsible for the abduction of US resident Mansur Kikhia in 
December 1993 and was blamed by Libyan exiles for the murder of a Libyan 
oppositionist in London in November 1995. The Libyan charge in London 
was expelled in 1995 for threatening and surveilling Libyan exiles in 
the United Kingdom.

North Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or DPRK) is not 
known to have sponsored any terrorist acts since 1987. Since 1993 the 
DPRK has made several efforts to reiterate a stated position of 
opposition to all forms of international terrorism. The DPRK Government 
since 1970 has provided safehaven to several members of the Japanese 
Communist League–Red Army Faction, who participated in an aircraft 
hijacking in 1970.

Sudan came into sharper focus in 1995 as a center of international 
terrorist activities. By year's end it was at odds with many of its 
neighbors. Uganda and Eritrea had severed diplomatic relations with 
Khartoum because of its support of armed opposition groups in those 
countries. Ethiopia and Egypt accused Sudan of complicity in one of the 
year's highest profile terrorist crimes, the unsuccessful attempt to 
assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa on 26 June, 
attributed to the Egyptian al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group or 
IG). Surviving assailants captured by Ethiopian police incriminated the 
Sudanese Government, which is dominated by the National Islamic Front 
(NIF), in planning the crime and training the assailants. Three 
conspirators are believed to be in Sudan. When Khartoum refused to 
cooperate in apprehending them, the Organization for African Unity (OAU) 
called for Sudan to hand over the suspects. In addition, Sudan continues 
to harbor Usama Bin Ladin, a major financier of terrorism, and members 
of some of the world's most violent groups like the IG, ANO, Lebanese 
Hizballah and HAMAS. Khartoum is a major transit point and base for a 
number of terrorist groups.

There is no evidence that Syrian officials have been directly involved 
in planning or executing terrorist attacks since 1986. Nevertheless, 
Syria continues to provide safehaven and support—inside Syria and in 
areas of Lebanon under Syrian control—for terrorist groups such as Ahmad 
Jibril's PFLP-GC, HAMAS, Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ), the Japanese Red 
Army, and the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). Syria has permitted 
Iranian resupply of Hizballah via Damascus but continues to restrain the 
international activities of some of these groups.

Cuba

Cuba no longer actively supports armed struggle in Latin America and 
other parts of the world. In earlier years, the Castro regime provided 
significant levels of military training, weapons, funding, and guidance 
to leftist extremists worldwide. Havana's focus now is to forestall an 
economic collapse; the government actively continued to seek the 
upgrading of diplomatic and trade relations with other nations.

Cuba is not known to have sponsored any international terrorist 
incidents in 1995. Havana, however, provided safehaven to several 
terrorists in Cuba during the year. A number of Basque Fatherland and 
Liberty (ETA) terrorists, who sought sanctuary in Cuba several years 
ago, still live on the island. Members of a few Latin American terrorist 
organizations and US fugitives also reside in Cuba.

Iran

Iran remains the premier state sponsor of international terrorism and is 
deeply involved in the planning and execution of terrorist acts both by 
its own agents and by surrogate groups. This year Tehran escalated its 
assassination campaign against dissidents living abroad; there were 
seven confirmed Iranian murders of dissidents in 1995, compared with 
four in 1994. Iranian antidissident operations concentrated on the 
regime's main opposition group, the Mojahedin-e Khalq (MEK), and the 
Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI).

Leaders of Iranian dissident groups are the most frequent victims of 
Iranian intelligence and terrorist operations. In 1995 most 
antidissident attacks were conducted in Iraq, in contrast to prior 
years' worldwide operations. Attacks on Iranian dissidents in Iraq 
during the year included the shooting deaths on 17 May of two MEK 
members in Baghdad, the murder on 5 June of two members of the Iranian 
Kurdish "Toilers" Party (Komelah) in Sulaymaniyah, and the killing of 
three MEK members in Baghdad on 10 July. The shooting death in Paris on 
17 September of Hashem Abdollahi, son of the chief witness in the trial 
of 1994 that convicted two Iranians for murdering former Iranian Prime 
Minister Bakhtiar in 1991, may have been an antidissident attack.

Sendar Hosseini, a suspect in the 1994 murder of dissident Osman 
Muhammed Amini in Copenhagen, Denmark, was arrested by Italian police in 
Bibione, Italy.

Iran provides arms, training, and money to Lebanese Hizballah and 
several Palestinian extremist groups that use terrorism to oppose the 
Middle East peace process. Tehran, which is against any compromise with 
or recognition of Israel, continued in 1995 to encourage Hizballah, 
HAMAS, the PIJ, the PFLP-GC, and other Palestinian rejectionist groups 
to form a coordinated front to resist Israel and the peace process 
through violence and terrorism.

Hizballah, Iran's closest client, remains the leading suspect in the 
July 1994 bombing of the Argentine-Israel Mutual Association (AMIA) in 
Buenos Aires that killed at least 96 persons. This operation was 
virtually identical to the one conducted in March 1992 against the 
Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, for which Hizballah claimed 
responsibility.

Iran also gives varying degrees of assistance to an assortment of 
radical Islamic and secular groups from North Africa to Central Asia. 
For example, Tehran continued to offer the Kurdistan Workers' Party 
(PKK) safehaven in Iran. Seeking to establish a Kurdish state in 
southeastern Turkey, the PKK in 1995 launched numerous attacks in Europe 
and continued its violent campaign against Turkish tourism, including 
attacks on tourist spots frequented by Westerners. Tehran also provided 
some support to Turkish Islamic groups that have been blamed for attacks 
against Turkish secular and Jewish figures.

Iranian authorities reaffirmed the validity of the death sentence 
imposed on British author Salman Rushdie, although some Iranian 
officials claimed that the Government of Iran would not implement the 
fatwa. Tehran, however, continued to mount a propaganda campaign against 
Rushdie. In February—the sixth anniversary of the judgment—Iran's 
official news agency IRNA reported that Deputy Foreign Minister Mahmoud 
Vaezi "underlined the need for the implementation of the fatwa against 
the author of the blasphemous book The Satanic Verses." Vaezi in May 
declared that "the fatwa issued by the late Imam [Khomeini] could 
neither be revoked nor changed by anybody."

Despite increasing Iranian support for extremist groups and involvement 
in terrorist operations, PresidentRafsanjani continued to project 
publicly a "moderate" image of Iran to Western European countries and 
Japan to facilitate the expansion of its relations with them. This quest 
for respectability probably explains why Iran reduced its attacks in 
Europe last year; Tehran wants to ensure access to Western capital and 
markets.

Iran continued to view the United States as its principal foreign 
adversary, supporting groups such as Hizballah that pose a threat to US 
citizens. Because of Tehran's and Hizballah's deep antipathy toward the 
United States, US missions and personnel abroad continue to be at risk.

Iraq

During 1995 several acts of political violence in northern Iraq matched 
Baghdad's pattern of using terrorism against the local population and 
regime defectors. Although Iraq's terrorist infrastructure has not 
recovered from the blows it suffered during the Gulf war, Baghdad has 
taken measures to restore its terrorist options.

Iraq remains far from compliance with UN resolutions that require it to 
cease internal repression and support for terrorism. Iraqi-sponsored 
terrorism has been commonplace in northern Iraq, where the regime is 
responsible for more than 100 attacks on UN and relief agency personnel 
and aid convoys over the past several years. In 1995 there were a number 
of acts of political violence for which Baghdad is a suspect. For 
example, a blast on 9 November at the security office in Kurdish-
controlled northern Iraq of the opposition Iraqi National Congress (INC) 
killed at least 25 persons. The INC has been targeted before by the 
regime in Baghdad.

Early in the year, a number of Iraqi oppositionists in northern Iraq 
were poisoned by thallium. At least one survived and was treated in a 
British hospital. The British Government confirmed that he was a victim 
of a regime assassination attempt.

In October, the British Government expelled an officer of the Iraqi 
Interests Section in London for engaging in "activities incompatible 
with his diplomatic status." The London-based Iraqi opposition reported 
that the official concerned was an employee of the Iraqi intelligence 
services who was responsible for targeting Iraqi exiles for attack.

On 20 January a US District Court in California awarded $1.5 million to 
Dr. Sargon Dadesho, an Iraqi oppositionist living in the United States 
who had brought suit against the Iraqi regime. The court concluded that 
the Iraqi Government was involved in a 1990 plot to assassinate Dadesho. 
This is the only time such a judgment on Iraq's terrorist activities has 
been reached in a US court. In other court action, a Kuwaiti appeals 
court on 20 March confirmed the death sentences against two Iraqis 
convicted of involvement in the plot in 1993 to assassinate President 
George Bush, while converting to prison terms the death sentences meted 
out to four others by a lower court.

Iraq continues to provide haven and training facilities for several 
terrorist clients. Abu Abbas' Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) maintains 
its headquarters in Baghdad. The Abu Nidal organization (ANO) continues 
to have an office in Baghdad. The Arab Liberation Front (ALF), 
headquartered in Baghdad, continues to receive funding from Saddam's 
regime. Iraq also continues to host the former head of the now-defunct 
15 May organization, Abu Ibrahim, who masterminded several bombings of 
US aircraft. A terrorist group opposed to the current Iranian regime, 
the Mojahedin-e Khalq (MEK), still is based in Iraq and has carried out 
several violent attacks in Iran from bases in Iraq.

Libya

The end of 1995 marked the fourth year of the Libyan regime's refusal to 
comply with the demands of UN Security Council Resolution 731. This 
measure was adopted following the indictments in November 1991 of two 
Libyan intelligence agents for the bombing in 1988 of Pan Am Flight 103. 
UNSCR 731 endorsed US, British, and French demands that Libya turn over 
the two Libyan bombing suspects for trial in the United States or the 
United Kingdom, pay compensation to the victims, cooperate with US, UK, 
and French authorities in the investigations into the Pan Am 103 and UTA 
flight 772 bombings, and cease all support for terrorism.

UN Security Council Resolution 748 was adopted in April 1992 as a result 
of Libya's refusal to comply with UNSCR 731. UNSCR 748 imposed sanctions 
that embargoed Libya's civil aviation and military procurement efforts 
and required all states to reduce Libya's diplomatic presence. UNSCR 883 
adopted in November 1993, imposed additional sanctions against Libya for 
its continued refusal to comply with UNSC demands. UNSCR 883 included a 
limited assets freeze and oil technology ban, and it also strengthened 
existing sanctions.

By the end of 1995, the Libyan regime had yet to comply in full with the 
UNSC demands. Although British authorities were satisfied that Libya had 
provided sufficient information on its past sponsorship of the 
Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA), Tripoli had failed to meet any 
of the other UNSC demands. Most significantly, it still refused to turn 
over for trial in the United States or the United Kingdom the two Libyan 
agents indicted for the Pan Am 103 bombing.

Throughout 1995, the Libyan regime continued to support groups violently 
opposed to the Middle East peace process, some of which engage in acts 
of international terrorism. After the murder of Palestine Islamic Jihad 
(PIJ) leader Fathi Shaqaqi in Malta in October 1995, it was revealed 
that Libya had frequently facilitated his travel. Libya also continued 
to sponsor meetings of the Palestinian rejectionist groups in Tripoli.

Despite the ongoing sanctions against Libya for its sponsorship of 
terrorism, Tripoli continued to harass and intimidate the Libyan 
expatriate dissident community in 1995. Libya is widely believed to be 
responsible for the abduction in 1993 and continued detention of 
prominent Libyan dissident and human rights activist Mansur Kikhia. In 
November 1995 a Libyan dissident resident in London was brutally 
murdered; the Libyan expatriate community accused Tripoli of involvement 
in his death. British authorities continued to investigate the case as 
the year ended. They also expelled the Libyan charge in London for 
engaging in "activities incompatible with his diplomatic status." The 
charge was accused of being involved in intimidation and surveillance of 
Libyan dissidents in the United Kingdom.

North Korea

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) is not 
known to have sponsored any international terrorist attacks since 1987, 
when it conducted the midflight bombing of a KAL airliner, killing all 
115 persons aboard. A North Korean spokesman in November stated that the 
DPRK opposed "all kinds of terrorism" and "any assistance to it." North 
Korea, however, continued to provide political sanctuary to members of 
the Japanese Communist League–Red Army Faction who hijacked a Japanese 
Airlines flight to North Korea in 1970.

Sudan

Sudan continued to serve as a refuge, nexus, and training hub in 1995 
for a number of international terrorist organizations, primarily of 
Middle Eastern origin. The Sudanese Government, which is dominated by 
the National Islamic Front (NIF), also condoned many of the activities 
of Iran and the Khartoum-based Usama Bin Ladin, a private financier of 
terrorism. Khartoum permitted the funneling of assistance to terrorist 
and radical Islamist groups operating in and transiting Sudan.

Since Sudan was placed on the US Government's official list of State 
Sponsors of Terrorism in August 1993, the Sudanese Government has 
continued to harbor members of some of the world's most violent 
organizations: the Abu Nidal organization (ANO), Lebanese Hizballah, the 
Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ), Egypt's al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (Islamic 
Group or IG), and the Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS). The NIF also 
supports Islamic and non-Islamic opposition groups in Uganda, Tunisia, 
Kenya, Ethiopia, and Eritrea.

Uganda severed diplomatic relations with Sudan in April, citing the 
inappropriate activities of representatives of the Sudanese Embassy in 
Kampala. The Government of Uganda said it found these activities 
threatening to its security.

Both Ethiopia and Egypt accused Sudan's security services of providing 
direct assistance to the IG for the attempt on the life of Egyptian 
President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa on 26 June. Three surviving 
assailants captured by Ethiopian police provided incriminating 
information about Sudan's role. Sudanese help to the IG included 
supplying travel documents and weapons and harboring key planners of the 
operation.

Despite a private plea by the Ethiopian Government, the Sudanese regime 
did not act on Ethiopia's request for the extradition of three Egyptian 
suspects involved in the Mubarak assassination attempt, claiming it was 
unable to locate them. Those being sought included the operation's 
mastermind—resident in Khartoum—his assistant, and a surviving member of 
the assassination team. (After the attack misfired, this last individual 
fled from Addis Ababa to Sudan on Sudan Airlines using a Sudanese 
passport.) In rare actions against a member state, the Organization of 
African Unity (OAU) on 11 September and again on 19 December called on 
Sudan to extradite the three IG suspects believed to have been involved 
in the assassination attempt and to stop aiding terrorism.

In an apparent attempt at damage control not long after the 
assassination attempt, President Bashir removed the head of Sudan's 
security services and proclaimed a new visa policy requiring Arab 
foreigners to obtain visas to enter Sudan. The policy did not apply to 
citizens from three state sponsors of terrorism—Iraq, Libya, and Syria—
however, because of bilateral agreements.

Khartoum also permitted Usama Bin Ladin, a denaturalized Saudi citizen 
with mujahedin contacts, to use Sudan as a shelter for his radical 
Muslim followers and to finance and train militant groups. Bin Ladin, 
who lives in Khartoum and owns numerous business enterprises in Sudan, 
has been linked to numerous terrorist organizations. He directs funding 
and other logistic support through his companies to a number of 
extremist causes.

A Sudanese national, who pleaded guilty in February 1995 to various 
charges of complicity in the New York City bomb plots foiled by the 
Federal Bureau Investigation, alleged that a member of the Sudanese UN 
Mission had offered to facilitate access to the UN building in pursuance 
of the bombing plot. The Sudanese official also is said to have had full 
knowledge of other bombing targets.

Sudan's support to terrorist organizations has included paramilitary 
training, indoctrination, money, travel documentation, safe passage, and 
refuge in Sudan. Most of the organizations present in Sudan maintain 
offices or other types of representation. They use Sudan as a base to 
organize some of their operations and to support compatriots elsewhere. 
Sudan also serves as a secure transit point and meeting place for 
several Iranian-backed terrorist groups.

Syria

There is no evidence that Syrian officials have been directly involved 
in planning or executing terrorist attacks since 1986. Damascus 
continues to negotiate seriously to achieve a peace accord with Israel 
and has taken some steps to restrain the international activities of 
these groups. Syria continues to use its influence to moderate Hizballah 
and Palestinian rejectionist groups when tension and violence in 
southern Lebanon escalate. It has, however, allowed Iran to resupply 
Hizballah via Damascus.

At the same time, Syria provides safehaven and support for several 
groups that engage in international terrorism. Spokesmen for some of 
these groups, particularly Palestinian rejectionists, continue to claim 
responsibility for attacks in Israel and the occupied 
territories/Palestinian autonomous areas. Several radical terrorist 
groups maintain training camps or other facilities on Syrian territory 
and in Syrian-controlled areas of Lebanon, such as Ahmad Jibril's 
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine–General Command (PFLP-GC), 
which has its headquarters near Damascus. Syria grants basing privileges 
or refuge to a wide variety of groups engaged in terrorism. These 
include HAMAS, the PFLP-GC, the Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and the 
Japanese Red Army (JRA).

The terrorist group Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) continues to train in 
the Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley), and its leader, Abdullah Ocalan, resides at 
least part-time in Syria. The PKK in 1995 conducted—with limited 
success—a violent campaign against Turkish tourist spots frequented by 
foreigners, as well as other terrorist violence in Europe. Syrian 
safehaven for PKK operations was vigorously protested by Turkey and is 
the subject of discussions between Syria and Turkey.




Appendix A

Chronology of Significant Terrorist Incidents, 1995

8 January
Algeria

Armed assailants attempted to kill two priests, one French and one 
Swiss, belonging to the order of the White Fathers. The priests escaped 
unharmed. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) is suspected in the attack.

12 January
Egypt

Suspected members of al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group or IG) 
opened fire on a passenger train. Six passengers, including two 
Argentine tourists, were injured.

15 January
Cambodia

A US tourist was killed and her husband was seriously wounded when Khmer 
Rouge rebels attacked their sightseeing convoy. A tour guide also was 
killed when the assailants fired a rocket at the van.

18 January
Colombia

Members of the People's Liberation Army kidnapped a US citizen, working 
as an administrative support officer for Cerrejon Coal Mine of Riohacha, 
in La Guajira.

Sierra Leone

Five Europeans and at least three Sierra Leoneans were kidnapped by 
Revolutionary United Front (RUF) rebels. All of the victims were 
employed by the Swiss-owned Sierra Leone Ore and Metal Company 
(Sieromco).

22 January
Algeria

Gunmen shot and killed a Frenchman as he drove through a park. A woman 
also was injured in the attack. The GIA is suspected.

24 January
United Kingdom

An unidentified assailant shot and killed a Sikh newspaper editor, a 
known advocate for an independent Sikh state. No one claimed 
responsibility for the attack.

25 January
Sierra Leone

The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) raided a mission near the Guinea 
border, taking 100 hostages. Seven nuns—six Italians and one Brazilian—
were among the captives.

26 January
Colombia

Seven guerrillas of the National Liberation Army (ELN) kidnapped three 
Venezuelan Corpoven engineers and killed a fourth near La Victoria.

31 January
Colombia

Suspected guerrillas kidnapped two Brazilian engineers at an abandoned 
hydroelectric dam. The engineers are employed by the Swiss Company, 
ASEA.

14 February
Pakistan

Three gunmen shot and killed a former Afghan Brigadier at his residence. 
The victim was affiliated with the moderate, pro-Afghanistan Council for 
Understanding and National Unity (CUNA). No group claimed 
responsibility, but Gulbuddin Hikmatyar's Hizb-I-Islami organization is 
suspected.

24 February
Jordan

A French diplomat posted to the French Embassy was shot and wounded by 
two assailants while he was sightseeing with his wife. No group claimed 
responsibility for the attack.

27 February
Greece

Khidir Abd al-Abbas Hamza, a defecting Iraqi former nuclear scientist, 
was abducted in Athens while he was attempting to call a newspaper 
office from a phone booth. The Iraqi Ambassador in Athens has denied any 
Iraqi involvement, but the incident is similar to other Iraqi Government 
sponsored abductions.

28 February
Peru

An explosive device containing about 500 grams (one pound) of dynamite 
detonated on the sidewalk across the street from the US Embassy in Lima.

3 March
Algeria

A Palestinian student attending the Algerian Arab College was murdered 
by an armed group who stormed the area where he and his family lived. 
The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) is suspected.

8 March
Pakistan

Two unidentified gunmen armed with AK-47 assault rifles opened fire on a 
US Consulate van in Karachi, killing two US diplomats and wounding a 
third. The Pakistani driver was not hurt.

27 March
Bahrain

A Pakistani man burned to death when a video store was set on fire. No 
group claimed responsibility for the attack.

31 March
Israel

One Israeli civilian was killed and 20 others were wounded when 
suspected Hizballah members fired Katyusha rockets into western Galilee.

5 April
Honduras

Morazanist Patriotic Front (FPM) guerrillas claimed responsibility for a 
leaflet propaganda bomb that exploded in front of a Tegucigalpa building 
that houses US, German, and Spanish press agencies. The attack caused 
minor damage to nearby buildings.

9 April
Gaza Strip

A suicide bomber crashed an explosive-rigged van into an Israeli bus, 
killing a US citizen and seven Israelis. Over 50 other persons, 
including two US citizens, were injured. The Palestine Islamic Jihad 
(PIJ)–Shaqaqi Faction claimed responsibility for the attack.

Georgia

Assailants attacked the T'bilisi residence of the Russian special envoy 
and the headquarters of Russian troops in the Transcaucasus. There were 
no injuries. A group calling itself the Algeti Wolves claimed 
responsibility for the attack in revenge for events in Chechnya and for 
the signing of the treaty on Russian military bases in Georgia.

19 April
Colombia

Members of the National Liberation Army (ELN) kidnapped two Italian oil 
workers from their car and killed their Colombian driver near 
Barrancabermeja.

21 April
Turkey

An attempted car bombing in front of the Iranian Consulate General in 
Istanbul killed a tow truck driver. The illegally parked vehicle was 
towed to an open parking lot where it detonated, killing the driver and 
damaging 18 other vehicles. No group has claimed responsibility.

22 April
Netherlands

Two Turkish citizens were shot by Kurdish extremists at a coffeehouse in 
The Hague. Four men were arrested in connection with the attack.

29 April
Somalia

A foreign businessman was killed near Chisimayu by Islamic 
fundamentalists.

5 May
Algeria

Suspected members of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) attacked employees of 
a pipeline company, killing two Frenchmen, a Briton, a Canadian, and a 
Tunisian. One Algerian security guard was also killed and at least six 
other guards were injured.

Israel

Hizballah launched at least eight Katyusha rockets that struck near 
Qiryat Shemona. Four Israeli civilians were wounded in the attack.

7 May
Algeria

Armed assailants ambushed a two-vehicle advance for a convoy of 
foreigners, including Britons and Canadians, being escorted from a 
worksite to their accommodation camp. Several security forces were 
killed or wounded, but there were no foreign casualties.

15 May
Peru

Five alleged Sendero Luminoso (SL) members held up a bus near Chimbote 
and robbed some 50 passengers, including three US citizens. The 
assailants, wearing ski masks painted with a red hammer and sickle, 
threatened passengers with machineguns and grenades.

22 May
Colombia

Approximately one kilo of dynamite detonated under a metal security door 
of a Dunkin Donuts restaurant in Bogota. The damage was estimated at 
$18,000. No injuries were reported and no group has claimed 
responsibility for the attack.

23 May
Sierra Leone

Revolutionary United Front (RUF) rebels abducted three Lebanese 
businessmen during attacks on towns in the Lebanese community of the 
diamond district of Kono.

24 May
Peru

Presumed members of Sendero Luminoso (SL) detonated a 50-kg car bomb in 
front of the Maria Angola Hotel in a suburb of Lima, killing three hotel 
employees and a passerby. About 30 others were injured.

31 May
Colombia

Seven National Liberation Army (ELN) guerrillas kidnapped a US citizen 
and three Colombians at the Verde Limon Gold Mine in Zaragoza. Shortly 
afterward, the Colombian Army freed the captives in a confrontation that 
left one Colombian hostage and two guerrillas dead.

5 June
Nicaragua

Three members of the Recontra 380 occupied the Chilean Embassy in 
Managua and took hostage the husband of Ambassador Laura Sota. The 
abductors left a package they claimed was a bomb and fled without making 
any reported statements or demands. The kidnap victim was released 
unharmed a few hours later.

7 June
Algeria

Suspected members of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) shot and killed a 
French couple in Algiers. No one claimed responsibility for the attack.

24 June
Colombia

Unknown guerrillas abducted the son of a British Exxon employee in 
Formeque and demanded a ransom of $500,000. On 12 August, during the 
course of negotiations, the victim's body was found.

25 June
Pakistan

Five gunmen kidnapped three German engineers and a Pakistani driver in 
the North-West Frontier Province. The kidnappers demanded a ransom of 
ten million rupees. One of the Germans and the Pakistani were released 
on 3 July, at which time the kidnappers added the release of four 
prisoners in Peshawar to their demands. The other two hostages were 
freed unharmed on 13 July. It does not appear that the demands were met.

26 June
Ethiopia

Al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya claimed responsibility for a failed 
assassination attempt against Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Addis 
Ababa. As his motorcade headed from the airport to a meeting of the 
Organization of African Unity, two vehicles tried to block the road, and 
several gunmen fired at his armored limousine. President Mubarak was not 
injured. Two Ethiopian military guards died and one was wounded in the 
exchange of gunfire; two gunmen were killed and two others captured. The 
Palestinian Ambassador to Ethiopia also was injured.

3 July
Germany

Attackers smashed the windows of three vehicles at a Chrysler car 
dealership in Kassel. They also broke the salesroom window and scrawled 
graffiti protesting the scheduled execution of Mumia Abu Jamal, a 
convicted murderer, in Pennsylvania.

4-8 July
India

Six tourists—two US citizens, two Britons, a Norwegian, and a German—
were taken hostage in Kashmir by the previously unknown militant group 
Al-Faran, which demanded the release of Muslim militants held in Indian 
prisons. Al-Faran may be part of the Kashmiri separatist group Harakat 
ul-Ansar based in Pakistan. One of the US citizens escaped on 8 July. On 
13 August, Al-Faran murdered the Norwegian; his decapitated body was 
found with the name Al-Faran carved on his stomach and a note stating 
that the other hostages also would be killed if the group's demands were 
not met. The Indian Government has refused to comply with their demands.

11 July
France

Two assailants assassinated a cofounder of the Algerian Islamic 
Salvation Front and his bodyguard in a Paris mosque. No one claimed 
responsibility for the murders. Earlier this year Algerian publications 
reportedly received a communique from the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) 
listing their priority targets, including the victim.

13 July
Turkey

Kurdish separatists abducted a Japanese tourist at a rebel checkpoint 
near Siirt. No demands were made, and the kidnappers released the 
hostage unharmed on 17 July.  The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) is 
suspected.

25 July
France

A bomb detonated aboard a Paris subway train as it arrived at St. Michel 
station, killing seven commuters and wounding 86.

5 August
Greece

A small improvised bomb detonated at a Citibank branch in Athens, 
causing minor damage. The Anti-Regime Nuclei (ARN) later claimed 
responsibility.

10 August
Germany

Assailants firebombed a vehicle parked at a US-owned Chrysler dealership 
in a small German city. No one was injured. A letter left at the scene 
identified the perpetrators as members of the Anti-Imperialistic Group 
Liberty for Mumia Abu Jamal.

12 August
Colombia

Members of the Jaime Bateman Cayon Front, a remnant of the 19 April 
Movement, kidnapped a British diplomat and a Colombian colleague along a 
highway near Tolima Department. On learning of the British official's 
diplomatic status, the terrorists demanded an unspecified ransom to free 
him. They released the Colombian national.

17 August
France

A nail-filled bomb detonated in a trash bin near a subway entrance in 
Paris injuring 17 people. Among those injured were four Hungarians, four 
Italians, three Portuguese, one German, and one Briton. Authorities 
determined a similar explosive device was used in the Paris subway 
bombing on 25 July.

20 August
France

Assailants threw a molotov cocktail at a building in Paris that houses a 
Turkish sporting and cultural association, injuring six persons and 
causing minor damage. Witnesses reported seeing three people flee the 
scene. The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) may be responsible for the 
attack.

21 August
Israel

A bomb exploded on a bus in Jerusalem, killing six persons, including 
one US citizen, and wounding two other US citizens and over 100 others. 
The Izz al-Din al-Qassem Brigades, the military wing of the Islamic 
Resistance Movement (HAMAS), claimed responsibility.

24 August
Pakistan

Sixteen men armed with steel pipes and at least one gun vandalized the 
BBC office in Islamabad. The attackers destroyed equipment and files, 
bombed the entry hall, and destroyed two cars. The BBC chief 
correspondent, a Canadian, and a Pakistani BBC staff member escaped with 
minor injuries. The radical Sunni organization Sipah-I-Sahaba Pakistan 
(SSP) claimed responsibility, although the group's leader stated that he 
had ordered only a peaceful demonstration to protest the BBC airing of a 
documentary about the group.

27 August
Spain

Arsonists in San Sebastian doused a car bearing French license plates 
with gasoline and ignited it. There were no injuries. Authorities 
believe a support group of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) is 
responsible.

1 September
Colombia

Guerrillas intercepted and kidnapped a US businessman and his Colombian 
partner in Cali. The captors, five armed masked men, took the two men to 
a jungle camp. The Colombian negotiated a $30,000 ransom for his US 
partner, who was released on 22 September. No group has claimed 
responsibility.

Colombia

In Santa Marta, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) guerrillas 
destroyed containers of bananas belonging to the US company Dole.

2 September
Algeria

Suspected Armed Islamic Group (GIA) militants shot and killed an Italian 
national in Oran.

3 September
Algeria

Unidentified assailants shot and killed two nuns in the Belcourt 
district of Algiers. One of the victims was French and the other 
Maltese. Authorities suspect the Armed Islamic Group (GIA).

5 September
West Bank

Unknown assailants stabbed to death an Israeli settler of British origin 
and wounded his US-born wife in the settlement of Ma'ale Mikmas, near 
Ram Allah. An anonymous caller claimed responsibility in the name of the 
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). The caller stated 
the attack was in retaliation for the arrest of three PFLP activists and 
the continued detention of a PFLP politburo member, imprisoned for three 
years.

Germany

Arsonists attacked two Turkish-owned facilities. In Luebeck, arsonists 
set fire to a bistro. Two persons died and 20 were injured. Arsonists 
also firebombed a nightclub in Freital. There were no injuries. 
Authorities suspect the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).

7 September
India

A woman claiming to be from the militant group Dukhtaran-e-Millat 
delivered a parcel bomb to the office of the BBC in Srinagar, Kashmir. 
The bomb exploded later in the hands of a free lance photographer for 
Agence France–Presse, who died on 10 September from his injuries. The 
blast wounded two others and caused major damage. Dukhtaran-e-Millat 
denied responsibility for the bombing.

13 September
Russia

Unidentified assailants fired a rocket-propelled grenade at the US 
Embassy in Moscow, causing minor damage to a sixth-floor office. No 
injuries were reported. Authorities suspect the attack was in 
retaliation for US participation in NATO airstrikes against Bosnian Serb 
targets.

20 September
Austria

In Vienna, assailants attempted to firebomb a German pharmaceutical 
firm, but the molotov cocktails failed to ignite. The German firm was 
hosting a US delegation and had raised the US flag outside the building.

21 September
Austria

Assailants threw lit bottles containing heating oil and paint thinner 
into two rooms of the American International School in Vienna. There 
were no injuries. The Austrian press later received a letter in which 
the Cell for Internationalism claimed responsibility. Authorities 
believe there may be a connection with the previous day's bombing.

13 October
Colombia

A letter bomb sent to the Italian Embassy in Bogota exploded when opened 
by a staff member, who was wounded. The injured employee is responsible 
for Italian cooperation with Colombia under their countries' economic 
drug-fighting agreements. No group has claimed responsibility for the 
bombing.

20 October
Croatia

A car bomb detonated outside the local police headquarters building in 
Rijeka, killing the driver and injuring 29 bystanders. The Egyptian al-
Gama'at al-Islamiyya claimed responsibility, warning that further 
attacks would continue unless authorities released an imprisoned Gama'at 
militant, Tala'at Fuad Kassem, who had been arrested in September 1995.

Turkey

A pipe bomb exploded outside a Coca-Cola Company warehouse in Istanbul, 
causing minor damage to the building and to a vehicle. No one has 
claimed responsibility for the attack.

27 October
Angola

National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) soldiers 
killed two persons and kidnapped 32 others in Lunda Norte. Four of the 
hostages are South African citizens employed by the SA Export Company, 
Ltd.

8 November
Egypt

Islamic extremists opened fire on a train enroute to Cairo from Aswan, 
injuring a Dutchman, a French woman, and an Egyptian. Al-Gama'at al-
Islamiyya (Islamic Group or IG) claimed responsibility for the attack.

9 November
Algeria

Unidentified assailants set fire to the off-compound US Embassy 
warehouse in Algiers, destroying the facility and its contents. The 
Armed Islamic Group (GIA) may be responsible for the attack.

10 November
Switzerland

Unknown assailants firebombed a Turkish-owned shop in Basel, injuring 
three persons and causing major damage. No one has claimed 
responsibility for the attack.

13 November
Saudi Arabia

A car bomb explosion in the parking lot of the Office of the Program 
Manager/Saudi Arabian National Guard (OPM/SANG) in Riyadh, killed seven 
persons and wounded 42 others. The deceased include four US federal 
civilian employees, one US military person, and two Indian Government 
employees. The blast severely damaged the three-story building, which 
houses a US military advisory group, and several neighboring office 
buildings. Three groups, including the Islamic Movement for Change, 
claimed responsibility for the attack.

Switzerland

An Egyptian diplomat was shot and killed in the parking garage of his 
apartment building in Geneva. On 15 November the International Justice 
Group claimed responsibility for the attack.

15 November
Japan

An electric company employee discovered an explosive device burning on a 
powerline to a US military housing complex in Sagamihara, Kanagawa 
Prefecture. The explosion caused minor damage. No group has claimed 
responsibility, but both the Chukaku-Ha and the Kakurokyo-Ha had 
announced plans to disrupt the Asia Pacific Economic Council (APEC) 
summit in Osaka, held during  13 to 19 November.

19 November
Pakistan

A suicide bomber drove a vehicle into the Egyptian Embassy compound in 
Islamabad, killing at least 16 persons and injuring some 60 others. The 
bomb destroyed the entire compound and caused damage and injuries within 
a half-mile radius. The Japanese and Indonesian Embassies, the Canadian 
High Commission, the UK housing compound, and Grindlays Bank were among 
the damaged buildings. Al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group or IG), 
Jihad Group, and the International Justice Group all claimed 
responsibility for the bombing.

21 November
India

A powerful bomb exploded outside a restaurant in the Connaught Place 
shopping area in New Delhi. The blast injured 22 persons, including two 
Dutch citizens, one South African and one Norwegian, and caused major 
damage to shops and parked cars. Both the Jammu and Kashmir Islamic 
Front, a Kashmiri Muslim separatist group, and the Khalistan Liberation 
Tiger Force, a Sikh separatist group, claimed responsibility for the 
bombing.

30 November
Algeria

Four suspected Islamic extremists shot and killed two Latvian seamen and 
wounded a third. No one has claimed responsibility, but the Armed 
Islamic Group (GIA)  is suspected.

9 December
France

Assailants in Bayonne set fire to a stolen vehicle and firebombed a bank 
after the French Government expelled a member of the Basque Fatherland 
and Liberty (ETA).

10 December
Ecuador

Three FARC militants kidnapped the treasurer for the Nazarine missions, 
who is a US citizen. A captured member of FARC led a rescue team to a 
mountainous area near Quito, where they rescued the victim. Three 
kidnappers were killed and two others escaped.

11 December
Austria

Two letter bombs detonated inside a mailbox located outside a local post 
office in Graz, wounding a passer-by. One was addressed to the UN High 
Commissioner for Refugees' office. Remnants of a claimant letter were 
discovered at the scene. Two other letter bombs were discovered intact. 
Authorities suspect the Bavarian Liberation Army may be responsible.

16 December
Spain

Several bombs detonated in different areas of a department store in 
Valencia, killing one person and wounding eight others, including a US 
citizen. Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) claimed responsibility for 
the attack.

23 December
Germany

A bomb detonated outside an office building in Duesseldorf that housed 
the Peruvian Honorary Consulate, causing major damage. On 27 December 
the Anti-Imperialist Cell (AIZ) claimed responsibility for the attack in 
a letter stating that the Peruvian Government's domestic policies are 
"unbearable for the majority of Peruvians."

27 December
Philippines

Twenty Abu Sayyaf militants kidnapped at least 16 vacationers, including 
six US citizens, at Lake Sebu, Mindanao. Two of the hostages escaped and 
four were released, carrying a ransom demand of $57,700. On 31 December 
the kidnappers released the remaining hostages in exchange for 
government promises of improvements in the south.

30 December
France

A bomb detonated outside a Paris branch of Citibank, causing major 
damage. Suspicion centered on sympathizers of the Armed Islamic Group 
(GIA) who may be responsible.



Appendix B

Background Information on Major Groups Discussed in the Report

Abu Nidal organization (ANO) a.k.a.: Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab 
Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and 
Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims

Description
International terrorist organization led by Sabri al-Banna. Split from 
PLO in 1974. Made up of various functional committees, including 
political, military, and financial.

Activities
Has carried out terrorist attacks in 20 countries, killing or injuring 
almost 900 persons. Targets include the United States, the United 
Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and various 
Arab countries. Major attacks included the Rome and Vienna airports in 
December 1985, the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul, the Pan Am Flight 
73 hijacking in Karachi in September 1986, and the City of Poros day-
excursion ship attack in July 1988 in Greece. Suspected of assassinating 
PLO deputy chief Abu Iyad and PLO security chief Abu Hul in Tunis in 
January 1991. ANO assassinated a Jordanian diplomat in Lebanon in 
January 1994, and it has been linked to the killing of the PLO 
representative there. There have been no attacks against Western targets 
since the late 1980s.

Strength
Several hundred plus militia in Lebanon and overseas support structure.

Location/Area of Operation
Currently headquartered in Libya with a presence in Lebanon in the Al 
Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) and also several Palestinian refugee camps in 
coastal areas of Lebanon. Also has a presence in Sudan. Has demonstrated 
ability to operate over wide area, including the Middle East, Asia, and 
Europe.

External Aid
Has received considerable support, including safehaven, training, 
logistic assistance, and financial aid from Iraq and Syria (until 1987); 
continues to receive aid from Libya, in addition to close support for 
selected operations.


Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)

Description
Islamic extremist group operating in the southern Philippines led by 
Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani. Split from the Moro National Liberation 
Front in 1991.

Activities
Uses bombs, assassinations, kidnappings for ransom, and extortion 
payments from companies and businessmen in its efforts to promote an 
Iranian-style Islamic state in Mindanao, an island in the southern 
Philippines heavily populated by Muslims. Staged a raid on the town of 
Ipil in Mindanao in April 1995, the group's first large-scale action.

Strength
About 200 members, mostly younger Muslims, many of whom have studied or 
worked in the Gulf states, where they were exposed to radical Islamic 
ideology.

Location/Area of Operation
The ASG operates almost exclusively on Mindanao Island, although it 
bombed a light railway in Manila in 1993.

External Aid
Probably has ties to Islamic extremists in the Middle East.



Al-Fatah a.k.a.: Al-'Asifa (see Palestine Liberation Organization)



Al-Jihad (see Jihad Group)



Armed Islamic Group (GIA) 

Description
An Islamic extremist group, the GIA aims to overthrow the secular 
Algerian regime and replace it with an Islamic state. The GIA began its 
violent activities in early 1992 after Algiers voided the victory of the 
Islamic Salvation Front (FIS)—the largest Islamic party—in the first 
round of December 1991 legislative elections.

Activities
Frequent attacks against regime targets—particularly security personnel 
and government officials—civilians, journalists, teachers, and foreign 
residents. Since announcing its terrorist campaign against foreigners 
living in Algeria in September 1993, the GIA has killed about 100 
expatriate men and women—mostly Europeans—in the country. The GIA uses 
assassinations and bombings, including car bombs, and it is known to 
favor kidnapping victims and slitting their throats. The GIA hijacked an 
Air France flight to Algiers in December 1994, and suspicions centered 
on the group for a series of bombings in France in 1995.

Strength
Unknown, probably several hundred to several thousand.

Location
Algeria.

External Aid
Algerian expatriates, many of whom reside in Western Europe, provide 
some financial and logistic support. In addition, the Algerian 
Government has accused Iran and Sudan of supporting Algerian extremists, 
and severed diplomatic relations with Iran in March 1993.



Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)

Description
Founded in 1959 with the aim of creating an independent homeland in 
Spain's Basque region. Has muted commitment to Marxism.

Activities
Chiefly bombings and assassinations of Spanish Government officials, 
especially security forces. In response to French operations against the 
group, ETA also has targeted French interests. Finances its activities 
through kidnappings, robberies, and extortion. In 1995, Spanish and 
French authorities foiled an ETA plot to kill King Juan Carlos in 
Majorca.

Strength
Unknown; may have hundreds of members, plus supporters.

Location/Area of Operation
Operates primarily in the Basque autonomous regions of northern Spain 
and southwestern France but also has bombed Spanish and French interests 
elsewhere.

External Aid
Has received training at various times in Libya, Lebanon, and Nicaragua. 
Also appears to have close ties to the Provisional Irish Republican Army 
(PIRA).



Chukaku-Ha (Nucleus or Middle Core Faction)

Description
An ultraleftist/radical group with origins in the fragmentation of the 
Japanese Communist Party in 1957. Largest domestic militant group; has 
political arm plus small, covert action wing called Kansai Revolutionary 
Army. Funding derived from membership dues, sales of its newspapers, and 
fundraising campaigns.

Activities
Participates in street demonstrations and commits sporadic attacks using 
crude rockets and incendiary devices usually designed to cause property 
damage rather than casualties. Protests Japan's imperial system, Western 
imperialism, and events like the Gulf war and the expansion of Tokyo's 
Narita airport. Has launched rockets at a US military facility.

Strength
3,500.

Location/Area of Operation
Japan.

External Aid
None known.



CNPZ (see Nestor Paz Zamora Commission under National Liberation Army 
[ELN]—Bolivia)



Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP)

Description
Marxist group that split from the PFLP in 1969. Believes Palestinian 
national goals can be achieved only through revolution of the masses. 
Opposes the Declaration of Principles (DOP) signed in 1993. In early 
1980s, occupied political stance midway between Arafat and the 
rejectionists. Split into two factions in 1991, one pro-Arafat and 
another more hardline faction headed by Nayif Hawatmah (which has 
suspended participation in the PLO).

Activities
In the 1970s, carried out numerous small bombings and minor assaults and 
some more spectacular operations in Israel and the occupied territories, 
concentrating on Israeli targets. Involved only in border raids since 
1988, but continues to oppose the Israel-PLO peace agreement.

Strength
Estimated at 500 (total for both factions).

Location/Area of Operation
Syria, Lebanon, and the Israeli-occupied territories; attacks have taken 
place entirely in Israel and the occupied territories.

External Aid
Receives financial and military aid from Syria and Libya.



Devrimci Sol (Revolutionary Left) a.k.a.: Dev Sol (see Revolutionary 
People's Liberation Party/Front, DHKP/C)



ETA(see Basque Fatherland and Liberty)



FARC (see Revolutionary Army Forces of Colombia)



Fatah (see Palestine Liberation Organization)



FPM (see Morazanist Patriotic Front)



FPMR (see Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front)



Al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Group, IG)

Description
An indigenous Egyptian Islamic extremist group active since the late 
1970s; appears to be loosely organized with no single readily 
identifiable operational leader. Shaykh Umar abd al-Rahman is the 
preeminent spiritual leader. Goal is to overthrow the government of 
President Hosni Mubarak and replace it with an Islamic state.

Activities
Armed attacks against Egyptian security and other government officials, 
Coptic Christians, and Egyptian opponents of Islamic extremism. The 
group also has launched attacks on tourists in Egypt since 1992. Al 
Gama'at claimed responsibility for the attempt in June 1995 to 
assassinate President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Strength
Not known, but probably several thousand hardcore members and another 
several thousand sympathizers.

Location/Area of Operation
Operates mainly in the Al Minya, Asyu't, and Qina Governorates of 
southern Egypt. It also appears to have support in Cairo, Alexandria, 
and other urban locations, particularly among unemployed graduates and 
students.

External Aid
Not known. Egyptian Government believes that Iran, Sudan, and Afghan 
militant Islamic groups support the group.



HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement)

Description
HAMAS was formed in late 1987 as an outgrowth of the Palestinian branch 
of the Muslim Brotherhood. Various elements of HAMAS have used both 
political and violent means, including terrorism, to pursue the goal of 
establishing an Islamic Palestinian state in place of Israel. HAMAS is 
loosely structured, with some elements working openly through mosques 
and social service institutions to recruit members, raise money, 
organize activities, and distribute propaganda. Militant elements of 
HAMAS, operating clandestinely, have advocated and used violence to 
advance their goals. HAMAS's strength is concentrated in the Gaza Strip 
and a few areas of the West Bank. It also has engaged in peaceful 
political activity, such as running candidates in West Bank Chamber of 
Commerce elections.

Activities
HAMAS activists, especially those in the Izz el-Din al-Qassam Forces, 
have conducted many attacks against Israeli civilian and military 
targets, suspected Palestinian collaborators, and Fatah rivals.

Strength
Unknown number of hardcore members; tens of thousands of supporters and 
sympathizers.

Location/Area of Operation
Primarily the occupied territories, Israel, and Jordan.

External Aid
Receives funding from Palestinian expatriates, Iran, and private 
benefactors in Saudi Arabia and other moderate Arab states. Some 
fundraising and propaganda activity take place in Western Europe and 
North America.



The Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA)

Description
The Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA), an Islamic militant group that seeks 
Kashmir's accession to Pakistan, was formed in October 1993 when two 
Pakistani political activist groups, Harakat ul-Jihad al-Islami and 
Harakat ul-Mujahedin, merged. According to the leader of the alliance, 
Maulana Saadatullah Khan, the group's objective is to continue the armed 
struggle against nonbelievers and anti-Islamic forces.

Activities
Has carried out a number of operations against Indian troops and 
civilian targets in Kashmir. The HUA also supports Muslims in Indian-
controlled Kashmir with humanitarian and military assistance. It has 
been linked to the Kashmiri militant group Al-Faran that has held four 
Western hostages in Kashmir since July 1995. There is no evidence that 
HUA ordered the kidnapping.

Strength
The Harakat ul-Ansar has several thousand armed members located in Azad 
Kashmir, Pakistan, and in the southern Kashmir and the Doda regions of 
India. The HUA uses light and heavy machineguns, assault rifles, 
mortars, explosives, and rockets. Membership is open to all who support 
the HUA's objectives and are willing to take the group's 40-day training 
course. It has a core militant group of about 300, mostly Pakistanis and 
Kashmiris, but includes Afghans and Arab veterans of the Afghan war.

Location/Area of Operation
The HUA is based in Muzaffarabad, Pakistan, but HUA members have 
participated in insurgent and terrorist operations in Kashmir, Burma, 
Tajikistan, and Bosnia. The HUA is actively involved in supporting 
Muslims in Indian-controlled Kashmir with humanitarian and military 
assistance. The HUA's Burma branch, located in the Arakans, trains local 
Muslims in weapons handling and guerrilla warfare. In Tajikistan, HUA 
members have served with and trained Tajik resistance elements. The 
first group of Harakat militants entered Bosnia in 1992.

External Aid
The HUA collects donations from Saudi Arabia and other Gulf and Islamic 
states to purchase relief supplies, which it distributes to Muslims in 
Tajikistan, Kashmir, and Burma. The source and amount of HUA's military 
funding are unknown but is believed to come from sympathetic Arab 
countries and wealthy Pakistanis and Kashmiris.

Hizballah (Party of God) a.k.a.: Islamic Jihad, Revolutionary Justice 
Organization, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, and Islamic Jihad 
for the Liberation of Palestine

Description
Radical Shia group formed in Lebanon; dedicated to creation of Iranian-
style Islamic republic in Lebanon and removal of all non-Islamic 
influences from area. Strongly anti-West and anti-Israel. Closely allied 
with, and often directed by Iran, but may have conducted rogue 
operations that were not approved by Tehran.

Activities
Known or suspected to have been involved in numerous anti-US terrorist 
attacks, including the suicide truck bombing of the US Embassy and US 
Marine barracks in Beirut in October 1983 and the US Embassy annex in 
Beirut in September 1984. Elements of the group were responsible for the 
kidnapping and detention of US and other Western hostages in Lebanon. 
The group also attacked the Israeli Embassy in Argentina in 1992.

Strength
Several thousand.

Location/Area of Operation
Operates in the Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley), the southern suburbs of Beirut, 
and southern Lebanon. Has established cells in Europe, Africa, South 
America, North America, and elsewhere.

External Aid
Receives substantial amounts of financial, training, weapons, 
explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid from Iran.



Islamic ResistanceMovement (see HAMAS)



Jamaat ul-Fuqra

Description
Jamaat ul-Fuqra is an Islamic sect that seeks to purify Islam through 
violence. Fuqra is led by Pakistani cleric Shaykh Mubarik Ali Gilani, 
who established the organization in the early 1980s. Gilani now resides 
in Pakistan, but most Fuqra cells are located in North America. Fuqra 
members have purchased isolated rural compounds in North America to live 
communally, practice their faith, and insulate themselves from Western 
culture.

Activities
Fuqra members have attacked a variety of targets that they view as 
enemies of Islam, including Muslims they regard as heretics and Hindus. 
Attacks during the 1980s included assassinations and firebombings across 
the United States. Fuqra members in the United States have been 
convicted of criminal violations, including murder and fraud.

Strength
Unknown.

Location/Area of Operation
North America, Pakistan.

External Aid
None.



Japanese Red Army (JRA) a.k.a.: Anti-Imperialist International Brigade 
(AIIB)

Description
An international terrorist group formed around 1970 after breaking away 
from Japanese Communist League–Red Army Faction. Now led by Fusako 
Shigenobu, believed to be in Syrian-garrisoned area of Lebanon's Al 
Biqa' (Bekaa Valley). Stated goals are to overthrow Japanese Government 
and monarchy and to help foment world revolution. Organization unclear 
but may control or at least have ties to Anti-Imperialist International 
Brigade (AIIB); may also have links to Antiwar Democratic Front—an overt 
leftist political organization—inside Japan. Details released following 
arrest in November 1987 of leader Osamu Maruoka indicate that JRA may be 
organizing cells in Asian cities, such as Manila and Singapore. Has had 
close and longstanding relations with Palestinian terrorist groups—based 
and operating outside Japan—since its inception.

Activities
During the 1970s, JRA carried out a series of attacks around the world, 
including the massacre in 1972 at Lod Airport in Israel, two Japanese 
airliner hijackings, and an attempted takeover of the US Embassy in 
Kuala Lumpur. In April 1988, JRA operative Yu Kikumura was arrested with 
explosives on the New Jersey Turnpike, apparently planning an attack to 
coincide with the bombing of a USO club in Naples and a suspected JRA 
operation that killed five, including a US servicewoman. He was 
convicted of these charges and is serving a lengthy prison sentence in 
the United States. In March 1995, Ekita Yukiko, a longtime JRA activist, 
was arrested in Romania and subsequently deported to Japan.

Strength
About 30 hardcore members; undetermined number of sympathizers.

Location/Area of Operation
Based in Syrian-controlled areas of Lebanon; often transits Damascus.

External Aid
Unknown.



Jihad Group a.k.a.: al-Jihad, Islamic Jihad, New Jihad Group, Vanguards 
of Conquest, Tala'i' al Fath

Description
An Egyptian Islamic extremist group active since the late 1970s; appears 
to be divided into at least two separate factions: remnants of the 
original Jihad led by Abbud al-Zumar, currently imprisoned in Egypt, and 
a faction calling itself Vanguards of Conquest (Tala'i' al-Fath or the 
New Jihad Group). The Vanguards of Conquest appears to be led by Dr. 
Ayman al-Zawahiri, who is currently outside Egypt. His specific 
whereabouts are unknown. In addition to the Islamic Group, the Jihad 
factions regard Sheikh Umar Abd-al Rahman as their spiritual leader. The 
goal of all Jihad factions is to overthrow the government of President 
Hosni Mubarak and replace it with an Islamic state.

Activities
Specializes in armed attacks against high-level Egyptian Government 
officials. The original Jihad was responsible for the assassination in 
1981 of President Anwar Sadat. Unlike al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya, which 
mainly targets mid- and lower-level security personnel, Coptic 
Christians, and Western tourists, the Jihad group appears to concentrate 
primarily on high-level, high-profile Egyptian Government officials, 
including cabinet ministers.

Strength
Not known, but probably several thousand hardcore members and another 
several thousand sympathizers among the various factions.

Location/Area of Operation
Operates mainly in the Cairo area. Also appears to have members outside 
Egypt, probably in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Sudan.

External Aid
Not known. The Egyptian Government claims that Iran, Sudan, and militant 
Islamic groups in Afghanistan support the Jihad factions.



Kach and Kahane Chai

Description
Stated goal is to restore the biblical state of Israel. Kach (founded by 
radical Israeli-American rabbi Meir Kahane) and its offshoot Kahane 
Chai, which means "Kahane Lives," (founded by Meir Kahane's son Binyamin 
following his father's assassination in the United States) were declared 
to be terrorist organizations in March 1994 by the Israeli Cabinet under 
the 1948 Terrorism Law. This followed the groups' statements in support 
of Dr. Baruch Goldstein's attack in February 1994 on the al-Ibrahimi 
Mosque—Goldstein was affiliated with Kach—and their verbal attacks on 
the Israeli Government.

Activities
Organize protests against the Israeli Government. Harass and threaten 
Palestinians in Hebron and the West Bank. Groups have threatened to 
attack Arabs, Palestinians, and Israeli Government officials. They also 
claimed responsibility for several shooting attacks on West Bank 
Palestinians in which four persons were killed and two were wounded in 
1993.

Strength
Unknown.

Location/Area of Operation
Israel and West Bank settlements, particularly Qiryat Arba' in Hebron.

External Aid
Receives support from Jewish people in the United States and Europe.



Khmer Rouge (see The Party of Democratic Kampuchea)



Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)

Description
Marxist-Leninist insurgent group composed of Turkish Kurds established 
in 1974. In recent years has moved beyond rural-based insurgent 
activities to include urban terrorism. Seeks to set up an independent 
Marxist state in southeastern Turkey, where there is a predominantly 
Kurdish population.

Activities
Primary targets are Turkish Government forces and civilians in eastern 
Turkey but becoming increasingly active in Western Europe against 
Turkish targets. Conducted attacks on Turkish diplomatic and commercial 
facilities in dozens of West European cities in 1993 and again in spring 
1995. In an attempt to damage Turkey's tourist industry, they have 
bombed tourist sites and hotels and have kidnapped foreign tourists.

Strength
Approximately 10,000 to 15,000 full-time guerrillas, 5,000 to 6,000 of 
whom are in Turkey; 60,000 to 75,000 part-time guerrillas; and hundreds 
of thousands of sympathizers in Turkey and Europe.

Location/Area of Operation
Operates in Turkey and Western Europe.

External Aid
Receives safehaven and modest aid from Syria, Iraq, and Iran.



Lautaro Youth Movement (MJL)a.k.a.: The Lautaro faction of the United 
Popular Action Movement (MAPU/L) or Lautaro Popular Rebel Forces (FRPL)

Description
Violent, anti-US extremist group that advocates the overthrow of the 
Chilean Government. Leadership largely from leftist elements but 
includes criminals and alienated youths. Became active in late 1980s, 
but has been seriously weakened by government counterterrorist successes 
in recent years.

Activities
Has been linked to assassinations of policemen, bank robberies, and 
attacks on Mormon churches.

Strength
Unknown.

Location/Area of Operation
Chile; mainly Santiago.

External Aid
None.



The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Other known front 
organizations: World Tamil Association (WTA), World Tamil Movement 
(WTM), the Federation of Associations of Canadian Tamils (FACT), the 
Ellalan Force

Description
Founded in 1976, the LTTE is the most powerful Tamil group in Sri Lanka 
and uses overt and illegal methods to raise funds, acquire weapons, and 
publicize its cause of establishing an independent Tamil state. The LTTE 
began its armed conflict with the Sri Lankan Government in 1983 and 
relies on a guerrilla strategy that includes the use of terrorist 
tactics.

Activities
The Tigers have integrated a battlefield insurgent strategy with a 
terrorist program that targets not only key personnel in the countryside 
but also senior Sri Lankan political and military leaders in Colombo. 
Political assassinations and bombings have become commonplace. The LTTE 
has refrained from targeting Western tourists out of fear that foreign 
governments would crack down on Tamil expatriates involved in 
fundraising activities abroad.

Strength
Approximately 10,000 armed combatants in Sri Lanka; about 3,000 to 6,000 
form a trained cadre of fighters. The LTTE also has a significant 
overseas support structure for fundraising, weapons procurement, and 
propaganda activities.

Location/Area of Operation
The Tigers control most of the northern and eastern coastal areas of Sri 
Lanka but have conducted operations throughout the island. Headquartered 
in the Jaffna Peninsula, LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran has 
established an extensive network of checkpoints and informants to keep 
track of any outsiders who enter the group's area of control. The LTTE 
prefers to attack vulnerable government facilities, then withdraw before 
reinforcements arrive.

External Aid
The LTTE's overt organizations support Tamil separatism by lobbying 
foreign governments and the United Nations. The LTTE also uses its 
international contacts to procure weapons, communications, and bomb-
making equipment. The LTTE exploits large Tamil communities in North 
America, Europe, and Asia to obtain funds and supplies for its fighters 
in Sri Lanka. Information obtained since the mid-1980s indicates that 
some Tamil communities in Europe are also involved in narcotics 
smuggling. Tamils historically have served as drug couriers moving 
narcotics into Europe.



Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front (FPMR)

Description
Originally the FPMR was founded in 1983 as the armed wing of the Chilean 
Communist Party and was named for the hero of Chile's war of 
independence against Spain. The group splintered into two factions in 
the late 1980s, and one faction became a political party in 1991. The 
dissident wing FPMR/D is one of Chile's most active terrorist groups.

Activities
The dissident wing FPMR/D frequently attacks civilians and international 
targets, including US businesses and Mormon churches. In 1993, FPMR/D 
bombed two McDonalds restaurants and attempted to bomb a Kentucky Fried 
Chicken restaurant. Successful government counterterrorist operations 
have significantly undercut the organization.

Strength
Now believed to have fewer than 500 members.

Location/Area of Operation
Chile.

External Aid
None.



Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO) a.k.a.: The National 
Liberation Army of Iran (NLA, the militant wing of the MEK), the 
People's Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI), National Council of Resistance (NCR), 
Muslim Iranian Student's Society (front organization used to garner 
financial support)

Description
Formed in the 1960s by the college-educated children of Iranian 
merchants, the MEK sought to counter what is perceived as excessive 
Western influence in the Shah's regime. In the 1970s, the MEK concluded 
that violence was the only way to bring about change in Iran. Since 
then, the MEK—following a philosophy that mixes Marxism and Islam—has 
developed into the largest and most active armed Iranian dissident 
group. Its history is studded with anti-Western activity, and, most 
recently, attacks on the interests of the clerical regime in Iran and 
abroad.

Activities
The MEK directs a worldwide campaign against the Iranian Government that 
stresses propaganda and occasionally uses terrorist violence. During the 
1970s, the MEK staged terrorist attacks inside Iran to destabilize and 
embarrass the Shah's regime; the group killed several US military 
personnel and civilians working on defense projects in Tehran. The group 
also supported the takeover in 1979 of the US Embassy in Tehran. In 
April 1992, the MEK carried out attacks on Iranian embassies in 13 
different countries, demonstrating the group's ability to mount large-
scale operations overseas.

Strength
Several thousand fighters based in Iraq with an extensive overseas 
support structure. Most of the fighters are organized in the MEK's 
National Liberation Army (NLA).

Location/Area of Operation
In the 1980s, the MEK's leaders were forced by Iranian security forces 
to flee to France. Most resettled in Iraq by 1987. Since the mid-1980s, 
the MEK has not mounted terrorist operations in Iran at a level similar 
to its activities in the 1970s. Aside from the National Liberation 
Army's attacks into Iran toward the end of the Iran-Iraq war, and 
occasional NLA cross-border incursions since, the MEK's attacks on Iran 
have amounted to little more than harassment. The MEK has had more 
success in confronting Iranian representatives overseas through 
propaganda and street demonstrations.

External Aid
Beyond support from Iraq, the MEK uses front organizations to solicit 
contributions from expatriate Iranian communities.



MJL (see Lautaro Youth Movement)



Morazanist Patriotic Front (FPM)

Description
A radical, leftist terrorist group that first appeared in the late 
1980s. Attacks made to protest US intervention in Honduran economic and 
political affairs.

Activities
Attacks on US, mainly military, personnel in Honduras. Claimed 
responsibility for attack on a bus in March 1990 that wounded seven US 
servicemen. Claimed bombing of Peace Corps office in December 1988; bus 
bombing that wounded three US servicemen in February 1989; attack on US 
convoy in April 1989; and grenade attack that wounded seven US soldiers 
in La Ceiba in July 1989.

Strength
Unknown, probably relatively small.

Location/Area of Operation
Honduras.

External Aid
Had ties to former Government of Nicaragua and possibly Cuba.



MRTA(see Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement)



National Liberation Army (ELN)—Bolivia includes Nestor Paz Zamora 
Commission (CNPZ)

Description
ELN claims to be resuscitation of group established by Che Guevara in 
1960s. Includes numerous small factions of indigenous subversive groups, 
including CNPZ, which is largely inactive today.

Activities
ELN and CNPZ have attacked US interests in past years but more recently 
has focused almost exclusively on Bolivian domestic targets.

Strength
Unknown; probably fewer than 100.

Location/Area of Operation
Bolivia.

External Aid
None.



National Liberation Army (ELN)—Colombia

Description
Rural-based, anti-US, Maoist-Marxist-Leninist guerrilla group formed in 
1963. Attempted peace talks with the government ended in May 1992.

Activities
Periodically kidnaps foreign employees of large corporations and holds 
them for large ransom payments. Conducts frequent assaults on oil 
infrastructure and has inflicted major damage on pipelines. Extortion 
and bombings against US and other foreign businesses, especially the 
petroleum industry.

Strength
Has fallen off in recent years and now estimated at only about 700 
combatants.

Location/Area of Operation
Colombia.

External Aid
None.



New People's Army (NPA)

Description
The guerrilla arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), an 
avowedly Maoist group formed in December 1969 with the aim of 
overthrowing the government through protracted guerrilla warfare. 
Although primarily a rural-based guerrilla group, the NPA has an active 
urban infrastructure to carry out terrorism; uses city-based 
assassination squads called sparrow units. Derives most of its funding 
from contributions of supporters and so-called revolutionary taxes 
extorted from local businesses.

Activities
NPA is in disarray because of a split in the CPP, a lack of money, and 
successful government operations. With the US military gone from the 
country, NPA has engaged in urban terrorism against the police, corrupt 
politicians, and drug traffickers.

Strength
16,000, plus support groups.

Location/Area of Operation
Philippines.

External Aid
Unknown.



The Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ)

Description
The PIJ, which originated among militant Palestinian fundamentalists in 
the Gaza Strip during the 1970s, is a series of loosely affiliated 
factions rather than a cohesive group. The PIJ is committed to the 
creation of an Islamic Palestinian state and the destruction of Israel 
through holy war. Because of its strong support for Israel, the United 
States has been identified as an enemy of the PIJ. The PIJ also opposes 
moderate Arab governments that it believes have been tainted by Western 
secularism.

Activities
PIJ militants have threatened to retaliate against Israel and the United 
States for the murder of PIJ leader Fathi Shaqaqi in Malta in October 
1995. It has carried out suicide bombing attacks against Israeli targets 
in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel. The PIJ has threatened to 
attack US interests in Jordan.

Strength
Unknown.

Location/Area of Operation
Primarily Israel and the occupied territories and other parts of the 
Middle East, including Jordan and Lebanon. The largest faction is based 
in Syria.

External Aid
Probably receives financial assistance from Iran and possibly some 
assistance from Syria.



Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)

Description
Terrorist group that broke away from the PFLP-GC in mid-1970s. Later 
split again into pro-PLO, pro-Syrian, and pro-Libyan factions. Pro-PLO 
faction led by Muhammad Abbas (Abu Abbas), who became member of PLO 
Executive Committee in 1984 but left it in 1991.

Activities
The Abu Abbas–led faction has carried out attacks against Israel. 
Abbas's group was also responsible for the attack in 1985 on the cruise 
ship Achille Lauro and the murder of US citizen Leon Klinghoffer. A 
warrant for Abu Abbas's arrest is outstanding in Italy.

Strength
At least 50.

Location/Area of Operation
PLO faction based in Tunisia until Achille Lauro attack. Now based in 
Iraq.

External Aid
Receives logistic and military support mainly from PLO, but also from 
Libya and Iraq.



Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
On 9 September 1993, in letters to Israeli Prime Minister Rabin and 
Norwegian Foreign Minister Holst, PLO Chairman Arafat committed the PLO 
to cease all violence and terrorism. On 13 September 1993, the 
Declaration of Principles between the Israelis and Palestinians was 
signed in Washington, DC. We have no information that any PLO element 
under Arafat's control was involved in terrorism from that time through 
1995. (There were two incidents in 1993 in which the responsible 
individuals apparently acted independently.) One group under the PLO 
umbrella, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), 
suspended its participation in the PLO in protest of the agreement and 
continues its sporadic campaign of violence. The US Government continues 
to monitor closely PLO compliance with its commitment to abandon 
terrorism and violence.



The Party of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge)

Description
The Khmer Rouge is a Communist insurgency that is trying to destabilize 
the Cambodian Government. Under Pol Pot's leadership, the Khmer Rouge 
conducted a campaign of genocide in which more than 1 million people 
were killed during its four years in power in the late 1970s.

Activities
The Khmer Rouge now is engaged in a low-level insurgency against the 
Cambodian Government. Although its victims are mainly Cambodian 
villagers, the Khmer Rouge has occasionally kidnapped and killed 
foreigners traveling in remote rural areas.

Strength
Approximately 8,000 guerrillas.

Location/Area of Operation
The Khmer Rouge operates in outlying provinces in Cambodia, particularly 
in pockets along the Thailand border.

External Aid
The Khmer Rouge is not currently receiving external assistance.



PKK (see Kurdistan Workers' Party)



Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)

Description
Marxist-Leninist group founded in 1967 by George Habash as a member of 
the PLO. Advocates a Pan-Arab revolution. Opposes the Declaration of 
Principles signed in 1993 and has suspended participation in the PLO.

Activities
Committed numerous international terrorist attacks during the 1970s. 
Since the death in 1978 of Wadi Haddad, its terrorist planner, PFLP has 
carried out numerous attacks against Israeli or moderate Arab targets.

Strength
800.

Location/Area of Operation
Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and the occupied territories.

External Aid
Receives most of its financial and military assistance from Syria and 
Libya.



Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine–General Command (PFLP-GC)

Description
Split from the PFLP in 1968, claiming that it wanted to focus more on 
fighting and less on politics. Violently opposed to Arafat's PLO. Led by 
Ahmad Jabril, a former captain in the Syrian Army. Closely allied with, 
supported by, and probably directed by Syria.

Activities
Has carried out numerous cross-border terrorist attacks into Israel 
using unusual means, such as hot-air balloons and motorized hang 
gliders.

Strength
Several hundred.

Location/Area of Operation
Headquartered in Damascus, with bases in Lebanon and cells in Europe.

External Aid
Receives logistic and military support from Syria, its chief sponsor; 
financial support from Libya; safehaven in Syria. Receives support also 
from Iran.



Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine–Special Command (PFLP-SC)

Description
Marxist-Leninist group formed by Abu Salim in 1979 after breaking away 
from the now-defunct PFLP–Special Operations Group.

Activities
Has claimed responsibility for several notorious international terrorist 
attacks in Western Europe, including the bombing of a restaurant 
frequented by US servicemen in Torrejon, Spain, in April 1985. Eighteen 
Spanish civilians were killed in the attack.

Strength
50.

Location/Area of Operation
Operates out of southern Lebanon, in various areas of the Middle East, 
and in Western Europe.

External Aid
Probably receives financial and military support from Syria, Libya, and 
Iraq.



Popular Struggle Front (PSF)

Description
Radical Palestinian terrorist group once closely involved in the Syrian-
dominated Palestinian National Salvation Front. Led by Dr. Samir 
Ghosheh. Rejoined the PLO in September 1991. Group is internally divided 
over the Declaration of Principles signed in 1993.

Activities
Terrorist attacks against Israeli, moderate Arab, and PLO targets.

Strength
Fewer than 300.

Location/Area of Operation
Mainly Syria and Lebanon and elsewhere in the Middle East.

External Aid
Receives support from Syria and may now receive aid from the PLO.



Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA)a.k.a.: The Provos

Description
A radical terrorist group formed in 1969 as the clandestine armed wing 
of Sinn Fein, a legal political movement dedicated to removing British 
forces from Northern Ireland and unifying Ireland. Has a Marxist 
orientation. Organized into small, tightly knit cells under the 
leadership of the Army Council.

Activities
Bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, extortion, and robberies. Targets 
senior British Government officials, British military and police in 
Northern Ireland, and Northern Irish Loyalist paramilitary groups. 
PIRA's operations on mainland Britain have included bombing campaigns 
against train and subway stations and shopping areas. Observed cease-
fire through all of 1995.

Strength
Several hundred, plus several thousand sympathizers.

Location/Area of Operation
Northern Ireland, Irish Republic, Great Britain, and Western Europe.

External Aid
Has received aid from a variety of groups and countries and considerable 
training and arms from Libya and, at one time, the PLO. Also is 
suspected of receiving funds and arms from sympathizers in the United 
States. Similarities in operations suggest links to ETA.



Red Army Faction (RAF)

Description
The small and disciplined RAF succeeded the Baader-Meinhof Gang, which 
originated in the student protest movement in the 1960s. Ideology is an 
obscure mix of Marxism and Maoism; committed to armed struggle. 
Organized into hardcore cadres that carry out terrorist attacks and a 
network of supporters who provide logistic and propaganda support. The 
group has survived despite numerous arrests of top leaders over the 
years.

Activities
Bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, and robberies. With decline of 
world Communism, has had trouble recruiting replacements for jailed 
members. Now concentrating on domestic targets, particularly officials 
involved in German or European unification and German security and 
justice officials. RAF has targeted US and NATO facilities in the past, 
including during the Gulf war.

Strength
10 to 20, plus several hundred supporters.

Location/Area of Operations
Germany.

External Aid
Self-sustaining, but during Baader-Meinhof period received support from 
Middle Eastern terrorists. East Germany gave logistic support, 
sanctuary, and training during the 1980s.



Red Brigades (BR)

Description
Formed in 1969, the Marxist-Leninist BR seeks to create a revolutionary 
state through armed struggle and to separate Italy from the Western 
Alliance. In 1984 split into two factions: the Communist Combatant Party 
(BR-PCC) and the Union of Combatant Communists (BR-UCC).

Activities
Original group concentrated on assassination and kidnapping of Italian 
Government and private-sector targets; it murdered former Prime Minister 
Aldo Moro in 1978. Extreme leftist sympathizers have carried out several 
small-scale terrorist attacks to protest the presence and foreign 
policies of both the United States and NATO; it kidnapped US Army Brig. 
Gen. James Dozier in 1981 and claimed responsibility for murdering 
Leamon Hunt, US chief of the Sinai Multinational Force and Observer 
Group, in 1984. With limited resources and followers to carry out major 
terrorist acts, the group is mostly out of business.

Strength
Probably fewer than 50, plus an unknown number of supporters.

Location/Area of Operation
Based and operates in Italy. Some members probably living clandestinely 
in other European countries.

External Aid
Currently unknown; original group apparently was self-sustaining but 
probably received weapons from other West European terrorist groups and 
from the PLO.



Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)

Description
Established in 1966 as military wing of Colombian Communist Party. Goal 
is to overthrow government and ruling class. Organized along military 
lines; includes at least one urban front.

Activities
Armed attacks against Colombian political and military targets. Many 
members have become criminals, carrying out kidnappings for profit and 
bank robberies. Foreign citizens often are targets of FARC kidnappings. 
Group traffics in drugs and has well-documented ties to 
narcotraffickers.

Strength
Approximately 4,500 to 5,500 armed combatants and an unknown number of 
supporters, mostly in rural areas.

Location/Area of Operation
Colombia.

External Aid
None.



Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17 November)

Description
A radical leftist group established in 1975 and named for the November 
1973 student uprising in Greece protesting the military regime. The 
group is anti-US, anti-Turkish, anti-NATO; committed to violent 
overthrow of the regime, ouster of US bases, removal of Turkish military 
presence from Cyprus, and severing of Greece's ties to NATO and the 
European Union (EU). Organization is obscure, possibly affiliated with 
other Greek terrorist groups.

Activities
Initial attacks were assassinations of senior US officials and Greek 
public figures. Added bombings in 1980s. Since 1990, has expanded 
targets to include EU facilities and foreign firms investing in Greece 
and has added improvised rocket attacks to its methods.

Strength
Unknown, but presumed to be small.

Location/Area of Operation
Greece, primarily in Athens metropolitan area.

External Aid
May receive support from other Greek terrorist group cadres.



Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C)a.k.a.: Devrimci 
Sol (Revolutionary Left), Dev Sol

Description
Originally formed in 1978 as Devrimci Sol, or Dev Sol, it was a splinter 
faction of the Turkish People's Liberation Party/Front. Renamed in 1994, 
it still espouses a Marxist ideology, is intensely xenophobic and 
virulently anti-US and anti-NATO. It seeks to unify the proletariat to 
stage a national revolution. The group finances its activities chiefly 
through armed robberies and extortion.

Activities
Since the late 1980s, it has concentrated attacks against current and 
retired Turkish security and military officials. Began a new campaign 
against foreign interests in 1990. Protesting the Gulf war, it 
assassinated two US military contractors and wounded a US Air Force 
officer. Launched rockets at US Consulate in Istanbul in April and July 
1992. Recent terrorist activities have been less ambitious as the group 
works to recover from internal factionalism and police raids that netted 
several operatives and large weapons caches.

Strength
Several hundred members, several dozen armed militants.

Location/Area of Operation
Carries out attacks in Turkey, primarily in Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, and 
Adana. Conducts fundraising operations in Western Europe.

External Aid
Possible training support from radical Palestinians.ELN (see National 
Liberation Army).



Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path, SL)

Description
Larger of Peru's two insurgencies, SL is among the world's most ruthless 
guerrilla organizations. Formed in the late 1960s by then university 
professor Abimael Guzman. Stated goal is to destroy existing Peruvian 
institutions and replace them with peasant revolutionary regime. Also 
wants to rid Peru of foreign influences. Guzman's capture in September 
1992 was a major blow, as have been arrests of other SL leaders in 1995, 
defections, and President Fujimori's amnesty program for repentant 
terrorists.

Activities
Engages in particularly brutal forms of terrorism, including the 
indiscriminate use of bombs. Almost every institution in Peru has been a 
target of SL violence. Has bombed diplomatic missions of several 
countries in Peru. Carries out bombing campaigns and selective 
assassinations. Involved in cocaine trade.

Strength
Approximately 1,500 to 2,500 armed militants; larger number of 
supporters, mostly in rural areas.

Location/Area of Operation
Originally rural based, but has increasingly focused its terrorist 
attacks in the capital.

External Aid
None.



17 November (see Revolutionary Organization 17 November)



Sikh Terrorism

Description
Sikh terrorism is sponsored by expatriate and Indian Sikh groups who 
want to carve out an independent Sikh state called Khalistan (Land of 
the Pure) from Indian territory. Active groups include Babbar Khalsa, 
Azad Khalistan Babbar Khalsa Force, Khalistan Liberation Front, and 
Khalistan Commando Force. Many of these groups operate under umbrella 
organizations, the most significant of which is the Second Panthic 
Committee.

Activities
Sikh attacks in India are mounted against Indian officials and 
facilities, other Sikhs, and Hindus; they include assassinations, 
bombings, and kidnappings. These attacks have dropped markedly since 
mid-1992, as Indian security forces have killed or captured a host of 
senior Sikh militant leaders. Total civilian deaths in Punjab have 
declined more than 95 percent since more than 3,300 civilians died in 
1991. The drop results largely from Indian Army, paramilitary, and 
police successes against extremist groups.

Strength
Unknown.

Location/Area of Operation
Northern India, Western Europe, Southeast Asia, and North America.

External Aid
Sikh militant cells are active internationally and extremists gather 
funds from overseas Sikh communities. Sikh expatriates have formed a 
variety of international organizations that lobby for the Sikh cause 
overseas. Most prominent are the World Sikh Organization and the 
International Sikh Youth Federation.



Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)

Description
Traditional Marxist-Leninist revolutionary movement formed in 1983. 
Currently struggling to remain viable. Has suffered from defections and 
government counterterrorist successes in addition to infighting and loss 
of leftist support. Objective remains to rid Peru of imperialism and 
establish Marxist regime.

Activities
Bombings, kidnappings, ambushes, assassinations. Previously responsible 
for large number of anti-US attacks; recent activity has dropped off 
dramatically. Most members have been jailed.

Strength
Unknown; greatly diminished in recent years.

Location/Area of Operation
Peru; provided assistance in Bolivia to Bolivian ELN.

External Aid
None.



Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army (EGTK)

Description
Indigenous, anti-Western Bolivian subversive organization.

Activities
Frequently attacks small, unprotected targets, such as power pylons, oil 
pipelines, and government offices. Has targeted Mormon churches with 
firebombings and attacked USAID motorpool in 1993.

Strength
Fewer than 100.

Location/Area of Operation
Bolivia, primarily the Chapare region, near the Peru border, and the 
Altiplano.

External Aid
None.

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