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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
1995 APRIL: PATTERNS OF GLOBAL TERRORISM, 1994
OFFICE OF THE CORRDINATOR FOR COUNTERTERRORISM 

                   Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1994 

     Introduction 
Terrorism continued to menace civil society in 1994. Although  
international terrorism declined worldwide, there was an upsurge of  
attacks by Islamic extremist groups, including many aimed at  
undermining the Middle East peace process. The Clinton  
administration increased cooperative efforts with many nations to  
reduce the threat of terrorism. 
Examples of serious acts of international terrorism in 1994 were: 
--  The bombing of a Jewish cultural center in Buenos Aires in July  
that killed nearly 100 persons.
--  The hijacking in December of an Air France jet by the Algerian  
Armed Islamic Group, who are waging a massive campaign of terrorism  
against Algerians and foreigners in Algeria.
--  Attacks against foreign tourists by Islamic radicals in Egypt  
and by the PKK in Turkey.
--  The bombing of a Panamanian commuter aircraft that killed 21  
persons. 
Extremists opposed to the Arab-Israeli peace process dramatically  
increased the scale and frequency of their attacks in Israel, the  
West Bank, and Gaza. More than 100 civilians died in these attacks  
in 1994. 
This pattern of terrorism in 1994 reflects a trend in recent years  
of a decline in attacks by secular terrorist groups and an increase  
in terrorist activities by radical Islamic groups. These groups are  
a small minority in the Islamic world, and most Islamic countries,  
as well as the Organization of the Islamic Conference, have  
condemned religious extremism and violence. Nevertheless, terrorism  
in Islamic guise is a problem for established governments in the  
Middle East and a threat to the Arab-Israeli peace process. 
There have been important positive developments as well in the fight  
against international terrorism: 
--  Two radical Arab regimes long involved in sponsoring and  
supporting terrorism in the Middle East÷Libya and Iraq÷are isolated. 
--  Iran, while still a major state sponsor of terrorism, is under  
considerable economic pressure. 
--  The old Soviet Union, once a protector of radical terrorist  
states and organizations, is gone. 
--  The conflicts in Northern Ireland and South Africa, regarded in  
the past as intractable, have also yielded to processes of peaceful  
settlement, and the main protagonists have halted the use of terror  
and violence as a political weapon. 
--  Counterterrorism and law enforcement cooperation among nations  
has grown, increasing the pressure on terrorists, and there is a  
growing international consensus that terrorism is beyond the pale. 
--  The Arab-Israeli conflict, which has bred much terror and  
violence, has taken a historic turn toward resolution. Israel and  
the PLO have concluded an agreement on interim self-government in  
the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Jordan has followed Egypt in making  
peace with Israel; other Arab states are establishing contacts with  
Israel; and Syria and Israel are engaged in a process of  
negotiations. Nevertheless, those opposed to the peace process  
dramatically increased their rear-guard terrorist campaigns in  
Israel and the West Bank and Gaza aimed at destroying the process. 
US counterterrorism policy follows three general rules: 
--  First, do not make deals with terrorists or submit to blackmail.  
We have found over the years that this policy works.
--  Second, treat terrorists as criminals and apply the rule of law.
--  Third, bring maximum pressure on states that sponsor and support  
terrorists by imposing economic, diplomatic, and political sanctions  
and urging other states to do likewise. 
Because terrorism is a global problem, the Clinton administration is  
deeply engaged in cooperation with other governments in an  
international effort to combat terrorism: 
--  US intelligence and law enforcement agencies have an active  
network of cooperative relations with counterparts in scores of  
friendly countries. 
--  The Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism in the  
Department of State conducts consultations on counterterrorism with  
many other governments. There are similar consultations in the G-7  
and the European Union. 
--  There are now 11 treaties and conventions that commit  
signatories to combat various terrorist crimes. The United States  
urges governments that have not signed and ratified these to do so  
promptly. 
--  The Department of State's antiterrorism training assistance  
program has trained over 15,000 law enforcement personnel from more  
than 80 countries over 10 years in counterterrorism techniques. 
--  The United States and other nations fund an active  
counterterrorism research and development program that strengthens  
our capability in such areas as plastic explosives detection. 
--  Finally, the United States offers rewards of up to $2 million  
for information that leads to the prevention or favorable resolution  
of a terrorist attack against US persons. 
Civilized people everywhere are outraged by terrorist crimes. The  
scars are long lasting, and there is no recompense for victims. But  
terrorists are a small minority, whose crimes, deadly as they are,  
cannot be allowed to intimidate the forces of peace and democracy.  
The message to terrorists from Americans and other free people and  
nations is that we are strong, vigilant, and determined to defeat  
terrorism. 
Legislative Requirements 
This report is submitted in compliance with Title 22 of the United  
States Code, Section 2656f(a), which requires the Department of  
State to provide Congress a full and complete annual report on  
terrorism for those countries and groups meeting the criteria of  
Section (a)(1) and (2) of the Act. As required by legislation, the  
report includes detailed assessments of foreign countries where  
significant terrorist acts occurred and countries about which  
Congress was notified during the preceding five years pursuant to  
Section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (the so-called  
terrorism list countries that have repeatedly provided state support  
for international terrorism). In addition, the report includes all  
relevant information about the previous year's activities of  
individuals, terrorist groups, or umbrella groups under which such  
terrorist groups fall, known to be responsible for the kidnapping or  
death of any American citizen during the preceding five years, and  
groups known to be financed by state sponsors of terrorism. 
Definitions 
No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance. For  
the purposes of this report, however, we have chosen the definition  
of terrorism contained in Title 22 of the United States Code,  
Section 2656f(d). That statute contains the following definitions: 
--  The term "terrorism" means premeditated, politically motivated  
violence perpetrated against noncombatant(1) targets by subnational  
groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an  
audience. 
__________
1 For purposes of this definition, the term ''noncombatant'' is  
interpreted to include, in addition to civilians, military personnel  
who at the time of the incident are unarmed and/or not on duty. For  
example, in past reports we have listed as terrorist incidents the  
murders of the following US military personnel: Col. James Rowe,  
killed in Manila in April 1989; Capt. William Nordeen, US defense  
attache killed in Athens in June 1988; the two servicemen killed in  
the La Belle disco bombing in West Berlin in April 1986; and the  
four off-duty US Embassy Marine guards killed in a cafe in El  
Salvador in June 1985. We also consider as acts of terrorism attacks  
on military installations or on armed military personnel when a  
state of military hostilities does not exist at the site, such as  
bombings against US bases in Europe, the Philippines, or elsewhere.
__________ 
--  The term "international terrorism" means terrorism involving  
citizens or the territory of more than one country. 
--  The term ''terrorist group'' means any group practicing, or that  
has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism. 
The US Government has employed this definition of terrorism for  
statistical and analytical purposes since 1983. In a number of  
countries, domestic terrorism, or an active insurgency, has a  
greater impact on the level of political violence than does  
international terrorism. Although not the primary purpose of this  
report, we have attempted to indicate those areas where this is the  
case. 
Note 
Adverse mention in this report of individual members of any  
political, social, ethnic, religious, or national group is not meant  
to imply that all members of that group are terrorists. Indeed,  
terrorists represent a small minority of dedicated, often fanatical,  
individuals in most such groups. It is that small group÷and their  
actions÷that is the subject of this report. 
Furthermore, terrorist acts are part of a larger phenomenon of  
politically inspired violence, and at times the line between the two  
can become difficult to draw. To relate terrorist events to the  
larger context, and to give a feel for the conflicts that spawn  
violence, this report will discuss terrorist acts as well as other  
violent incidents that are not necessarily international terrorism. 
Philip C. Wilcox, Jr.
Coordinator for Counterterrorism 
 
                 Contents 
Introduction                              iii
The Year in Review                          1
African Overview                            2
  Angola                                    2
  Sierra Leone                              2
  South Africa                              2
  Togo                                      2
  Uganda                                    2
Asian Overview                              2
  Afghanistan                               3
  Cambodia                                  3
  India                                     4
  Pakistan                                  4
  Philippines                               4
  Sri Lanka                                 4
  Thailand                                  5
European Overview                           5
  Albania                                   5
  Azerbaijan                                5
  The Baltics                               6
  France                                    6
  Germany                                   7
  Greece                                    7
  Italy                                     7
  Russia                                    8
  Spain                                     8
  Turkey                                    8
  United Kingdom                            9
  Former Yugoslavia                        10
Latin American Overview                    10
  Argentina                                11
  Chile                                    11
  Colombia                                 11
  Ecuador                                  11
  Guatemala                                12
  Panama                                   13
  Peru                                     13
  Uruguay                                  13
Middle Eastern Overview                    13
  Algeria                                  15
  Egypt                                    15
  Israel and the Occupied Territories      16
  Jordan                                   17
  Lebanon                                  18
  Morocco                                  18
State-Sponsored Terrorism Overview         19
  Cuba                                     20
  Iran                                     20
  Iraq                                     21
  Libya                                    22
  North Korea                              23
  Sudan                                    23
  Syria                                    23
Appendixes
  A.   Chronology of Significant          Terrorist Incidents, 1994          
25
  B.   Background Information on Major
         Groups Discussed in the Report    33
  C.   Statistical Review                  63
  D.   Map of International Terrorist          Incidents, 1994                    
69
Inset
  HAMAS Attacks                            12 
 

                 Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1994 

The Year in Review 
There were 321 international terrorist attacks during 1994, a 25-
percent decrease from the 431 recorded the previous year and the  
lowest annual total in 23 years. Sixty-six were anti-US attacks,  
down from 88 in 1993. 
A powerful bomb destroyed a Jewish cultural center in Buenos Aires  
in July, killing nearly 100 persons and wounding more than 200  
others. The bombing could well be the work of Hizballah, which  
claimed responsibility for an almost identical bombing of the  
Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires in 1992. 
A serious hijacking occurred on 24 December in Algiers when  
terrorists from the Armed Islamic Group took over an Air France jet,  
murdered three passengers, and flew the plane with 170 hostages to  
Marseille. The assault ended two days later with a remarkably  
successful rescue operation by French commandos that resulted in the  
deaths of all four hijackers and no other fatalities. 
There were numerous deadly attacks by the Islamic extremist group  
HAMAS against Israelis. In April a bomb in Fula that exploded near a  
commuter bus killed eight persons and wounded 50, mostly children  
who were waiting to ride the bus back from school. In October a  
suicide bomber detonated a device inside a public bus in the heart  
of Tel Aviv's business and shopping district, killing 22 Israeli  
passengers plus the perpetrator and wounding at least 48. Also in  
October, two HAMAS gunmen armed with assault rifles and grenades  
attacked civilians in a popular restaurant district in the center of  
Jerusalem, killing two Israeli citizens and wounding 13 persons,  
including two Americans. 
On 9 October, Israeli Army Corporal Nachshon Wachsman, while  
hitchhiking in central Israel, was kidnapped by HAMAS terrorists.  
They demanded the release of HAMAS spiritual leader Sheikh Yassin  
and 200 Palestinian prisoners from Israeli jails and released a  
videotape of Wachsman in captivity asking that Israel comply with  
the demand. Israeli forces located Wachsman in a West Bank house,  
which they stormed in an effort to free him, but his captors killed  
him as the raid began. One Israeli soldier and three kidnappers were  
also killed. 
A member of the Jewish extremist group Kach attacked Palestinian  
worshippers at Hebron's al-Ibrahimi Mosque in February, killing 29  
and wounding more than 200. The Israeli Cabinet subsequently  
outlawed Kach and the affiliated group Kahane Chai, declaring them  
to be terrorist organizations. 
Four Americans were killed in terrorist attacks during 1994.  
Corporal Nachshon Wachsman, mentioned previously, held dual Israeli  
and American citizenship. Three other Americans died in an apparent  
suicide bombing of a Panamanian commuter aircraft in July that  
killed all 21 persons aboard. Four Americans were wounded as a  
result of HAMAS attacks in Israel during the year, and another÷an  
American priest÷was wounded after he was kidnapped by terrorists in  
the Philippines. 
Worldwide casualties numbered 314 persons dead and 663 wounded. 
There were no confirmed acts of terrorism÷either international or  
domestic÷committed in the United States during 1994. In January,  
explosive devices were found outside two New York City office  
buildings. Both buildings housed Jewish-American organizations that  
actively support the Middle East peace process. These suspected  
terrorist incidents remain under investigation by the FBI. 
On 24 May, four men convicted in the February 1993 bombing of the  
World Trade Center in New York City were each sentenced to 240 years  
in prison. The judge arrived at this figure by calculating the life  
expectancy of each of the six persons killed in the attack and  
adding mandatory prison terms for assault on a federal officer. Two  
other suspects in the bombing remained at large at the end of the  
year. 
The trial of 12 defendants accused of plotting to blow up several  
landmarks in New York City began in 1995. 
In October, a judge in St. Louis, Missouri, sentenced three members  
of the Abu Nidal organization (ANO) to prison sentences of 21 months  
for plotting acts of terrorism within the United States. The three  
had pled guilty to Federal racketeering charges that included  
allegations they smuggled money and information, bought weapons,  
recruited members, illegally obtained passports, and obstructed  
investigations. 
African Overview 
Civil wars and ethnic conflict continue to rage in Sub-Saharan  
Africa (for example, Somalia, Sudan, Angola, and Liberia), and  
several acts of international terrorism took place in Africa in  
1994. The rightwing South African rejectionist Afrikaner Resistance  
Movement detonated a car bomb in Johannesburg in protest of South  
Africa's first multiracial elections. Togolese oppositionists may  
have been responsible for a grenade attack on a French-owned  
restaurant that wounded five French and two Beninese citizens. 
Sudan turned over the international terrorist Carlos to France in  
August, but insisted that action did not represent a change in  
Sudanese policy and would not affect other terrorists harbored in  
Sudan. 
Angola 
In January, rival factions of the Front for the Liberation of the  
Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) claimed responsibility for a mortar attack  
on the Chevron administrative facility in Malongo. FLEC has targeted  
Western oil companies in the past in hopes of reducing government  
revenues. In late November, FLEC-Renovada claimed credit for  
kidnapping three Polish citizens employed by an Italian forestry  
company. 
Sierra Leone 
On 7 November the rebel group Revolutionary United Front (RUF)  
kidnapped two British engineers working for the Voluntary Service  
Organization. The group also captured four relief workers who were  
subsequently released. 
South Africa 
There were a number of serious incidents of domestic political  
violence in the runup to South Africa's first multiracial election  
in April 1994. There was also one act of international terrorism on  
27 April when members of the rightwing Afrikaner Resistance Movement  
(AWB) detonated a car bomb at the Jan Smuts Airport in Johannesburg.  
The bomb injured 16, including two Russian diplomats and a pilot for  
Swiss Air. 
Togo 
There were a number of incidents of domestic political violence in  
Togo in 1994 and one act of international terrorism. Togolese  
oppositionists, retaliating for what they believe is French support  
for President Eyadama, were probably responsible for a grenade  
attack on a French-
owned restaurant that wounded five French citizens and two Beninese. 
Uganda 
In 1994 the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), an insurgent group  
operating in northern Uganda, carried out a number of attacks  
against foreign relief organizations, accusing them of collaborating  
with the Museveni government. On 23 June, for example, the LRA  
ambushed a World Food Program convoy belonging to the Catholic  
Relief Services. 
Asian Overview 
Ethnic tensions continued to pose serious terrorism concerns in  
South Asia in 1994. The Sri Lankan separatist group Liberation  
Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) is widely believed to have been behind  
an October suicide bombing attack that killed a leading presidential  
candidate and 56 other people. Pakistan continued to provide support  
to some of the insurgents fighting in Indian-controlled Kashmir.  
Targeting of foreigners by Kashmiri militants resulted in several  
high-profile kidnappings in 1994, including the abduction of British  
and American hostages in October and the abduction of British hikers  
near Srinigar, Kashmir, in June. Pakistan continued to claim that  
India supported separatists in Sindh Province. 
Instability in Afghanistan occasionally spilled over into Pakistan.  
Afghan mujahedin kidnapped 81 Pakistanis on a schoolbus in Peshawar  
in February. Pakistani soldiers stormed the bus and killed the three  
Afghan gunmen. More than 20 camps in Afghanistan that once trained  
mujahedin to fight the Soviets are now being used to train militant  
Arabs, Kashmiris, Tajiks, and Muslims for new areas of conflict.  
Several hundred veterans of the Afghan war have been implicated in  
the violence that has wracked Algeria and Egypt during the last  
several years. Many of the supporters of the blind Egyptian cleric  
Sheikh Omar Abdul Rahman, several of whom were convicted of the  
bombing of the World Trade Center, fought with or actively supported  
the Afghan mujahedin. 
There were no attacks against US facilities in the Philippines in  
1994. Muslim extremist guerrillas÷probably from the Abu Sayyaf Group  
(ASG)÷
kidnapped an American priest in July. He was rescued by Philippine  
Marines and members of another Muslim group. On 11 December a  
Philippine Airlines 747 en route from Manila to Tokyo was bombed,  
killing one person and injuring at least 10. Khmer Rouge insurgents  
posed a growing threat to travelers in Cambodia. Over the course of  
the year, the group kidnapped and killed at least six Westerners. An  
American was freed in May after one and one-half months in  
captivity. In Thailand, in March, police discovered a truck loaded  
with explosives in downtown Bangkok near the Israeli Embassy, which  
was probably the target of an attack that was aborted when the truck  
became involved in an accident, causing the driver to flee. One  
Iranian has been put on trial in the incident. 
Afghanistan 
Afghanistan, which lacks a functioning government, remains a  
training ground for Islamic militants committed to overthrowing  
regimes that maintain strong ties to Western governments. More than  
20 camps in Afghanistan that once trained mujahedin to fight the  
Soviets are now being used to train militant Arabs, Kashmiris,  
Tajiks, and others for new areas of conflict. Most of these  
facilities÷located south and east of Kabul÷are overseen by the  
nominal Afghan Prime Minister, Gulbuddin Hikmatyar, or by one of his  
domestic rivals÷Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, the leader of a small militant  
Afghan Wahhabi party, who is backed by several affluent foreign  
benefactors. Training in these camps focuses on tactics and  
techniques for conducting terrorist and insurgent operations, such  
as instruction on the use of sophisticated weapons, improvised  
explosives, boobytraps, and timing devices for bombs. The camps  
allow militants from throughout the world to train together, meet  
with new benefactors, and help foster relationships between  
otherwise disparate extremist groups. 
Although only a few thousand veterans of the Afghan Jihad, along  
with a few hundred newly trained militants, are actively engaged in  
insurgent or terrorist activity worldwide, they are often  
responsible for raising the level of sophistication and  
destructiveness of extremist operations. Several hundred veterans of  
the Afghan war have been implicated in the violence that has wracked  
Algeria and Egypt during the last several years. Two of the leading  
Algerian extremists, Kamreddine Kherbane and Boudjemma Bounoua,  
participated in the Afghan Jihad. Many of the supporters of the  
blind Egyptian cleric, Sheikh Omar Abdul Rahman, several of whom  
were convicted of the bombing of the World Trade Center, fought with  
or actively supported the Afghan mujahedin. Many Islamists active in  
Egypt's two most violent extremist groups÷al-Gama'a al-
Islamiyya and al-Jihad÷received training in Afghanistan. 
The current Afghan regime÷deeply embroiled in its own struggle for  
survival÷has been unable to control or eliminate the training of  
extremists on its territory or terrorist use of the camps as  
safehavens. Some local Afghan leaders have taken some steps against  
the militants, but their efforts are limited by bickering, greed,  
and the militants' military and financial strength. 
Cambodia 
Diminished by defections and a declining support base, the Khmer  
Rouge increasingly turned toward banditry and terror in 1994. Khmer  
Rouge radio commentaries on several occasions threatened physical  
harm to Americans and other foreign nationals living in Cambodia.  
Travelers in some areas outside Phnom Penh, particularly remote  
rural districts, faced security threats from the Khmer Rouge and  
from bandits. An American was taken hostage and held by Khmer Rouge  
elements for one and one-half months but was eventually released  
unharmed. Many other civilians, however, were killed by the Khmer  
Rouge in 1994. The victims were mainly ordinary Cambodian villagers,  
but foreigners, including Thais, Vietnamese, and six Western  
tourists (three from Britain, two from Australia, and one from  
France), were killed by the Khmer Rouge in 1994. 
India 
India continues to face significant security problems as a result of  
insurgencies in Kashmir and the northeast. Targeting of foreigners  
by Kashmiri militants resulted in several high-profile kidnappings  
in 1994, including the abduction of British and American hostages in  
October and the abduction of British hikers near Srinagar, Kashmir,  
in June. There are credible reports of support by the Government of  
Pakistan for Kashmiri militants. The Government of India has been  
largely successful in controlling the Sikh separatist movement in  
Punjab State, and Sikh militants now only rarely stage attacks in  
India. 
The Indian Government proceeded with the investigation and trial of  
suspects in the series of blasts that struck Bombay on 12 March  
1993. On 5 August 1994, the government arrested a key suspect in the  
case, Yaqub Memon. The Memon family allegedly perpetrated the Bombay  
attack. The Government of India has claimed that Memon was carrying  
documents that incriminated Pakistan. 
Pakistan 
Pakistan continues to experience occasional violence as a result of  
instability in Afghanistan. Much of this violence occurs in  
Pakistan's northwest border region. On 20 February, Afghan mujahedin  
kidnapped 81 Pakistanis on a schoolbus in Peshawar. The hijackers  
ordered the busdriver to proceed to Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's  
residence in Islamabad. Following extensive negotiations, Pakistani  
soldiers stormed the bus and killed the three Afghan gunmen. Some  
regions of Pakistan also suffer from heavy sectarian, political, and  
criminal violence, particularly Sindh Province and its capital,  
Karachi, and the Pakistani tribal area bordering Afghanistan. 
Pakistan recognizes the problems posed by Afghan mujahedin and  
sympathetic Arabs in the Pakistani regions that border Afghanistan.  
In 1994, Islamabad refused to extend the visas of many Arabs who had  
fought in the Afghan war and who had taken refuge in Pakistan's  
tribal areas and the North West Frontier Province. Pakistan also  
closed several nongovernmental organizations it suspected were being  
used as cover agencies for Islamic militants from the Middle East.  
Pakistan concluded an extradition treaty with Egypt in late 1994  
with the express purpose of extraditing "Arab mujahedin" operating  
in Peshawar. 
The Government of Pakistan acknowledges that it continues to give  
moral, political, and diplomatic support to Kashmiri militants but  
denies allegations of other assistance. There were credible reports  
in 1994, however, of official Pakistani support to Kashmiri  
militants. Some support came from private organizations such as the  
Jamaat-i-Islami, Pakistan's largest Islamic party. Pakistan  
condemned the kidnappings in June and October 1994 of foreign  
tourists by Kashmiri militants in India. Pakistan has claimed that  
India provides support for separatists in Sindh Province. 
Philippines 
There were no attacks against official US facilities in the  
Philippines in 1994, but Muslim extremist guerrillas÷probably from  
the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)÷kidnapped an American priest, Clarence  
William Bertelsman, on 31 July. He was held for several hours before  
being rescued by Philippine Marines and members of the largest  
Muslim separatist group, the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF).  
On 11 December a Philippine Airlines 747 en route from Manila to  
Tokyo was bombed, killing one person and injuring at least 10  
others, mostly Japanese citizens. The Philippine Government has been  
trying to reach a negotiated settlement to both Communist and Muslim  
insurgencies and currently observes a cease-fire with the MNLF as  
talks continue. 
Sri Lanka 
The separatist group Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)  
continued to plague the government in 1994, with insurgency and  
terrorism directed against senior Sri Lankan political and military  
leaders in the countryside and in Colombo as well. Despite the  
beginning of peace negotiations between the government and the LTTE,  
the Tigers continued to pose a significant terrorist threat. The  
Tigers are widely believed to be behind an October suicide bombing  
attack that killed a leading presidential candidate and 56 other  
people. 
The LTTE has refrained from targeting Western tourists out of fear  
that foreign governments would crack down on Tamil expatriates  
involved in fundraising activities abroad. However, in April 1994  
the Ellalan Force, an LTTE front group, claimed credit for bombing  
several major tourist hotels in Colombo. The blasts, which caused  
only minor damage and two injuries, probably were intended to damage  
Colombo's tourist industry rather than to harm Westerners. The  
Ellalan Force also claimed in August to have poisoned tea÷Sri  
Lanka's primary export÷with arsenic, although none was ever found.  
Threatening Sri Lanka's two leading economic activities demonstrates  
the Tigers' interest in economic terrorism. The Tigers possess the  
infrastructure to make good on most of their recent threats should  
the current peace talks with the government fail. 
Thailand 
Thai police discovered a truck loaded with an ammonium nitrate  
mixture and about 6 pounds of plastic explosives in downtown Bangkok  
on 17 March. The driver abandoned the truck after hitting another  
vehicle near the Israeli Embassy, which was probably the intended  
target. The Thai Government is prosecuting one Iranian in connection  
with the attempted bombing but concluded it does not have enough  
evidence to charge two other suspects. In southern Thailand, Muslim  
separatists, such as the Pattani United Liberation Front, continued  
to engage in low-level violence against the government. 
European Overview 
Terrorism in Europe declined somewhat in 1994, in part because of a  
cease-fire in Northern Ireland declared by the Provisional Irish  
Republican Army (PIRA) on 1 September, and by the Loyalist  
paramilitary groups in early October. In the eastern Mediterranean  
region, the Greek leftist group 17 November continued to target  
foreign businesses and diplomats, as well as Greek Government  
figures, and the Turkish separatist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)  
attacked tourist sites in western Turkish resort areas on the Aegean  
Sea. In Spain, the Basque Fatherland and Liberty group (ETA)  
continued lethal attacks against Spanish police and military  
targets. A Bosnian Muslim protesting the three-year-old conflict in  
the former Yugoslavia hijacked a domestic SAS flight in Norway;  
there were no casualties. 
Ethnic tensions in regions of the former Soviet Union have spawned  
acts of terrorism in the Caucasus and the Baltic republics. In  
September there was an attempted bombing of an airliner in Georgia.  
In November there was a hijacking of a Russian airliner to Estonia,  
which ended peacefully. In Lithuania, there were two bombings of a  
rail line connecting the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad with the  
Russian republic. Violence in this region has not, for the most  
part, been directed at foreigners. 
Albania 
On 10 April several gunmen crossed into Albania from Greece and  
stormed a border guard facility, killing two persons and seriously  
wounding three others before returning across the Greek border. A  
group calling itself the "Northern Epirus Liberation Front" (MAVI)  
claimed responsibility for the incident. It accused the Albanian  
Government of violating the rights of the ethnic Greek minority in  
Albania and berated Athens for not doing enough to support the  
minority. MAVI also issued a pamphlet last fall announcing the  
commencement of an "armed struggle" against Tirana and demanding,  
inter alia, the cessation of the alleged "colonization" of "Northern  
Epirus"÷the Greek name for southern Albania, which has a large  
ethnic Greek population÷by Albanians from the north. MAVI was the  
name of an ethnic Greek resistance group in Albania during World War  
II that operated first against the invading Italians and then  
against the Communists. Press reports state that the group was  
disbanded in the 1940s, although responsibility for the 1984 bombing  
of the Albanian Embassy in Athens was claimed in its name. 
Azerbaijan 
Several Armenian intelligence officers are being held in Moscow,  
accused of complicity in a series of bombings against the Baku  
Metro, as well as Azerbaijani trains in Russia and Azerbaijan that  
killed 45 persons and wounded at least 130. The Azerbaijani Supreme  
Court sentenced an ethnic Russian involved in the crimes to eight  
years in prison for engaging in intelligence work against Azerbaijan  
and committing acts of sabotage on its territory. 
The Baltics 
Anti-Russian sentiment may have been the catalyst for explosions and  
bomb threats in the Baltics last year. On 28 February, when Latvian  
and Russian delegations resumed talks on the withdrawal of Russian  
troops from Latvia, a minor blast caused by an estimated one-half  
kilogram of TNT damaged a power pylon near Skrunda. When Latvian and  
Russian officials initialed agreements on 15 March allowing Russia  
to retain its radar station for another five and a half years,  
Latvian police discovered and disarmed a timer-controlled device  
armed with 12 kilograms of TNT at the base of another pylon. In  
November, a powerful explosion destroyed a railroad bridge in  
Lithuania on the main railway line for international trains  
traveling between Moscow and the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad. The  
incident may have been connected to a controversy surrounding  
negotiations over an agreement to allow Russian military trains to  
transit Lithuania to Kaliningrad. 
France 
France scored a number of successes against international terrorists  
in 1994. In August, the Sudanese Government handed over notorious  
terrorist Illych Ramirez Sanchez, a.k.a. "Carlos," previously  
convicted in absentia in France for the murder of two French  
intelligence officers. He will probably be retried on this charge  
and possibly others after French officials complete their  
investigations. In September, French officials also arrested Dursun  
Karatas, leader of the Turkish leftwing group Dev Sol, for entering  
France using a false passport. (He has since apparently escaped.)  
Karatas is under investigation for complicity in attacks against  
French interests in Turkey during the Gulf war. 
French authorities made a number of sweeps against foreign Islamic  
extremists, seizing arms and false documents. They arrested or  
expelled a number of North Africans believed to have links to  
extremist organizations. In November, for example, French police  
detained 80 persons tied to Algeria's Armed Islamic Group. French  
police also arrested several members of the Basque terrorist  
organization ETA, including the group's second-highest ranking  
member, in three separate incidents during the year. 
In December, a French court convicted two Iranians of involvement in  
the murder of former Iranian Prime Minister Bakhtiar in 1991. A  
third defendant, an Iranian Embassy employee, was acquitted. 
On 26 December, France's National Gendarmerie Action Group stormed  
an Air France plane hijacked from Algiers to Marseille, killing the  
four hijackers and rescuing 170 passengers and crew. 
Germany 
The Red Army Faction (RAF) remained deeply divided between those who  
opted for political means and those who wanted to engage in  
violence. German courts granted early release to two RAF members:  
Irmgard Moeller, who served 22 years of a life sentence for a car  
bomb attack that killed three US soldiers in 1972, and Ingrid  
Jakobsmeier, who served two-thirds of her sentence for participating  
in attacks against the US military in 1981. German authorities  
believe the two pose no further terrorist threat. Another RAF  
member, Birgit Hogefeld, went on trial in November for her part in a  
number of attacks, including a bombing at a US airbase in Frankfurt  
in 1985 that killed a US soldier. 
Several smaller leftwing factions resumed operations. After a six-
year hiatus, the Revolutionary Cells (RZ) reappeared with an arson  
attack on the Frankfurt subway system protesting higher fares and  
"racist" practices among ticket controllers. Red Zora, the feminist  
branch of the RZ, also reemerged and set fire to trucks belonging to  
a company that supplied groceries to refugee facilities on the  
premise that the firm was "making money off refugees." Unidentified  
leftwing terrorists, probably on the RAF periphery, bombed offices  
of the ruling political parties in two cities in September. 
Rightwing extremist attacks continued to decline last year. There  
were still more than 1,000 reported attacks÷down from about 2,200 in  
1993÷but arson and mob attacks against refugee homes virtually  
ceased, and assaults on individual foreigners occurred less  
frequently. The most significant incident took place on 12 May, when  
at least 50 youths chased five foreigners through the streets of  
Magdeburg. However, during 1994, the number of anti-Semitic attacks  
increased; rightwing extremists threw firebombs at a synagogue in  
Luebeck and desecrated Jewish cemeteries elsewhere. 
Greece 
Greece was the venue for a large number of international terrorist  
attacks in 1994. The most deadly attack was the 4 July assassination  
of the acting Deputy Chief of Mission of the Turkish Embassy,  
claimed by the Revolutionary Organization 17 November. Events in the  
Balkans probably sparked a number of other attacks against Western  
interests in Greece in April, including an unsuccessful mortar  
attack against the British aircraft carrier Ark Royal in Piraeus  
claimed by 17 November. Attacks also were made against American,  
Dutch, French, and German commercial and diplomatic targets. The  
Revolutionary People's Struggle (ELA) claimed two bombing attempts  
against the office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugee Affairs. 
In July, three improvised bombs exploded on the Island of Rhodes,  
injuring one foreign tourist and a Greek citizen. No group has  
claimed responsibility. 
Greek authorities made little progress in 1994 against terrorist  
groups, in part due to ambivalent government attitudes toward  
counterterrorism. Greece still lacks a new antiterrorism law to  
replace legislation repealed in December 1993 by the incoming PASOK  
government. In addition, suspected terrorist Georgios Balafas was  
acquitted on 25 July of murder, armed robbery, and other charges. He  
still faces trial in two other cases÷weapons and narcotics  
charges÷but was released in September on "humanitarian" grounds  
after a reported hunger strike. While in the prison hospital, he was  
visited by the then Minister of Transportation and Communications as  
a "gesture of support." 
Italy 
Leftwing groups modeled on the largely defunct Red Brigades carried  
out several small-scale attacks, including the bombing of the NATO  
Defense College in Rome on 10 January. The attack was claimed by the  
Combatant Communist Nuclei for the Construction of the Combatant  
Communist Party. 
In September, four members of the Red Brigades for the Construction  
of the Communist Combatant Party, another neoöRed Brigades group,  
were convicted of involvement in the attack on the NATO base in  
Aviano in September 1993. 
Russia 
Separatist and internal power struggles, particularly in the North  
Caucasus region of Russia, continued to spawn domestic violence and  
terrorism. In July, four gunmen from the separatist Chechnya region  
hijacked a bus carrying more than 40 passengers. The incident ended  
tragically when four hostages were killed as Russian police stormed  
the hijackers' getaway helicopter. There were also a number of  
airplane hijackings, including one in the Chechnya region in which  
the hijacker blew himself up after releasing several passengers and  
watching the others escape. 
Spain 
Spanish authorities scored several successes against the separatist  
group Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA), including the disruption  
of the "Comando Vizcaya" subunit in November. One ETA member was  
killed and two arrested after a failed assassination attempt against  
a Spanish soldier. Continuing close cooperation between Spanish and  
French police resulted in a September raid on an ETA explosives  
factory in France and the arrest of five ETA members in November,  
including the group's number-two figure. 
ETA carried out one act of international terrorism in 1994 with the  
attempted assassination of the Spanish military attache in Rome.  
Domestic attacks by ETA fell off at the end of the year, but the  
group retains its lethal capabilities. 
Turkey 
International terrorism has become an important part of the  
Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) campaign to establish a breakaway  
state in southeast Turkey and presents a potentially serious threat  
to US interests. PKK attacks against tourists in Turkey last year  
were particularly violent, although the overall number of terrorist  
attacks was significantly lower than in 1993. Three attacks on  
tourist sites in Istanbul in May killed two foreign tourists÷the  
first to be killed by the PKK÷and injured several others. In June,  
the PKK was also responsible for several small bombs that exploded  
in two Turkish resort towns on the Mediterranean coast, killing a  
British woman and injuring at least 10 other tourists. In the latest  
in a series of kidnappings of foreign travelers, the PKK abducted  
two Finnish tourists on 8 August and released them unharmed three  
weeks later. The PKK also attacked government and commercial targets  
in major Turkish cities, presenting an incidental risk to foreign  
visitors, as well as Turks. PKK terrorist attacks on Turkish  
citizens, including ethnic Kurds, continued unabated. 
The PKK continued to expand its activities in Western Europe, where  
its members clashed with police frequently throughout the year. For  
the first time, the PKK also directly targeted Western interests in  
Europe. It blocked highways in Germany with burning tires in March  
and conducted demonstrations in a number of German cities, some of  
which turned into violent confrontations with the police. After  
German police killed a Kurdish youth in Hannover, the PKK organized  
protests and sit-ins at the German Embassy in Athens and a German  
Consulate in Denmark. The PKK also mounted demonstrations in several  
West European countries after British immigration authorities  
detained Kani Yilmaz, the senior PKK leader in Europe, in October.  
The PKK also opened offices of its political wing (ERNK) in Italy  
and Greece. 
The Marxist/Leninist terrorist group Dev Sol (Devrimci Sol), or  
Revolutionary Left, remained a threat to US interests and personnel  
in Turkey, despite a series of setbacks the group has suffered over  
the last two years. Dev Sol's two factions were largely inactive  
last year as they continued to battle each other and as the Turkish  
police arrested numerous operatives. Some members of the group  
sprang into action after French authorities arrested Dursun Karatas,  
the head of the major Dev Sol faction, on 9 September as he tried to  
enter France from Italy on falsified documents. Over the next  
several weeks, Dev Sol supporters protested in Austria, Belgium, and  
the Netherlands demanding Karatas' release. Dev Sol operatives in  
Turkey assassinated former Justice Minister Mehmet Topac on 29  
September in Ankara and also killed a policeman in Istanbul. 
Several groups of loosely organized Turkish Islamic extremists, who  
advocate an Islamic government for Turkey, attacked targets  
associated with the Turkish secular state. They claimed attacks  
under a variety of names, such as Islamic Jihad, the Islamic  
Movement Organization, and the Islamic Great Eastern Raiders Front.  
The Islamic extremists also pursue a strong anti-Western agenda. In  
May 1994, Islamic terrorists claimed responsibility for bombing the  
Ankara branch of the Freemason organization. In September, a Turkish  
political scientist known for his secular writings escaped death  
when a car bomb planted by Islamic extremists failed to explode. 
United Kingdom 
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) announced a "complete  
cessation of military operations" beginning on 1 September. Other  
Republican splinter groups in Northern Ireland also ceased attacks  
after that date, although most have not formally agreed to a cease-
fire. PIRA's leadership denied authorizing the use of firearms in a  
robbery on 10 November carried out by a lower-level unit in Newry  
that resulted in the death of a postal worker. The Combined Military  
Loyalist Command, an umbrella group comprising three loyalist  
paramilitary groups, announced its own cease-fire beginning 14  
October. 
Both Loyalists and Republicans carried out a number of international  
and domestic terrorist attacks before the cease-fire. Loyalists  
carried out several attacks in the Republic of Ireland, including a  
lethal attack in May on a Dublin pub during a Sinn Fein fundraiser.  
In March three separate attacks by PIRA on Heathrow International  
Airport in London failed when the mortar rounds used did not  
detonate. 
On 26 October, British authorities arrested Faysal Dunlayici, a.k.a.  
Kani Yilmaz, a high-ranking leader of the PKK based in Europe. The  
arrest sparked protests from PKK supporters in the United Kingdom,  
and Germany and Turkey have requested his extradition. 
On 26 July, a bomb contained in a car exploded outside the Israeli  
Chancery in London at approximately noon causing substantial  
structural damage and injuring 14 persons. The car carrying the  
explosives was driven by a woman described as in her fifties and  
"Middle Eastern" in appearance. On 27 July, shortly after midnight,  
another bomb contained in a car exploded in north London outside  
Balfour House, a Jewish fundraising organization. This bomb caused  
some structural damage to the building but resulted in limited  
casualties, primarily because of the time it was detonated. Five  
passers-by were injured by the blast. 
Former Yugoslavia 
Ethnic conflict and endemic violence plagued the former Yugoslavia  
for a third year, although in 1994 the fighting was largely  
restricted to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Meanwhile, a Bosnian Muslim,  
claiming that he wanted to focus world attention on the plight of  
his kinsmen, hijacked an SAS airliner during a domestic flight in  
Norway on 3 November. He surrendered peacefully to Norwegian  
authorities after landing in Oslo. This was the first such incident  
on behalf of one of the warring factions of the former Yugoslavia. 
Latin American Overview 
Latin America continued to have a high level of international  
terrorist activity, although the number of attacks decreased by 40  
percent from the previous year to 58 attacks. 
In July, an attack on the Argentine-Israeli Mutual Association  
(AMIA) in Buenos Aires killed nearly 100 persons and injured more  
than 200. The leading suspect in this incident is Hizballah. Twenty-
one persons, of whom 12 were Jewish, were killed when a Panamanian  
commuter aircraft was bombed in July, apparently by a suicide  
bomber. These attacks raised concerns about the reported presence of  
members of Hizballah in Latin America, especially in the triborder  
area where Brazilian, Argentine, and Paraguayan territories meet. 
Colombia continued to suffer the highest incidence of terrorist  
violence in the region. Guerrillas attacked the democratic process  
by attempting to sabotage Colombia's 1994 presidential,  
congressional, and departmental elections. Rebel organizations also  
targeted petroleum companies and infiltrated trade unions,  
particularly in the banana and petroleum industries, intimidating  
rank-and-file union members. US business interests and Mormon  
missionaries were attacked by guerrillas, and nine US citizens were  
being held hostage by guerrillas at the end of the year. Six of  
these were US missionaries. Kidnapping continued as a major source  
of income for the Colombian guerrillas. 
Guerrillas in the region continued to attack national interests  
causing damage to local economies particularly in Colombia, Peru,  
and Guatemala. In the Andean Region, the connection between  
guerrilla groups and narco-
traffickers remained strong. Guerrillas forced coca and amapola  
cultivators to pay protection money and attacked government efforts  
to reduce production. 
Terrorist violence decreased in Peru during the year. The Sendero  
Luminoso (Shining Path) assassinated 150 persons, down from 516 the  
previous year when its leader was imprisoned. Various Peruvian  
terrorist groups suffered setbacks due to arrests, casualties, and  
defections under the government's amnesty program. Government  
actions in Chile also resulted in a decline of terrorist violence. 
In reaction to the terrorist violence in the region, the heads of  
state of the Western Hemisphere nations adopted a plan of action  
against terrorism at the December Summit of the Americas. The plan  
called for cooperation among nations in combating terrorism and for  
the prosecution of terrorists while protecting human rights. The  
nations of the hemisphere also agreed to convene a special OAS  
conference on the prevention of terrorism and reaffirmed the  
importance of extradition treaties in combating terrorism. 
Argentina 
Argentina suffered the worst terrorist attack perpetrated in Latin  
America during 1994. On 18 July, a suicide bomber detonated a  
vehicle loaded with explosives in front of the AMIA. The powerful  
bombing killed nearly 100 people, many of whom were crushed by the  
collapsing building. The bombing of Argentina's main Jewish center  
was operationally similar to the 1992 bombing directed against the  
Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, which left 29 persons dead and  
destroyed the building. The Islamic Jihad organization, an arm of  
the Lebanese Hizballah, claimed responsibility for the 1992 bombing.  
According to media reports, an organization using the name Ansar  
Allah, or Followers of God, issued a statement expressing support  
for the 1994 operation. The Argentine Government dedicated  
substantial resources to investigate the bombing, but the crime  
remained unsolved at yearend. 
Chile 
Politically motivated violence in Chile declined dramatically in  
1994 as Chilean security forces reined in the nation's terrorist  
groups. In June, the government all but eliminated the Lautaro  
terrorist organization by capturing its founder and leader,  
Guillermo Ossandon, one of the most wanted outlaws in Chile. A  
second round of arrests was made against second-tier Lautaro leaders  
in August. Two prominent members of the Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic  
Front (FPMR) voluntarily returned from exile to Chile and were  
arrested by police. One of them, Sergio Buschman÷wanted for his role  
in directing a multiton shipment of Cuban-supplied weapons into  
Chile in 1986÷had escaped from a Chilean prison in 1987 and lived  
several years in Nicaragua. 
Colombia 
Colombia's two main guerrilla groups÷the Revolutionary Armed Forces  
of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army  
(ELN)÷intensified political violence during 1994, particularly  
preceding presidential, congressional, and municipal elections. In  
part to intimidate politicians and government officials, the  
insurgents conducted dozens of bombings, kidnappings of candidates,  
and assassinations of local officials and members of the security  
forces. In July, the FARC assassinated an Army general, the highest  
ranking Army casualty in two decades. 
While the vast majority of the violence in the nation was directed  
against local targets, Colombia was the location of 41 international  
terrorist attacks in 1994, the highest in the region. Oil pipelines  
owned jointly by the Government of Colombia and Western companies  
continued to be bombed by the rebels, but at a slower pace than in  
1993. US interests sustained several terrorist attacks during the  
year, more than in any other Latin American country. For instance,  
suspected ELN rebels bombed a Coca-Cola plant in January, and FARC  
and ELN guerrillas attacked at least five Mormon churches during the  
year. The rebels also conducted a series of kidnappings of US  
citizens; the FARC is suspected of kidnapping at least five US  
citizens in 1994. At yearend, both rebel groups held hostage as many  
as nine Americans, six of whom are US missionaries. This appears to  
be the largest number of Americans held in Colombia at any one time. 
In 1994 there were 1,378 reported kidnappings, a 35-percent increase  
from 1993. This figure, however, is considered low because many  
families deal with the kidnappers directly without reporting the  
crime. It is estimated that 50 percent of these recorded instances  
were by guerrillas who rely on the ransom payments to finance their  
activities. 
In November, after only a few months in office, President Ernesto  
Samper announced his administration's willingness to negotiate with  
the nation's violent guerrilla organizations, emphasizing that the  
insurgents need to demonstrate a genuine desire for reaching a  
negotiated settlement. Unlike his predecessor, the President did not  
condition negotiations on a rebel cease-fire. While both the FARC  
and ELN have characterized the government's proposal as positive,  
government officials cautioned against expectations that  
negotiations would begin soon. 
The government is also exposing further links between the guerrillas  
and narcotraffickers. Various guerrilla fronts, particularly in  
southeastern Colombia, provide security and other services for  
different narcotics trafficking organizations. 
Ecuador 
The only significant act of domestic terrorism in 1994 was the  
dynamiting of a power transmission tower in May by a group known as  
the Red Sun, which led to the rapid apprehension of the group's  
leadership. The group was disbanded following the arrest of its  
leaders. 
[INSET] 
HAMAS Attacks 
Operations by the Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS) against  
Israelis in the occupied territories and inside Israel have  
increased in number and lethality. While most of these incidents,  
which are aimed at the peace process, do not qualify as  
"international terrorism" and as such do not appear in the  
statistics in the appendix of this book, they are a very disturbing  
trend. 
HAMAS attacks killed 55 Israelis and wounded more than 130 in 1994,  
resulting in the highest number of Israeli casualties inside Israel  
since the intifadah began in 1987: 
--  Car bomb attacks in April on commuter buses in Afula and a bus  
station in Hadera killed 14 and wounded approximately 75. A bomb on  
a commuter bus in downtown Tel Aviv in October during the early  
morning commuter hours killed 22 and wounded at least 48, and a 25  
December bomb attack on an Israeli Defense Force (IDF) bus in  
Jerusalem wounded 12. 
--  HAMAS militants conducted other high-profile attacks that did  
not involve bombs: a shooting on a busy tourist street in  
Jerusalem÷a few blocks from the King David Hotel where Secretary of  
State Warren Christopher was staying÷that killed two and wounded 14,  
and the kidnapping of IDF Corporal Nachshon Wachsman on the same  
day. After intense security sweeps by the Israelis and the  
Palestinian Authority, the kidnappers' hideout was eventually  
discovered and a rescue attempted on 14 October. During the attempt,  
Wachsman, another IDF soldier, and three HAMAS personnel were  
killed. Wachsman held dual US-Israeli citizenship. 
--  The Movement kept up a steady drumbeat of small-scale attacks  
during 1994. According to press reports, HAMAS members killed at  
least 13 IDF soldiers and settlers in small-scale knife attacks,  
shootings, and at least one ax murder of a female IDF soldier. 
HAMAS attacks would have killed even more Israelis during the past  
year, but several miscarried. According to press reports, at least  
two HAMAS car bombs exploded prematurely, killing only the bombers.  
In the 25 December attack, the IDF's bus driver in Jerusalem did not  
allow the bomber to enter the bus. The bomber detonated the device  
on the street, killing himself but no passengers, although 12 were  
injured. 
[END INSET]  (###) 

Guatemala 
Despite on-again/off-again peace talks, Guatemala's34-year-old  
insurgency continues. There are three major armed guerrilla  
groups÷the FAR (Revolutionary Armed Forces), the ORPA (Revolutionary  
Organization of the People in Arms), and the EGP (Guerrilla Army of  
the Poor). These groups, along with the Communist PGT (Guatemalan  
Workers' Party), are allied in the URNG (Guatemalan National  
Revolutionary Union). 
Panama 
On 19 July a bomb aboard a commuter plane flying between Colon and  
Panama City detonated, killing all 21 persons aboard, including  
three American citizens. Twelve of the passengers were Jews.  
According to media reports, an organization using the name Ansar  
Allah, or Followers of God, issued a statement expressing support  
for the bombing, which appeared to be a suicide operation by a  
person with a Middle Eastern name. Panama has made no arrests in  
connection with the bombing, but it is cooperating closely with a US  
law enforcement investigation. 
At yearend, Panamanian authorities had outstanding arrest warrants  
for two of the three individuals sought for questioning in  
connection with the 1992 murder of US Army Corporal Zak Hernandez.  
On 23 September, Panamanian President Ernesto Perez Balladares  
granted amnesties to 216 individuals, including six former  
Panamanian Defense Force personnel linked to the 1989 kidnapping,  
torture, and murder of American citizen Raymond Dragseth during  
Operation Just Cause. 
Peru 
Political violence and the number of international terrorist  
incidents in Peru declined in 1994. Both of Peru's terrorist  
organizations÷Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) and the Tupac Amaru  
Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)÷suffered serious reversals during the  
year, including numerous arrests, casualties, and defections under  
the government's amnesty program for terrorists, which was phased  
out in November. The MRTA, the smaller of the two groups, was hit  
hard by the government's counterterrorism effort and is virtually  
defunct. 
Two years after the capture of Abimael Guzman, Sendero Luminoso's  
founder and leader, the Maoist terrorist group is struggling,  
attempting to rebuild and resolve its leadership problems. Guzman's  
1993 peace offer continued to divide the organization between  
Sendero militants in favor of continuing the armed struggle and  
those preferring to adhere to their jailed leader's proposal.  
Consequently, recruitment of new cadres has been hindered. Moreover,  
during the past two years Sendero's financial lifeline÷the narcotics  
industry in the coca-rich Upper Huallaga Valley (UHV)÷was disrupted,  
largely because of a coca plant fungus in UHV and a more active  
government counternarcotics policy. 
The Fujimori government continued to maintain its momentum against  
Sendero in 1994. Peruvian police detained two Sendero Central  
Committee members operating in Lima, weakening the group's urban  
infrastructure and a planned terrorism campaign to commemorate a  
revered Sendero anniversary in June. The arrests further exacerbated  
logistic and financial problems in the organization. One of the  
detainees, Moises Limaco, was one of the most senior Sendero leaders  
reportedly responsible for coordinating logistics and personnel. 
Despite these setbacks, Sendero proved it can still inflict serious  
damage. During 1994, Sendero murdered more than 150 Peruvians, down  
from 516 in 1993. In February, suspected Sendero militants detonated  
an 80-
kilogram car bomb against the Air Force headquarters building in  
central Lima, killing two persons. In October, the group destroyed  
six electrical towers, cutting off power temporarily in nearly all  
of Lima, much of the Peruvian coast, and part of the Sierra  
highlands. 
Uruguay 
Three suspected members of the Basque separatist movement ETA were  
extradited to Spain in August by the Uruguayan Supreme Court.  
President Luis Alberto Lacalle's refusal to grant political asylum  
for the three prompted death threats against Uruguayan diplomats in  
Spain. Riots outside the hospital where the hunger strikers were  
held on the day of their extradition resulted in one death, 90  
injuries, and 28 arrests. 
Middle Eastern Overview 
Terrorist violence in the Middle East continued at a high level in  
1994. Extremist Muslim groups, such as the Islamic Resistance  
Movement (HAMAS) and Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), demonstrated  
an increasingly deadly and sophisticated capability to mount  
terrorist attacks aimed at destroying the Middle East peace process.  
In Algeria, a brutal internal conflict escalated, posing new threats  
to the foreign community and the safety of civil aviation. 
In Israel and the occupied territories, the peace process came under  
sustained attack by militants determined to derail the negotiations  
between the Palestinian Authority (PA) and the Government of Israel.  
Both HAMAS and the PIJ increased their activities within Israel, in  
the process demonstrating an improved ability to mount more  
sophisticated and deadly attacks. In the worst such incident during  
the year, the military wing of HAMAS, the Izz el-Din al-Qassam  
Brigades, claimed responsibility for the 19 October suicide bombing  
of a commuter bus in the heart of downtown Tel Aviv that killed 22  
Israelis. PIJ also claimed numerous attacks on Israelis, including  
the 11 November suicide bombing at Netzarim junction in Gaza that  
killed three Israeli soldiers. The Chairman of the PA, Yasir Arafat,  
condemned these attacks and took some steps to counter anti-Israeli  
terrorism. PA security cooperation with Israeli authorities was  
generally close, as demonstrated by the substantial assistance  
provided by Palestinian security authorities to Israel during the  
hunt for a kidnapped Israeli Army corporal in October. Nevertheless,  
Israeli officials called for a more effective crackdown by the PA on  
Palestinian terrorist elements. Violent Jewish opposition to the  
peace process also occurred; in March, the Israeli Government banned  
the extremist Kach and Kahane Chai groups as terrorist organizations  
after a Kach member murdered 29 Palestinian worshippers in a Hebron  
mosque in February. 
The security situation in Algeria continued to deteriorate as the  
Armed Islamic Group (AIG) stepped up attacks against the Algerian  
regime and civilians. Foreigners resident in Algeria were key  
targets as well; 63 were killed during 1994 by AIG forces. A French  
Consulate employee was slain in January, and in August an attempt  
was made to explode a car bomb at a French diplomatic housing  
compound. The AIG employed an ominous new tactic in December, when  
AIG militants hijacked an Air France jet at Algiers airport, killing  
a French Embassy cook and a Vietnamese diplomat in the process.  
Efforts by the major Islamist and non-Islamist opposition parties to  
establish a political dialogue with the regime were unsuccessful,  
increasing the likelihood of intensified political violence. 
In Egypt, the security services scored numerous successes against  
militants seeking to overthrow the government and establish an  
Islamic state. Intensified counterterrorism efforts, improved police  
work, and the death of an important Islamic Group (IG) leader in a  
police raid in April helped disrupt IG activities and stem the tide  
of antiforeigner attacks, which killed five tourists in 1994. IG  
threats against the UN-
sponsored International Conference on Population and Development did  
not result in any security incidents, most likely due to the efforts  
of Egyptian security authorities and a still disorganized IG. The IG  
does, however, retain the capacity to attack foreign targets and  
disrupt the tourism industry, as evidenced by shooting assaults in  
September and October that killed three foreigners and three  
Egyptians. 
Jordanian authorities continued in 1994 to maintain a tight grip on  
the internal security situation. Dozens of individuals were arrested  
in terrorism-related cases during the year, including 20 persons  
suspected of involvement in a series of bombings and other planned  
terrorist incidents. Jordan and Israel signed a full treaty of peace  
on 26 October 1994. Under the terms of the treaty, Jordan and Israel  
are committed to cooperation in combating terrorism of all kinds.  
However, HAMAS and other Palestinian extremists continue to maintain  
a presence in Amman. 
Security conditions in Lebanon improved during 1994 as the  
government continued to take steps to extend its authority and  
reestablish the rule of law. In January, the government promptly  
arrested and prosecuted persons associated with the ANO and who  
assassinated a Jordanian diplomat. In April a prominent Iraqi  
expatriate oppositionist residing in Beirut was assassinated. The  
Government of Lebanon stated that it had firm evidence linking the  
killing to the Government of Iraq, arrested two Iraqi diplomats in  
connection with the incident, and broke diplomatic relations with  
Iraq. In March, the government banned armed demonstrations after a  
public celebration by the militant organization Hizballah. The  
government also put on trial former Lebanese Forces warlord Samir  
Ja'ja on charges of domestic terrorism and announced that the  
investigation into the 1983 bombings of the US and French  
peacekeepers' barracks would be "revived." However, significant  
threats to the safety of foreigners remained. Hizballah publicly  
threatened American interests and continued to operate with impunity  
in areas of Lebanon not controlled by the central government,  
including the south, the Biq'a Valley, and Beirut's southern  
suburbs. Numerous Palestinian groups with a history of terrorist  
violence maintain a presence in Lebanon; these include the Popular  
Front for the Liberation of PalestineöGeneral Command and the ANO. 
Moroccan authorities, alarmed by an attack on a hotel in Marrakech  
in August that killed two Spanish tourists, sought evidence that the  
incident was linked to other assaults in the country. Allegations  
surfaced that these attacks were politically related to the crisis  
in Algeria. Criminal motivations, however, are another strong  
possibility, and the August attack was not followed by other such  
incidents as of the end of the year. 
Algeria 
The overall security situation deteriorated even further in 1994 as  
violence intensified throughout the country, affecting Algerians  
from all walks of life. Although Islamic extremists remained highly  
fractionalized, most of the violence was focused against regime and  
military targets. The extremist AIG waged a bloody war against  
Algerian civilians. The AIG also targeted foreigners, with 63 killed  
in 1994. 
The influence of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) over the  
extremist elements appeared to slip even further in 1994 as most of  
the group's leaders remained in prison. In September the government  
released into house arrest FIS president Abassi Madani and vice  
president Ali Belhadj. The overall level of violence on all sides  
nonetheless increased. 
The extremist AIG instead intensified its attacks against Algerian  
civilians, including journalists, unveiled women and girls, the  
intelligentsia, and anyone it accused of "cooperating" with the  
regime. The group often used tactics such as beheading and throat-
slitting. Attacks against foreigners also increased markedly since  
the AIG began its antiforeigner campaign in September 1993. On 15  
January a French Consulate employee was murdered; the campaign  
against French residents in Algeria reached a peak with the 3 August  
attack on a French diplomat housing compound where extremists  
attempted to detonate a car laden with explosives. 
Other examples of attacks against foreigners included the 8 May  
murders of two French priests, the 11 July attack against five  
foreigners on their way to work at a state-owned oil site, the one-
week hostage holding of the Omani and Yemeni Ambassadors, and the 18  
October execution of two Schlumberger employees at a Sonatrach oil  
site. The AIG's attacks against foreigners grew more sophisticated  
throughout 1994, and the group's operations demonstrated a  
significant level of coordination in some cases. While the AIG was  
responsible for most of the attacks against foreigners in 1994,  
there are many extremist cells operating in Algeria that do not fall  
under a central authority that may also be responsible for such  
attacks. 
On 24 December, members of the AIG hijacked an Air France flight in  
Algeria. The plane arrived in Marseille, France, on 26 December. A  
French antiterrorist unit stormed the plane, ending the 54-hour  
siege in which three hostages were killed by the terrorists. All  
four terrorists were killed during the rescue. 
Despite the Algerian regime's "carrot and stick" approach, the  
security situation at the end of 1994 remained grim. Efforts by the  
major Islamist and non-Islamist opposition parties to establish a  
political dialogue with the regime were unsuccessful; at no point  
during these efforts did the military halt its campaign against the  
Islamists. President Zeroual announced in November 1994 that  
presidential elections would take place by the end of 1995 but left  
open the question of who would be allowed to participate. The major  
opposition parties denounced the election proposal. Continued  
bloodshed appeared to be the most likely scenario for the beginning  
of 1995. 
Egypt 
The pace of attacks by Islamic extremists on tourist sites in Egypt  
fell off somewhat during 1994. Five foreign tourists were killed in  
separate attacks, and more than 20 Egyptian civilians were killed in  
various attacks throughout Egypt in 1994. Egypt's tourism industry,  
which had suffered greatly from the sustained 1993 campaign of  
attacks against tourist sites, began to recover somewhat in 1994 as  
the Egyptian Government made some successful gains in stemming the  
attacks. 
Most attacks against Egyptian official and civilian targets, and  
against foreign tourists, were claimed by the extremist Islamic  
Group (IG). The IG seeks the violent overthrow of the Egyptian  
Government and began attacking tourist targets in 1992. The IG  
considers Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman its "spiritual" leader; at  
yearend, he awaited trial in the United States on charges related to  
the conspiracy to attack various New York City landmarks and the  
United Nations. 
In February, the IG initiated a limited bombing campaign against  
Western banks in the Cairo area. Over two months, seven banks were  
bombed, and an additional four bombs planted at other banks were  
defused. Injuries were limited, and only one of the banks suffered  
major damage. Nonetheless, the bank bombing campaign represented an  
extension of the IG's antiforeigner attacks, and it coincided with  
another IG campaign of attacks against trains in Assiut, upper  
Egypt. Eight tourists were injured in February in a series of  
shooting attacks against trains running in that province. The bank  
bombings ended in March with the arrests of the alleged  
perpetrators. 
In April, Egypt stepped up its counterterrorism efforts, focusing  
particularly on the Cairo area. An important IG leader was killed  
during a police raid, which appeared to disrupt the organization of  
the group. There was a significant drop in the number of violent  
incidents from April through August throughout Egypt, but  
particularly in Cairo. This was accomplished by more effective  
police work, enhanced security in the troubled Assiut Province, and  
perhaps a dropoff in recruitment levels of extremists. 
In August, the IG attacked a tourist bus in upper Egypt, killing one  
Spanish tourist and warning foreigners not to come to Egypt for the  
International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The  
UN-
sponsored ICPD was held in September in Cairo; no incidents occurred  
in Cairo during the conference, probably due in part to greatly  
enhanced security and a still disorganized IG. 
The IG continued to pose a limited threat to foreigners in Egypt at  
the close of 1994, as a September shooting attack on a market street  
in the Red Sea resort area of Hurghada resulted in the death of one  
German tourist and two Egyptians. In the fall, the IG appeared to  
shift the venue of its attacks to the upper Egyptian Provinces of  
Minya and Qena. An October attack on a minibus traveling in upper  
Egypt, which led to the death of a British tourist, demonstrated  
that the IG retained the capability to inflict injuries and damage  
the tourism industry. 
Israel and the Occupied Territories 
Terrorist attacks and violence instigated by Palestinians continued  
at a high level in 1994. Seventy-three Israeli soldiers and  
civilians were killed and more than 100 wounded in 1994, up slightly  
from 1993. There was a significant increase in the number of  
Israelis killed inside Israel÷as compared with only 14 in 1993. 
The Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS) killed roughly 55 Israelis  
and wounded more than 150 in 1994 as part of a terror campaign to  
derail the peace process. HAMAS's armed wing, the Izz el-Din al-
Qassam, claimed responsibility for the April bombings of buses in  
Afula and Hadera, which together killed 14 Israelis and wounded  
nearly 75. In October, al-
Qassam launched three high-profile attacks on Israelis: the 9  
October shooting of people on the streets of Jerusalem, which left  
two dead; the kidnapping of Israel Defense Force Corporal Nachshon  
Wachsman, which resulted in the killing of Wachsman and one other  
Israeli soldier; and the bombing of a commuter bus in Tel Aviv,  
which killed 22. HAMAS spokesmen announced that these attacks were  
part of the group's policy of jihad against the "Israeli occupation  
of all of Palestine" and retaliation for the Hebron Massacre. 
Other Palestinian groups that reject the Gaza-Jericho accord and the  
peace process also attacked Israelis. Palestinian Islamic Jihad  
(PIJ)ö
Shiqaqi faction claimed responsibility for a suicide bomber who  
attacked an Israeli patrol in Gaza in November killing three Israeli  
soldiers. PIJ claimed at least 18 other attacks on Israelis,  
including a shooting on a commuter bus stop on 7 April that killed  
two in Ashdod, south of Tel Aviv. The Democratic Front for the  
Liberation of Palestine and the Popular Front for the Liberation of  
Palestine claimed responsibility for several attacks on Israeli  
settlers and soldiers. 
Yasir Arafat, Chairman of the Palestinian Authority (PA), tried to  
rein in Palestinian violence against Israel in 1994. The PA police  
force took some steps to curtail anti-Israeli attacks, including  
several mass detentions and a strong effort to find where Corporal  
Wachsman was detained by HAMAS. Arafat and other senior PA officials  
condemned acts of terrorism by HAMAS and the PIJ, but did not do so  
when individuals associated with the Fatah Hawks, nominally aligned  
with Arafat's Fatah organization, were responsible for a few attacks  
in early 1994. Israeli officials urged the PA to take tougher  
measures against terrorists. 
Intra-Palestinian violence has increased since the implementation of  
the Gaza-Jericho accord began on 4 May. On 18 November, 13  
Palestinians were killed and more than 150 wounded when Palestinian  
Police clashed with HAMAS and PIJ supporters who were planning to  
demonstrate in Gaza. This incident followed several protests by  
weapons-bearing Islamists in the weeks following the HAMAS  
kidnapping of Corporal Wachsman and the PA's mass roundup of HAMAS  
supporters. In 1994, Fatah Hawks and HAMAS killed at least 20  
Palestinians whom the extremists labeled as collaborators. 
The Israeli Cabinet outlawed the Jewish extremist groups Kach and  
Kahane Chai in March, declaring them to be terrorist organizations  
after Baruch Goldstein, who was a Kach member, attacked Palestinian  
worshippers at Hebron's al-Ibrahimi Mosque in February, killing 29  
persons and wounding more than 200. Neither Kach nor Kahane Chai  
assisted or directed Goldstein in his attack, but both organizations  
vocally supported him. The leading figures of these groups were  
arrested and held in Israeli prisons on charges of calling for  
attacks on Palestinians and Israeli Government officials. In  
September, Shin Bet arrested 11 Jewish extremists who were planning  
terrorist attacks against Palestinians. 
Israel's intense border security appeared effectively to prevent  
infiltrations from Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. In March, a team of  
four DFLP terrorists was intercepted by Israel Defense Force troops.  
Katyusha rocket attacks from southern Lebanon into northern Israel  
by Hizballah and Palestinian rejectionist groups decreased in 1994,  
and no Israelis were killed in the attacks. Hizballah guerrillas,  
often in response to Israeli attacks on a Lebanese village, fired  
Katyusha rockets on four occasions from January to July 1994 and  
launched several Katyushas in October hours before the signing of  
the Jordanian-Israeli peace accord attended by President Clinton. 
Jordan 
Jordanian security and police closely monitor extremists inside the  
country and detain individuals suspected of involvement in violent  
acts aimed at destabilizing the government or undermining its  
relations with neighboring states. Jordan maintains tight security  
along its border with Israel and has interdicted individuals  
attempting to infiltrate into Israel. On 26 October 1994 Jordan and  
Israel signed a full treaty of peace that commits the two parties to  
cooperation in a variety of areas, including combating terrorism. In  
1994 two new international border crossing points were established  
between Jordan and Israel. 
Jordanian authorities arrested dozens of people in terrorism-related  
cases during 1994. On 20 February, authorities arrested 30 persons  
in Amman, including 15 suspected members of the ANO. The arrests  
reportedly occurred in connection with the assassination of a  
Jordanian diplomat in January in Beirut by the ANO. In 1994, 25  
Islamists (referred to as the "Arab Afghans") were arrested and  
tried for planning to overthrow the government, assassinate  
prominent Jordanians, and attack public and private institutions.  
The State Security Court handed down verdicts on 21 December and  
sentenced 11 defendants to death, sentenced seven to various prison  
terms with hard labor, and acquitted the remaining defendants of all  
charges. Two individuals were also arrested for stabbing tourists in  
downtown Amman on 27 February, two days after the massacre of  
Palestinian worshippers on the West Bank by a Jewish extremist. 
A variety of Palestinian rejectionist groups have offices in Jordan,  
including the PFLP, PFLP-GC, DFLP, PIJ, and HAMAS. In April, King  
Hussein announced that HAMAS was an "illegal" organization in  
Jordan. After the King's announcement, HAMAS spokespersons in Jordan  
were more circumspect in their statements and often issued  
statements from other locations. 
Lebanon 
The security situation in Lebanon continued to improve during 1994  
as Beirut endeavored to reestablish its authority and rebuild the  
country in the wake of the devastating 16-year civil war. Although  
the Lebanese Government has made some moves to limit the autonomy of  
individuals and powerful groups÷specifically Hizballah÷there are  
still considerable areas of relative lawlessness throughout Lebanon.  
Beirut and its environs are safer for some non-Lebanese now than as  
recently as a year ago, but the Bekaa Valley and other Hizballah  
strongholds are considerably more dangerous than the capital,  
especially for Westerners, who are still subject to attacks. In  
June, for example, a German citizen was the victim of an apparent  
kidnapping attempt perpetrated by Hizballah in Ba'labakk. The would-
be victim's assailants fled after passers-by noticed the commotion.  
There is credible evidence that Hizballah continues its surveillance  
of Americans; Hizballah also continues to issue public threats  
against American interests. 
Hizballah has yet to be disarmed, but Beirut is making efforts to  
restrict activities by the group that challenge the government's  
authority. For example, the government banned armed demonstrations  
after Hizballah's celebration of Martyr's Day in the Bekaa Valley in  
March and issued arrest warrants for participants who were  
brandishing weapons during the march. In February when Hizballah,  
without reference to the state authority, tried and executed a  
teenager in Ba'labakk accused of murder, prominent members of  
Parliament publicly admonished the group and said such acts by  
nongovernmental organizations should not be tolerated. However,  
neither the judiciary nor law enforcement agencies made any effort  
to interfere in or investigate the affair. 
The Lebanese Government took judicial steps during 1994 to signal  
that violence is not an acceptable means for achieving domestic  
political change. In January, the government promptly arrested and  
prosecuted persons associated with the ANO and who assassinated a  
Jordanian diplomat. 
On 12 April, a prominent Iraqi expatriate oppositionist residing in  
Beirut was assassinated. The Government of Lebanon stated that it  
had firm evidence linking the killing to the Government of Iraq and  
arrested two Iraqi diplomats in connection with the incident.  
Lebanon subsequently broke diplomatic relations with Iraq. 
In July a Lebanese criminal court refused to convict two defendants  
in the 1976 killings of the US Ambassador, Francis Meloy, and the  
economic counselor, Robert Waring. The Lebanese Court of Cassation  
agreed to order a retrial after intervention by the government's  
prosecutor general. The trial is set to begin in March 1995. 
Lebanese authorities arrested Lebanese Forces Leader Samir Ja'ja on  
charges of domestic terrorism÷including the bombing of a Maronite  
church in Zuk in February that killed 11 persons and wounded 59. His  
trial was ongoing as of the end of the year. In November, the  
government suggested it would "revive" the investigation into the  
1983 bombings of the US and French Marine barracks. Although viewed  
by some as a message to Hizballah of government intention to  
reassert authority, the government has not yet followed its  
announcement with concrete action. In December the government  
accepted an invitation from the US Government to send an official  
delegation to Washington to discuss means to improve the security  
situation in Lebanon. 
Morocco 
On 24 August two Spanish tourists were killed when gunmen opened  
fire at the Atlas Asni hotel in Marrakech during an apparent robbery  
attempt. After initial investigations, Moroccan officials linked the  
hotel attack to other assaults throughout Morocco, including the  
attempted robberies of a bank and a McDonald's restaurant in 1993.  
Nine suspects were arrested, and Moroccan authorities claimed to  
have discovered an arms cache hidden by the group. 
There have been allegations that Islamic extremists related to the  
Algerian militant movement were behind the Marrakech incident. But  
some Moroccan officials have also claimed that members of the  
Algerian security services were behind the attack, hoping to foment  
instability in Morocco to take the international focus off the  
Algerian crisis. The real motives of the attackers remain unclear,  
and the incident could easily have been an ordinary criminal attack.  
As of 31 December, the Marrakech attack was not followed by similar  
incidents in Morocco. 
State-Sponsored Terrorism Overview 
The provision of funding, safehaven, and weapons and logistic  
support to terrorists by sovereign states is crucial to the  
operation of many international terrorist organizations. Such  
support continues in defiance of the international community's  
unequivocal condemnation of terrorism and those who support it.  
Recognizing the danger that such support represents, a primary aim  
of our counterterrorism policy has been to apply pressure to such  
states to stop that support and to make them pay the cost if they  
persist. We do this by publicly identifying state sponsors and by  
imposing economic, diplomatic, and sometimes military sanctions.  
Seven nations are designated as states that sponsor international  
terrorism: Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria. 
Cuba is no longer able to actively support armed struggle in Latin  
America and other parts of the world as the Castro regime has become  
preoccupied with its struggle for existence. Although there is no  
evidence of direct sponsorship of terrorist acts in 1994, Havana  
does provide safehaven for several international terrorists. Cuba  
has not renounced political support for groups that engage in  
international terrorism. 
Iran is still the most active state sponsor of international  
terrorism. Iranian terrorist operations concentrate on Iranian  
dissidents living outside Iran. While Tehran has tried to moderate  
its public image in the West, Iran continues to use terrorism as  
ruthlessly as it did under Khomeini and supports groups, such as  
Hizballah, that pose a threat to Americans. In December, a French  
court handed down a decision in the trial of three Iranians accused  
of participating in the 1991 murder of former Iranian Prime Minister  
Bakhtiar and an assistant. One was sentenced to life and one to 10  
years in prison, while the third, an employee of the Iranian Embassy  
in Bern, was acquitted. Iran remains committed to carrying out the  
death sentence imposed on British author Salman Rushdie. Iran's main  
client, Hizballah, could well have been responsible for the 18 July  
bombing of the Argentine-Israel Mutual Association (AMIA) that left  
nearly 100 persons dead. Iran supports many other radical  
organizations that have resorted to terrorism, such as the  
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), HAMAS, and the Popular Front for  
the Liberation of PalestineöGeneral Command (PFLP-GC). 
Throughout 1994 Iraq remained out of compliance with UN Security  
Council resolutions, including those requiring it to renounce  
terrorism. Iraq continued its terrorist attacks against political  
dissidents, both at home and abroad. It also continued its terrorist  
war of attrition aimed at driving UN and other foreign aid agencies  
out of northern Iraq and depriving the Kurdish population of relief  
supplies. There were at least 17 attacks against UN and  
international relief personnel reported in 1994. Iraq continues to  
provide safehaven and training facilities for several terrorist  
organizations, including Abu Abbas' Palestine Liberation Front  
(PLF), the ANO, and the Arab Liberation Front (ALF). In June, a  
Kuwaiti court rendered verdicts in the trial of the 14 individuals  
accused of participating in the plot to assassinate former President  
Bush during his April 1993 visit to Kuwait. 
Libya continued to defy the demands of UN Security Council  
resolutions adopted in response to Tripoli's involvement in the  
bombings of Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA Flight 772. The resolutions  
demand that Tripoli turn over the two Libyan intelligence agents  
suspected of carrying out the bombing plot for trial either in a US  
or UK court, pay compensation to the victims, cooperate in the  
ongoing investigation, and cease all support for terrorism.  
Available evidence suggests Libya was behind the disappearance of  
prominent Libyan dissident and human rights activist Mansour Kikhia  
from his hotel room in Egypt in December 1993. Leaders of terrorist  
groups HAMAS and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) publicly  
announced that Qadhafi had pledged to provide them with aid for the  
"Liberation of Palestine." 
North Korea is not known to have sponsored any international  
terrorist attacks since 1987, when it conducted the midflight  
bombing of a KAL airliner. North Korea has publicly condemned  
terrorism but maintains contact with groups that practice terrorism  
and continues to provide sanctuary to Japanese Communist LeagueöRed  
Army Faction terrorists who hijacked a Japan Airlines flight to  
North Korea in 1970. 
While there is no evidence that the Government of Sudan conducted or  
sponsored a specific act of terrorism in 1994, the regime provided  
safehaven and support for members of several international terrorist  
groups operating in Sudan. These include some of the world's most  
violent organizations: the ANO, the Lebanese Hizballah, HAMAS, the  
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and Egypt's Islamic Group. Some of  
Sudan's neighbors have complained that insurgents in North Africa  
have received training, funds, weapons, travel documents and  
indoctrination from Sudan. In December, Eritrea severed diplomatic  
relations with Sudan for its support for subversive activities and  
hostile acts. Sudan turned over the international terrorist Carlos  
to France in August, after offering him safehaven in Khartoum since  
late 1993. The regime has stated that the turnover was a one-time  
occurrence and would not affect other terrorists currently harbored  
in Sudan. 
There is no evidence that Syrian officials have been directly  
involved in planning or executing terrorist attacks since 1986, but  
Syria continues to provide safehaven and support, inside Syria or in  
areas of Lebanon under Syrian control, for terrorist groups such as  
Ahmad Jibril's PFLP-GC, HAMAS, PIJ, the Japanese Red Army, and the  
Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). Syria also permits Iran to resupply  
Hizballah via Damascus. Nevertheless, Damascus continues to restrain  
the international activities of some of these groups. 
Cuba 
The Castro regime, which is preoccupied with its existence, is no  
longer able to support armed struggle actively in Latin America and  
other parts of the world. In years past, Havana provided significant  
levels of military training, weapons, funds, and guidance to leftist  
subversives. Currently, the regime's focus is largely on economic  
survival, and the government is attempting to upgrade diplomatic and  
trade relations within Latin America. Cuba's economy continued to  
deteriorate, and a large antiregime demonstration broke out for the  
first time in 1994. 
Although there is no evidence that Cuban officials have been  
directly involved in sponsoring a specific act of terrorism during  
the past year, Havana did provide safehaven in 1994 to several  
terrorists in Cuba. A number of ETA Basque terrorists who sought  
sanctuary in Cuba several years ago continue to live on the island.  
Some of the more than 40 Chilean terrorists from the Manuel  
Rodriguez Patriotic Front (FPMR) who escaped from a Chilean prison  
in 1990 also probably still reside in Cuba. Colombia's two main  
guerrilla groups, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)  
and the National Liberation Army (ELN), reportedly maintain  
representatives in Havana. 
Iran 
Iran is still the most active state sponsor of international  
terrorism and continues to be directly involved in planning and  
executing terrorist acts. This year Tehran seems to have maintained  
its terrorist activities at the level of 1993, when there were four  
confirmed and two possible Iranian attacks on dissidents living  
outside Iran. Iranian terrorist operations concentrate on Iranian  
dissidents, particularly members of the Mojahedin-e Khalq (MEK) and  
the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI). Iran supports extremist  
Palestinian groups that have used terrorism to try to halt the  
Middle East peace process. Tehran also gives varying degrees of  
assistance to an assortment of radical Islamic and secular groups  
from North Africa to Central Asia. 
While President Rafsanjani has tried to moderate Iran's public image  
to expand its economic and political ties to Western Europe and  
Japan, Iran continues to use terrorism as ruthlessly as it did under  
Khomeini. Tehran supports groups, such as its main client Hizballah,  
that pose a threat to Americans. Due to the continuing threat from  
Tehran and Hizballah, American diplomatic missions and personnel  
remain at risk. 
Confirmed attacks on Iranian dissidents in the past year include the  
following: the 7 January killing of Taha Kirmeneh, a dissident who  
was a member of the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI), by  
gunmen in Coru, Turkey; the 10 January wounding of a member of the  
KDPI by a letter bomb in Stockholm, Sweden; the killing of a KDPI  
leader in Sulaymaniyah, Iraq, on 10 March; and the killing of two  
members of the Mojahedin-e Khalq (MEK) in Qabbiyah, Iraq, while  
driving to Baghdad on 29 May. While the MEK has been victimized by  
Iranian terrorism, the group has itself employed terrorist tactics. 
The 24 June murder of dissident Osman Muhammed Amini at his home in  
Copenhagen and the 12 November murder of dissident Ali Mohammed  
Assadi in Bucharest may also have been carried out at the Iranian  
Government's behest. 
On 6 December, a French court handed down a decision in the trial of  
three Iranians accused of participating in the 1991 murder of former  
Iranian Prime Minister Bakhtiar and an assistant. One defendant  
received life imprisonment. A second, an Iranian radio correspondent  
who is reputed to be a nephew of the late Ayatollah Khomeini, was  
sentenced to 10 years in jail. The third, an employee of the Iranian  
Embassy in Bern, was acquitted. 
Iran remains committed to implementation of the death sentence  
imposed on British author Salman Rushdie. When speaking to Western  
audiences, Iranian leaders claim that the fatwa (or religious  
finding) against Rushdie is a religious matter that does not involve  
the Government of Iran. 
However, the Iranian Government continued its propaganda campaign  
against Rushdie. In February, the fifth anniversary of the fatwa,  
Tehran Radio stated that "The least punishment for (Rushdie)·is·his  
execution." Ayatollah Hassan Sanei, the head of a quasi-governmental  
foundation that has offered a $2 million reward for the murder of  
Rushdie, said that supporters of Rushdie who campaign for the  
lifting of the fatwa deserved to be "punished." A Revolutionary  
Guards official vowed publicly that the death sentence would be  
carried out. The influence of this campaign has been felt outside  
Iran. In September, the head of a Muslim organization in Norway  
threatened to kill Rushdie if he attended a conference on freedom of  
expression in Stavanger. 
Iran is also the world's preeminent state sponsor of extremist  
Islamic and Palestinian groups, providing funds, weapons, and  
training. Hizballah, Iran's closest client, could well have been  
responsible for the 18 July bombing of the Argentine Israel Mutual  
Association that left nearly 100 persons dead. This operation was  
virtually identical to the one conducted in March 1992 against the  
Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, for which Hizballah claimed  
responsibility. Hizballah had stated that it would seek retaliation  
against Israel for the kidnapping of a well-known Lebanese Shia  
terrorist and the Israeli airstrike in June on a Hizballah camp in  
Lebanon that killed more than 20 militants. 
Iran supports many other radical organizations that have engaged in  
terrorism. Tehran opposes any compromise with or recognition of  
Israel and, as the peace process moves ahead, has worked to  
coordinate a rejectionist front to oppose the Israeli-PLO accords,  
particularly with the PIJ, the PFLP-GC, and HAMAS, as well as  
Hizballah. 
Tehran continues to provide safehaven to the terrorist Kurdistan  
Workers' Party (PKK) in Iran. The PKK÷seeking to establish a Kurdish  
state in southeastern Turkey÷in 1994 conducted a violent campaign  
against Turkish tourism, including attacks on tourist spots  
frequented by foreigners, while continuing unabated the use of  
terrorism against Turkish citizens, including ethnic Kurds. 
Iraq 
Iraq continued to engage in state-sponsored internal and  
international terrorism in 1994. It is rebuilding its ability to  
mount terrorist attacks abroad, despite financial and diplomatic  
constraints imposed in the wake of the Gulf war. 
The Government of Iraq provides safehaven and logistic support to  
several terrorist groups and individuals, including elements of the  
ANO, based in Lebanon; the Mojahedin-e Khalq, which is opposed to  
the government in Tehran; Abu Abbas' Palestine Liberation Front  
(PLF); and notorious bomb-maker Abu Ibrahim. Both Abbas and Ibrahim  
enjoy sanctuary in Iraq. 
Political killings and terrorist actions are directed against  
civilians, foreign relief workers, journalists, and opposition  
leaders. On 12 April, a prominent Iraqi expatriate oppositionist  
residing in Beirut, Lebanon, was assassinated. The Government of  
Lebanon stated that it had firm evidence linking the killing to the  
Government of Iraq and arrested two Iraqi diplomats in connection  
with the incident. Lebanon subsequently broke diplomatic relations  
with Iraq. 
Since 1991, in violation of UN Security Council resolutions, the  
Government of Iraq has obstructed the international community's  
provision of humanitarian assistance. We believe that Iraq is  
responsible for more than 100 attacks on relief personnel and aid  
convoys over the past four years. Moreover, the Government of Iraq  
has offered monetary "bounties" to anyone who assassinates UN and  
other international relief workers. 
A German journalist and her Kurdish bodyguard were shot to death on  
3 April in an ambush near Suleymaniya. Kurdish authorities arrested  
several suspects who reportedly confessed that the government had  
paid them to commit the murders. Several other international  
personnel, including UN guards and journalists, were critically  
injured in bombing and shooting attacks. At least 16 such attacks  
were reported. On 2 January, two UN vehicles were fired on while  
approaching the Aski Kalak bridge between Mosul and Irbil. One  
vehicle was hit seven times. On 21 January a handmade device using  
TNT exploded in the garden of a UN residence. Two Swedish  
journalists were injured on 14 March near Aqrah when a bomb exploded  
under their car. On 24 May two vehicles carrying representatives  
from the NGO OXFAM were shot at while returning to Suleymaniyah from  
a UN-NGO meeting in Salaheddin. On 1 June handgrenades were thrown  
at a warehouse in Suleymaniyah belonging to the French relief group  
Equilibre. 
In July, three members of a prominent Shi'a family, the al-Khoeis,  
and their driver died under suspicious circumstances in an  
automobile crash in southern Iraq, near Al Najaf. Evidence points to  
involvement by the Government of Iraq. The al-Khoei family had long  
been targeted for harassment and abuse by the government. 
On 4 June, a Kuwaiti court returned verdicts in the trial of the 14  
individuals accused of participation in the plot to assassinate  
former President Bush during his April 1993 visit to Kuwait. Six of  
the 14 were sentenced to death, seven were sentenced to prison for  
terms ranging from six months to 12 years, and one was acquitted. 
Libya 
The Libyan regime continued to defy the demands of UN Security  
Council Resolutions 731, 748, and 883 adopted in response to  
Tripoli's involvement in the bombings of Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA  
Flight 772. UNSCR 731 was adopted following the November 1991  
indictments by British and US authorities of two Libyan intelligence  
agents for their role in the 1988 Pan Am bombing. The resolution  
incorporated US and British demands that Tripoli turn over the two  
suspects for trial in either a US or UK court, pay compensation to  
the victims, cooperate in the ongoing investigation, and cease all  
support for terrorism. UNSCR 731 also demanded that Tripoli  
cooperate with French authorities in their separate investigation of  
the UTA 772 bombing in 1989. 
In April 1992, UNSCR 748 imposed sanctions against the Libyan regime  
for its refusal to comply with the demands of UNSCR 731. Those  
sanctions involved embargoing Libyan civil aviation and military  
procurement efforts, as well as requiring all states to reduce  
Libya's diplomatic presence. In November 1993, UNSCR 883 imposed  
additional sanctions to increase the pressure on Libya to comply  
with previous demands. The 883 sanctions added a limited assets  
freeze and oil technology ban and strengthened existing sanctions. 
By the end of 1994, Libya had taken no serious steps toward  
compliance with any of the UNSC demands. Instead, the Libyan regime  
continued to propose half measures and "compromise" solutions to the  
trial venue for the two suspects. Tripoli's proposals appeared  
disingenuous from the start, as none satisfy the demands of UNSC  
resolutions or meet the requirements of American or British judicial  
systems. 
Even while Libya continued its efforts to convince international  
public opinion that it had abandoned terrorism, Qadhafi and his  
senior advisers vehemently attacked the Libyan opposition, calling  
them "stray dogs" and publicly threatening them. Indeed, available  
evidence strongly suggests Libya was behind the disappearance of  
prominent Libyan dissident and human rights activist, Mansour  
Kikhia, from his hotel room in Egypt in December 1993. 
Throughout 1994, Tripoli demonstrated its willingness to support  
groups that oppose Western interests with terrorism. Qadhafi  
repeatedly urged radical rejectionists of the Middle East peace  
process to use "whatever means" possible to oppose it. Libya opened  
its arms to leaders of well-
known militant groups opposed to the Gaza-Jericho accord and hosted  
several meetings of the rejectionist groups in 1994. In addition,  
Libya hailed the 19 October bus-bombing attack in Tel Aviv by HAMAS  
as a "courageous operation." In addition, the leaders of HAMAS and  
the Palestinian Islamic Jihad publicly announced that Qadhafi had  
pledged to provide them with aid for the "liberation of Palestine." 
North Korea 
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) is  
not known to have sponsored any international terrorist attacks  
since 1987, when it conducted the midflight bombing of a KAL  
airliner. A North Korean spokesman in April 1993 condemned all forms  
of terrorism, including state terrorism, and said his country  
resolutely opposed the encouragement and support of terrorism.  
Nevertheless, North Korea maintains contact with groups that  
practice terrorism and continues to provide political sanctuary to  
members of the Japanese Communist Leagueö
Red Army Faction who hijacked a Japan Airlines flight to North Korea  
in 1970. 
Sudan 
The Government of Sudan provided safehaven and support for members  
of several international terrorist groups operating in Sudan. The  
regime also permitted Tehran to use Sudan as a secure transit point  
and meeting site for Iranian-backed extremist groups. There is no  
evidence that Sudan, which is dominated by the National Islamic  
Front (NIF), conducted or sponsored a specific act of terrorism in  
1994. 
The list of groups that maintain a presence or operate in Sudan is  
disturbing and includes some of the world's most violent  
organizations: the ANO, the Lebanese Hizballah, the Palestinian  
Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS), the Palestinian Islamic Jihad  
(PIJ), and Egypt's Islamic Group. The NIF also supports Islamic  
opposition groups from Algeria, Tunisia, Kenya, and Eritrea. Some of  
Sudan's neighbors have complained that insurgents in North Africa  
have received assistance from Sudan in the form of training, funds,  
weapons, travel documents, and indoctrination. In December, Eritrea  
severed diplomatic relations with Sudan for its support for  
subversive activities and hostile acts. 
In a positive development, Sudan turned over the international  
terrorist "Carlos" (Ilyich Ramirez Sanchez) to France in August.  
Carlos÷who bragged about his ties to senior government officials,  
carried a weapon, and flaunted Sudan's laws÷had been living in Sudan  
since late 1993 with full knowledge and protection of senior levels  
of the NIF and Sudanese Government. 
While the reasons for the expulsion of Carlos are not entirely  
clear, the regime emphasized that the affair did not signal a shift  
in Sudanese policy and that the fate of Carlos would not affect  
other terrorist elements currently harbored in Sudan. President  
Bashir stated publicly it was Sudan's duty to protect "mujahedin"  
who sought refuge. In a press interview on the suicide bus bombing  
in Tel Aviv by a HAMAS militant in October, which left 22 persons  
dead, NIF leader Hassan Turabi praised the attack, calling it "an  
honorable act." 
The Sudanese regime regularly denied there are terrorists in Sudan,  
and it refused to investigate information the US Ambassador supplied  
in September about the training of terrorists at the Merkhiyat  
Popular Defense camp located northwest of Khartoum. The Foreign  
Minister categorically dismissed the information without even  
offering to look into it. 
Syria 
There is no evidence that Syrian officials have been directly  
involved in planning or executing terrorist attacks since 1986.  
Damascus is publicly committed to the Middle East peace process and  
has taken some steps to restrain the international activities of  
these groups. Syria also uses its influence with Hizballah to limit  
outbreaks of violence on the border between Lebanon and Israel, but  
permits Iran to resupply Hizballah via Damascus. 
However, Syria continues to provide safehaven and support for  
several groups that engage in international terrorism; spokesmen for  
some of these groups have publicly claimed responsibility for  
attacks in Israel and the occupied territories. Several radical  
terrorist groups maintain training camps or other facilities on  
Syrian territory. Ahmad Jibril's PFLP-GC has its headquarters near  
Damascus. In addition, Damascus grants a wide variety of groups  
engaged in terrorism basing privileges or refuge in areas of  
Lebanon's Bekaa Valley under Syrian control: these include HAMAS,  
the PFLP-GC, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and the Japanese  
Red Army (JRA). 
The terrorist group PKK continues to train in the Bekaa Valley, and  
its leader, Abdullah Ocalan, resides at least part-time in Syria.  
The PKK in 1994 conducted a violent campaign against Turkish tourist  
spots frequented by foreigners, as well as other terrorist violence  
across Europe. Syrian safehaven for PKK operations was vigorously  
protested by Turkey and is the subject of discussions between Syria  
and Turkey. 
 
Appendix A 
Chronology of Significant Terrorist Incidents, 1994 
4 January 
Ireland
The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) claimed responsibility for two mail  
bombs sent to Sinn Fein's Dublin offices. 
Turkey
Iranian state agents are believed responsible for the assassination  
of a member of the Iranian KDP Central Committee in Corum. 

9 January 
Iran
An armed attack was carried out against the British Embassy in  
Tehran. No one was injured, and no one has claimed responsibility  
for the attack. 

10 January 
Italy
A bomb detonated in front of the NATO Defense College building in  
Rome. That evening, copies of an eight-page Red Brigades bulletin,  
claiming responsibility on behalf of the "Combatant Communist  
Nuclei" (NCC), were found in several provinces. 

11 January 
Peru
A suspected Sendero Luminoso (SL) satchel bomb exploded in front of  
the Peruvian-Japanese cultural center in Lima, causing minimal  
damage to the structure. 

14 January 
Colombia
Suspected members of the National Liberation Army (ELN) kidnapped US  
citizen Russell Vacek, his wife Elizabeth, and other family members  
as they were traveling in El Playon. 

29 January 
Lebanon
A Jordanian diplomat was shot and killed outside his home in Beirut.  
The Government of Lebanon arrested and prosecuted ANO terrorists for  
the attack. 

2 February 
Azerbaijan
Several bombs exploded inside railcars, killing five persons and  
injuring several others at the Baku train station. 

3 February 
Greece
A bomb detonated at the German Goethe (culture) Institute in Athens.  
A local newspaper received a warning a half hour before the  
detonation from the Revolutionary People's Struggle (ELA) terrorist  
group. 
Italy
A bomb was placed underneath the car of a Spanish Military Attache,  
Lt. Col. Fernando Sagristano, in Rome. The device severely injured  
an embassy driver. 

19 February 
Egypt
Unknown assailants fired upon a passenger train and wounded a Polish  
woman, a Thai woman, and two Egyptian citizens in Asyut. The al-
Gama'at al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group) claimed responsibility for the  
attack. 

23 February 
Egypt
A bomb explosion aboard a passenger train in Asyut injured six  
foreign tourists÷two New Zealanders, two Germans, and two  
Australians÷and five Egyptian citizens. The Islamic Group (IG)  
claimed responsibility for the incident. 

4 March 
Egypt
Unknown gunmen opened fire at a Nile cruise ship and wounded a  
German tourist near the Sohag Governorate. The Islamic Group (IG)  
claimed responsibility for the incident. 
Iraq
Unidentified gunmen fired on a European Relief Organization vehicle  
and wounded two local guards near Irbil. 

9-13 March 
United Kingdom
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) fired mortars at  
London's Heathrow International Airport in three separate attacks.  
There were no injuries because the fully primed mortars failed to  
detonate. 

13 March 
Lebanon
A grenade detonated on the British Embassy compound, causing minor  
damage and no injuries. No arrests or claims of responsibility were  
reported. 

24 March 
Turkey
The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) is believed responsible for  
bombing the Central Bazaar in Istanbul's historic tourist district.  
Four tourists, including two Romanian women, were injured by the  
blast. 

27 March 
Turkey
A bomb detonated in the gardens of the Saint Sophia Mosque and  
Museum in Istanbul, injuring three tourists: one German, one  
Spanish, and one Dutch. The Metropole Revenge Team of the political  
wing of the PKK claimed responsibility. 

29 March 
Iraq
Six assailants fired on a United Nations guard contingency bus  
traveling from Irbil to Mosul and seriously wounded two Austrian  
guards. 

1 April 
Colombia
Six members of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)  
kidnapped US citizen Raymond Rising, Security Chief of the Summer  
Linguistic Institution, as he rode his motorcycle from the Municipal  
Capital of Puerto Lleras. 

2 April 
Turkey
The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) claimed responsibility for  
bombing the IC Bedesten, the old bazaar at the center of the bazaar  
complex, in Istanbul. Two foreign tourists, one Spanish and one  
Belgian, were killed, and 17 others were injured. 

3 April 
Iraq
Assailants fired on a German journalist and her bodyguard while they  
were traveling in their car near Suleymaniyah. Both occupants of the  
vehicle were killed instantly. 

8 April 
Sri Lanka
A small bomb exploded inside a bathroom at the Marriott Hotel in  
Colombo, causing minor damages and no casualties. 

11 April 
Greece
The 17 November terrorist group claimed responsibility for planting  
rockets aimed at a British aircraft carrier, the Arc Royal. The  
rockets were defused by explosives experts. 

13 April 
Lebanon
Five individuals, including two Iraqi diplomats, were arrested for  
assassinating Iraqi opposition figure Shaykh Talib Ali al-Suhayl in  
his house near West Beirut. 

27 April 
South Africa
A car bomb exploded at Jan Smuts Airport in Johannesburg, injuring  
16 persons, including two Russian diplomats and a Swiss Air pilot.  
Although no group has claimed responsibility, white separatists  
opposed to South Africa's first multiracial election are believed  
responsible. 

8 May 
Algeria
Two French priests were shot and killed by two male assailants in  
the lower Casbah district of Algiers. In its weekly publication, the  
Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility. 

17 May 
Greece
A time-detonated rocket was fired at an IBM office in downtown  
Athens. The 17 November terrorist group claimed responsibility in a  
warning call to a radio station. 

29 May 
Iraq
At least two unknown assailants shot and killed an Iranian  
dissident, Seyeed Ahmad Sadr Lahijani, as he drove his car through  
Ghalebieh. 

17 June 
Uganda
A driver for the Catholic Relief Services was badly beaten by Lord's  
Resistance Army (LRA) rebels who ambushed the truck he was driving. 

21-22 June 
Turkey
In the coastal towns of Fethiye and Marmaris, bombs killed one  
foreign national and injured 10 others at tourist sites. The PKK  
claimed responsibility for the attacks on German television. 

22 June 
Turkey
Two bombs detonated within minutes of each other at a beach and park  
in the resort town of Marmaris, wounding 12 persons, including four  
British nationals, one of whom died five days later. 

24 June 
Greece
The Revolutionary People's Struggle (ELA/1 May) claimed  
responsibility for a bombing outside the offices of the European  
Community in downtown Athens. There were no injuries reported. 

4 July 
Greece
A senior Turkish diplomat in Athens, Omer Sipahioglu, was killed by  
three gunmen as he sat in his car. "November 17öTheofilos Georgiadis  
Commandos" claimed responsibility for the attack. 

11 July 
Greece
A bomb detonated in a Lindos restaurant on the Island of Rhodes,  
seriously injuring an Italian tourist and a Greek citizen. 

18 July 
Argentina
A car bomb exploded at the Israeli-Argentine Mutual Association  
(AMIA), killing nearly 100 persons and wounding more than 200  
others. The explosion caused the seven-story building to collapse  
and damaged adjacent buildings. 

19 July 
Panama
A commuter plane exploded in flight over the Santa Rita mountains.  
Among the 21 victims were Israeli nationals, dual Israeli-Panamanian  
citizens, three US citizens, and 12 Jewish persons. 

23 July 
West Bank
Two unknown Palestinians stabbed and seriously injured a US woman in  
the Arab quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. The assailants  
escaped unharmed. 

26 July 
Cambodia
The Khmer Rouge attacked a train traveling in Kompong Trach and  
kidnapped a number of passengers, among them an Australian, a  
Briton, and a Frenchman. 
United Kingdom
A car bomb exploded at the Israeli Embassy in London, injuring 14  
persons. Police said the bomb was planted by a woman who was driving  
an Audi. 

27 July 
United Kingdom
A car bomb detonated outside a building that houses Jewish  
organizations in London. Five persons were injured in the attack. 

3 August 
Algeria
Five French Embassy employees were killed and one injured when  
guerrillas from the Armed Islamic Group (AIG) attacked a French  
residential compound in Algiers. 

8 August 
Turkey
The PKK kidnapped two Finnish nationals, stating that they did not  
have "entry visas for Kurdistan." The Finns were held for 22 days  
before being released unharmed. 

12 August 
Turkey
A bomb detonated in the Topkapi Bus Terminal, killing one Romanian  
consular official and wounding seven other people. The PKK is  
suspected. 

18 August 
Chile
A bomb exploded at a Santiago office building that houses the  
American company Fluor Daniel. The Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front  
(FPMR) claimed responsibility and stated that the incident was  
carried out in solidarity with Cuba and against the US economic  
blockade of the island. 

26 August 
Angola
A Portuguese priest and four nuns were kidnapped by suspected  
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) rebels  
near Choba. 

27 August 
Philippines
Seven South Korean engineers and 30 Filipino workers were taken  
captive by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). 

23 September 
Colombia
Twelve terrorists from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia  
(FARC) kidnapped US citizen Thomas Hargrove when he stopped at a  
guerrilla roadblock. 

27 September 
Egypt
Three persons were killed and two were wounded when an assailant  
fired on a downtown tourist area in Hurghada. Two Egyptians and one  
German were killed in the attack. The Islamic Group claimed  
responsibility for the attack. 

9 October 
Israel
Two Arabs armed with assault rifles and grenades attacked  
pedestrians in Jerusalem. The gunmen killed two persons and injured  
14 others. Two US citizens were among the injured. HAMAS has claimed  
responsibility for the incident. 

18 October 
Algeria
Approximately 30 members of the Armed Islamic Group (AIG) attacked  
an oil base, killing a French and an Italian worker. 

23 October 
Egypt
Assailants shot and killed a British tourist and wounded three  
others in an attack on a bus near Luxor. The Islamic Group is  
believed responsible for the attack. 

11 December 
Philippines
The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) claimed responsibility for an explosion  
aboard a Philippine airliner. One Japanese citizen was killed, and  
at least 10 others were injured. 

12 December 
Turkey
The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) is believed responsible for a  
bomb blast outside a store in Istanbul, which injured eight persons,  
including four Romanian tourists. 

24 December 
Algeria
Members of the Armed Islamic Group (AIG) hijacked an Air France  
flight in Algeria. The plane arrived in Marseille, France, on 26  
December. A French antiterrorist unit stormed the plane, ending the  
54-hour siege in which three hostages were killed by the terrorists.  
All four terrorists were killed during the rescue. 

25 December 
Israel
An American was among 12 persons injured when a HAMAS supporter  
carrying a bag of explosives blew himself up at a West Jerusalem bus  
stop. 

27 December 
Algeria
The Armed Islamic Group (AIG) claimed responsibility for the murders  
of four Catholic priests. The murders were apparently in retaliation  
for the deaths of four GIA hijackers the previous day in Marseille. 
 
Appendix B 
Background Information on Major Groups Discussed in the Report 
     Abu Nidal organization (ANO) a.k.a.: Fatah Revolutionary  
Council, Arab Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades,  
Black September, Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims 
Description
International terrorist organization led by Sabri al-Banna. Split  
from PLO in 1974. Made up of various functional committees,  
including political, military, and financial. 
Activities
Has carried out over 90 terrorist attacks since 1974 in 20  
countries, killing or injuring almost 900 people. Targets include  
the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate  
Palestinians, the PLO, and various Arab countries, depending on  
which state is sponsoring it at the time. Major attacks include Rome  
and Vienna airports in December 1985, the Neve Shalom synagogue in  
Istanbul, the Pan Am Flight 73 hijacking in Karachi in September  
1986, and the City of Poros day-
excursion ship attack in July 1988 in Greece. Suspected of carrying  
out assassination on 14 January 1991 in Tunis of PLO deputy chief  
Abu Iyad and PLO security chief Abu Hul. ANO members assassinated a  
Jordanian diplomat in Lebanon in January 1994. 
Strength
Several hundred plus ``militia'' in Lebanon and overseas support  
structure. 
Location/Area of Operation
Headquartered in Iraq (1974-83) and Syria (1983-87); currently  
headquartered in Libya with substantial presence in Lebanon (in the  
Bekaa Valley and several Palestinian refugee camps in coastal areas  
of Lebanon). Also has a presence in Sudan. Has demonstrated ability  
to operate over wide area, including the Middle East, Asia, and  
Europe. 
External Aid
Has received considerable support, including safehaven, training,  
logistic assistance, and financial aid from Iraq and Syria (until  
1987); continues to receive aid from Libya, in addition to close  
support for selected operations. 

     Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) 
Description
Islamic extremist group operating in the southern Philippines led by  
Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani. Split from the Moro National  
Liberation Front in 1991. 
Activities
The organization uses bombs, assassinations, kidnappings for ransom,  
and extortion payments from companies and businessmen in its efforts  
to promote an Iranian-style Islamic state in Mindanao, an island in  
the southern Philippines heavily populated by Muslims. The ASG is  
suspected of mounting more than 60 terrorist attacks. Recent attacks  
have been mounted in opposition to ongoing peace negotiations  
between Manila and other Islamic groups. 
Strength
About 200 members, mostly younger Muslims, many of whom have studied  
or worked in the Gulf states, where they were exposed to radical  
Islamist ideology. 
Location/Area of Operation
The ASG operates almost exclusively on Mindanao Island, although it  
bombed a light railway in Manila in 1993. A person purporting to be  
an ASG member claimed responsibility for the midair bombing of a  
Philippines Airlines jumbo jet flying from Manila to Tokyo in  
December 1994. 
External Aid
Probably has ties to Islamic extremists in the Middle East. 

     Al-Fatah
a.k.a.: Al-'Asifa 
Description
Headed by Yasser Arafat, Fatah joined the PLO in 1968 and won the  
leadership role in 1969. Its commanders were expelled from Jordan  
following violent confrontations with Jordanian forces during the  
period 1970-71, beginning with Black September in 1970. The Israeli  
invasion of Lebanon in 1982 led to the group's dispersal to several  
Middle Eastern countries, including Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq,  
and others. Maintains several military and intelligence wings that  
have carried out terrorist attacks, including Force 17 and the  
Western Sector. Two of its leaders, Abu Jihad and Abu Iyad, were  
assassinated in recent years. 
Activities
In the 1960s and the 1970s, Fatah offered training to a wide range  
of European, Middle Eastern, Asian, and African terrorist and  
insurgent groups. Carried out numerous acts of international  
terrorism in Western Europe and the Middle East in the early-to-
middle 1970s. Arafat signed the Declaration of Principles (DOP) with  
Israel in 1993 and renounced terrorism and violence. There has been  
no authorized terrorist operation since that time. 
Strength
6,000 to 8,000. 
Location/Area of Operation
Headquartered in Tunisia, with bases in Lebanon and other Middle  
East countries. 
External Aid
Has had close political and financial ties to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait,  
and other moderate Gulf states. These relations were disrupted by  
the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. Also had links to Jordan. Received  
weapons, explosives, and training from the former USSR and the  
former Communist regimes of East European states. China and North  
Korea have reportedly provided some weapons. 

     Armed Islamic Group (AIG)
a.k.a. GIA 
Description
An Islamic extremist group, the AIG aims to overthrow the secular  
Algerian regime and replace it with an Islamic state. The AIG began  
its violent activities following the ouster of President Bendjedid  
in early 1992 and the cancellation of elections, which the Islamic  
Salvation Front was leading. 
Activities
Frequent attacks against regime targets÷particularly security  
personnel and government officials÷civilians, journalists, teachers,  
and foreign residents. Since announcing its terrorist campaign  
against foreigners living in Algeria in September 1993, the AIG has  
killed almost 90 expatriate men and women÷mostly Euro-peans÷in the  
country. The AIG uses assassinations and bombings, including car  
bombs, and it is known to favor kidnapping victims and slitting  
their throats. In December 1994, four AIG terrorists hijacked an Air  
France flight in Algiers and killed three passengers before flying  
to Marseille, France, where French police stormed the plane, killing  
the hijackers. Since 1992, between 10,000 and 35,000 people have  
died in Algerian violence. 
Strength
Unknown, probably several hundred to several thousand. 
Location
Algeria. 
External Aid
Algerian expatriates, many of whom reside in Western Europe, provide  
some financial and logistic support. In addition, the Algerian  
Government has accused Iran and Sudan of supporting Algerian  
extremists and severed diplomatic relations with Iran in March 1993. 

     Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA)  
a.k.a.: The Orly Group, 3rd October Organization 
Description
Marxist-Leninist Armenian terrorist group formed in 1975 with stated  
intention to compel the Turkish Government to acknowledge publicly  
its alleged responsibility for the deaths of 1.5 million Armenians  
in 1915, pay reparations, and cede territory for an Armenian  
homeland. Led by Hagop Hagopian until he was assassinated in Athens  
in April 1988. 
Activities
Initial bombing and assassination attacks directed against Turkish  
targets. Later attacked French and Swiss targets to force release of  
imprisoned comrades. Made several minor bombing attacks against US  
airline offices in Western Europe in early 1980s. Bombing of Turkish  
airline counter at Orly International Airport in Paris in 1983, in  
which eight persons were killed and 55 were wounded, led to split in  
group over rationale for causing indiscriminate casualties.  
Suffering from internal schisms, the group has been relatively  
inactive. 
Strength
A few hundred members and sympathizers. 
Location/Area of Operation
Lebanon, Western Europe, Armenia, the United States, and the Middle  
East. 
External Aid
Has received aid, including training and safehaven, from Syria. May  
also receive some aid from Libya. Has extensive ties to radical  
Palestinian groups, including the PFLP and PFLP-GC.  

     Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) 
Description
Founded in 1959 with the aim of creating an independent homeland in  
Spain's Basque region. Has muted commitment to Marxism. 
Activities
Chiefly bombings and assassinations of Spanish Government targets,  
especially security forces. Since arrest of ETA members in France in  
March 1992, ETA also has attacked French interests. Finances  
activities through kidnappings, robberies, and extortion. 
Strength
Unknown; may have hundreds of members, plus supporters. 
Location/Area of Operation
Operates primarily in the Basque autonomous regions of northern  
Spain and southwestern France but also has bombed Spanish interests  
in Italy and Germany and French interests in Italy. 
External Aid
Has received training at various times in Libya, Lebanon, and  
Nicaragua. Also appears to have close ties to PIRA. 

     Chukaku-Ha (Nucleus or Middle Core Faction) 
Description
An ultraleftist/radical group with origins in the fragmentation of  
the Japanese Communist Party in 1957. Largest domestic militant  
group; has political arm plus small, covert action wing called  
Kansai Revolutionary Army. Funding derived from membership dues,  
sales of its newspapers, and fundraising campaigns. 
Activities
Participates in mass street demonstrations and commits sporadic  
attacks using crude rockets and incendiary devices usually designed  
to cause property damage rather than casualties. Protests Japan's  
imperial system, Western ``imperialism,'' and events like the Gulf  
war and the expansion of Tokyo's Narita airport. Launched four  
rockets at the US Army base at Camp Zama, near Tokyo, at the start  
of the G-7 Summit in July 1993. 
Strength
3,500. 
Location/Area of Operation
Japan. 
External Aid
None known. 

     CNPZ (see Nestor Paz Zamora Commission under National  
Liberation Army [ELN]-Bolivia) 

     Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) 
Description
Marxist group that split from the PFLP in 1969. Believes Palestinian  
national goals can be achieved only through revolution of the  
masses. Opposes the Declaration of Principles (DOP) signed in 1993.  
In early 1980s, occupied political stance midway between Arafat and  
the rejectionists. Split into two factions in 1991, one pro-Arafat  
and another more hardline faction headed by Nayif Hawatmah (which  
has suspended participation in the PLO). 
Activities
In the 1970s, carried out numerous small bombings and minor assaults  
and some more spectacular operations in Israel and the occupied  
territories, concentrating on Israeli targets such as the 1974  
massacre in Ma'alot in which 27 Israelis were killed and more than  
100 wounded. Involved only in border raids since 1988. 
Strength
Estimated at 500 (total for both factions). 
Location/Area of Operation
Syria, Lebanon, and the Israeli occupied territories; attacks have  
taken place entirely in Israel and the occupied territories. 
External Aid
Receives financial and military aid from Syria and Libya. 

     Devrimci Sol (Revolutionary Left)
a.k.a.: Dev Sol 
Description
Formed in 1978 as a splinter faction of the Turkish People's  
Liberation Party/Front. Espouses a Marxist ideology, intensely  
xenophobic, and virulently anti-US and anti-NATO; seeks to unify the  
proletariat to stage a national revolution. Finances its activities  
chiefly through armed robberies and extortion. 
Activities
Since the late 1980s, has concentrated attacks against current and  
retired Turkish security and military officials. Began new campaign  
against foreign interests in 1990. Protesting Gulf war, claimed  
assassination of two US military contractors and attempted  
assassination of a US Air Force officer. Launched rockets at US  
Consulate in Istanbul in April and July 1992. Recent terrorist  
activities have been less ambitious as Dev Sol works to recover from  
internal factionalism and police raids that netted several  
operatives and large weapons caches. 
Strength
Several hundred members, several dozen armed militants. 
Location/Area of Operation
Carries out attacks in Turkey, primarily in Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir,  
and Adana. Conducts fundraising operations in Western Europe. 
External Aid
Possible training support from radical Palestinians. 

     ELN (see National Liberation Army). 

     ETA (see Basque Fatherland and Liberty) 

     FARC (see Revolutionary Army Forces of Colombia) 

     Fatah (see Al-Fatah) 

     15 May Organization 
Description
Formed in 1979 from remnants of Wadi Haddad's Popular Front for the  
Liberation of PalestineöSpecial Operations Group (PFLP-SOG). Led by  
Muhammad al-Umari, who is known throughout Palestinian circles as  
Abu Ibrahim or the bomb man. Group was never part of PLO. Reportedly  
disbanded in the mid-1980s when several key members joined Colonel  
Hawari's Special Operations Group of Fatah. 
Activities
Claimed responsibility for several bombings in the early-to-middle  
1980s, including hotel bombing in London (1980), El Al's Rome and  
Istanbul offices (1981), and Israeli Embassies in Athens and Vienna  
(1981). Anti-US attacks include an attempted bombing of a Pan Am  
airliner in Rio de Janeiro and a bombing on board a Pan Am flight  
from Tokyo to Honolulu in August 1982.  
Strength
50 to 60 in early 1980s. 
Location/Area of Operation
Baghdad until 1984. Before disbanding, operated in Middle East,  
Europe, and East Asia. Abu Ibrahim is reportedly in Iraq. 
External Aid
Probably received logistic and financial support from Iraq until  
1984. 

     Force 17 
Description
Formed in early 1970s as a personal security force for Arafat and  
other PLO leaders. 
Activities
According to press sources, in 1985 expanded operations to include  
terrorist attacks against Israeli targets. No confirmed terrorist  
activity outside Israel and the occupied territories since September  
1985, when it claimed responsibility for killing three Israelis in  
Cyprus, an incident that was followed by Israeli air raids on PLO  
bases in Tunisia. 
Strength
Unknown. 
Location/Area of Operation
Based in Beirut before 1982. Since then, dispersed in several Arab  
countries. Now operating in Lebanon, other Middle East countries,  
and Europe. 
External Aid
PLO is main source of support. 

    FPM (see Morazanist Patriotic Front) 

     FPMR (see Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front) 

     Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya(a.k.a.: The Islamic Group) 
Description
An indigenous Egyptian Islamic extremist group active since the late  
1970s; appears to be loosely organized with no single readily  
identifiable operational leader. Shaykh Umar abd al-Rahman is the  
preeminent spiritual leader. Goal is to overthrow the government of  
President Hosni Mubarak and replace it with an Islamic state. 
Activities
Armed attacks against Egyptian security and other officials, Coptic  
Christians, Western tourists, and Egyptian opponents of Islamic  
extremism. It assassinated the speaker of the Egyptian assembly in  
October 1990 and launched a series of attacks on tourists in Egypt  
in 1992. The group wounded the Egyptian Information Minister in an  
assassination attempt in April 1993. 
Strength
Not known, but probably several thousand hardcore members and  
another several thousand sympathizers. 
Location/Area of Operation
Operates mainly in the Al Minya, Asyut, and Qina Governorates of  
southern Egypt. It also appears to have support in Cairo,  
Alexandria, and other urban locations, particularly among unemployed  
graduates and students. 
External Aid
Not known. Egyptian Government believes that Iran, Sudan, and Afghan  
militant Islamic groups support the group. 

     HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement) 
Description
HAMAS was formed in late 1987 as an outgrowth of the Palestinian  
branch of the Muslim Brotherhood and has become Fatah's principal  
political rival in the occupied territories. Various elements of  
HAMAS have used both political and violent means, including  
terrorism, to pursue the goal of establishing an Islamic Palestinian  
state in place of Israel. HAMAS is loosely structured, with some  
elements working openly through mosques and social service  
institutions to recruit members, raise money, organize activities,  
and distribute propaganda. Militant elements of HAMAS, operating  
clandestinely, have advocated and used violence to advance their  
goals. HAMAS's strength is concentrated in the Gaza Strip and a few  
areas of the West Bank. It has also engaged in peaceful political  
activity, such as running candidates in West Bank Chamber of  
Commerce elections. 
Activities
HAMAS activists especially those in the Izz el-Din al-Qassam Forces  
have conducted many attacks against Israeli civilian and military  
targets, suspected Palestinian collaborators, and Fatah rivals.  
Strength
Unknown number of hardcore members; tens of thousands of supporters  
and sympathizers. 
Location/Area of Operation
Primarily the occupied territories, Israel, and Jordan. 
External Aid
Receives funding from Palestinian expatriates, Iran, and private  
benefactors in Saudi Arabia and other moderate Arab states. Some  
fundraising and propaganda activity take place in Western Europe and  
North America. 

     The Harakat-ul-Ansar (HUA) 
Description
The Harakat-ul-Ansar (HUA)÷an Islamic militant group that seeks  
Kashmir's accession to Pakistan÷raised its visibility by kidnapping  
two British citizens in June. The HUA was formed in October 1993  
when two Pakistani political activist groups, Harakat-ul-Jihad al-
Islami and Harakat-ul-Mujahedin, merged. According to the leader of  
the alliance, Maulana Saadatullah Kahn, the group's objective is to  
continue the armed struggle against nonbelievers and anti-Islamic  
forces. 
Activities
This group recently has carried out a number of operations against  
Indian troops and civilian targets in Kashmir. The HUA captured Lt.  
Col. Bhobandar Singh in January and demanded that Indian forces turn  
over an HUA commander in return for Singh's release. When Indian  
authorities refused, the militants killed Singh. In mid-May, HUA  
militants conducted two attacks in Doda district in which they  
stopped buses, forced the passengers off, then singled out  
individuals for execution÷the last victim was a 14-year-old Muslim  
boy. The HUA also supports Muslims in Indian-controlled Kashmir with  
humanitarian and military assistance. 
Strength
The Harakat-ul-Ansar has several thousand armed members located in  
Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, and in the southern Kashmir Valley and the  
Doda regions of India. The HUA uses light and heavy machineguns,  
assault rifles, mortars, explosives, and rockets. Membership is open  
to all who support the HUA's objectives and are willing to take the  
group's 40-day training course. It has a core militant group of  
about 300, mostly Pakistanis and Kashmiris, but includes Afghans and  
Arab veterans of the Afghan war. 
Location/Area of Operation
The HUA is based in Muzaffarabad, Pakistan, but HUA members have  
participated in insurgent and terrorist operations in Kashmir,  
Burma, Tajikistan, and Bosnia. The HUA is based in Muzaffarabad,  
Pakistan, and is actively involved in supporting Muslims in Indian-
controlled Kashmir with humanitarian and military assistance. The  
HUA's Burma branch, located in the Arakans, trains local Muslims in  
weapons handling and guerrilla warfare. In Tajikistan, HUA members  
have served with and trained Tajik resistance elements. The first  
group of Harakat militants entered Bosnia in 1992. 
External Aid
The HUA collects donations from Saudi Arabia and other Gulf and  
Islamic states to purchase relief supplies, which it distributes to  
Muslims in Tajikistan, Kashmir, and Burma. The source and amount of  
HUA's military funding are unknown but is believed to come from  
sympathetic Arab countries and wealthy Pakistanis and Kashmiris. 

     Hizballah (Party of God)
a.k.a.: Islamic Jihad, Revolutionary Justice Organization,  
Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, Islamic Jihad for the  
Liberation of Palestine 
Description
Radical Shia group formed in Lebanon; dedicated to creation of  
Iranian-
style Islamic republic in Lebanon and removal of all non-Islamic  
influences from area. Strongly anti-West and anti-Israel. Closely  
allied with, and often directed by, Iran but may have conducted  
rogue operations that were not approved by Tehran. 
Activities
Known or suspected to have been involved in numerous anti-US  
terrorist attacks, including the suicide truck-bombing of the US  
Embassy and US Marine barracks in Beirut in October 1983 and the US  
Embassy annex in Beirut in September 1984. Group also hijacked TWA  
Flight 847 in 1985. Elements of the group were responsible for the  
kidnapping and detention of most, if not all, US and other Western  
hostages in Lebanon. Islamic Jihad publicly claimed responsibility  
for the car-bombing of Israel's Embassy in Buenos Aires in March  
1992. 
Strength
Several thousand. 
Location/Area of Operation
Operates in the Bekaa Valley, the southern suburbs of Beirut, and  
southern Lebanon; has established cells in Europe, Africa, South  
America, North America, and elsewhere. 
External Aid
Receives substantial amounts of financial, training, weapons,  
explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid from Iran. 

     Jamaat ul-Fuqra 
Description
Jamaat ul-Fuqra is an Islamic sect that seeks to purify Islam  
through violence. Fuqra is led by Pakistani cleric Shaykh Mubarik  
Ali Gilani, who established the organization in the early 1980s.  
Gilani now resides in Pakistan, but most Fuqra cells are located in  
North America. Fuqra members have purchased isolated rural compounds  
in North America to live communally, practice their faith, and  
insulate themselves from Western culture. 
Activities
Fuqra members have attacked a variety of targets they view as  
enemies of Islam, including Muslims they regard as heretics, and  
Hindus. Several Fuqra members were convicted in a Canadian court in  
late 1993 of conspiracy to commit murder÷a charge related to their  
plans to bomb a Hindu temple and a Hindu-owned cinema in Toronto÷and  
Fuqra members in the United States have also been convicted of  
criminal violations, including murder and fraud. Attacks during the  
1980s included assassinations and firebombings across the United  
States. 
Strength
Unknown. 
Location/Area of Operation
North America, Pakistan. 
External Aid
None. 

     Japanese Red Army (JRA)
a.k.a.: Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB) 
Description
An international terrorist group formed around 1970 after breaking  
away from Japanese Communist League Red Army Faction. Now led by  
Fusako Shigenobu, believed to be in Syrian-garrisoned area of  
Lebanon's Bekaa Valley. Stated goals are to overthrow Japanese  
Government and monarchy and to help foment world revolution.  
Organization unclear but may control or at least have ties to Anti-
Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB); may also have links to  
Antiwar Democratic Front÷an overt leftist political  
organization÷inside Japan. Details released following November 1987  
arrest of leader Osamu Maruoka indicate that JRA may be organizing  
cells in Asian cities, such as Manila and Singapore. Has had close  
and longstanding relations with Palestinian terrorist groups÷based  
and operating outside Japan÷since its inception. 
Activities
Before 1977, JRA carried out a series of brutal attacks over a wide  
geographical area, including the massacre of passengers at Lod  
airport in Israel (1972) and two Japanese airliner hijackings (1973  
and 1977). Anti-US attacks include attempted takeover of US Embassy  
in Kuala Lumpur (1975). Since mid-1960s, has carried out several  
crude rocket and mortar attacks against a number of US embassies. In  
April 1988, JRA operative Yu Kikumura was arrested with explosives  
on the New Jersey Turnpike, apparently planning an attack to  
coincide with the bombing of a USO club in Naples and a suspected  
JRA operation that killed five, including a US servicewoman. He was  
convicted of these charges and is serving a lengthy prison sentence  
in the United States. 
Strength
About 30 hardcore members; undetermined number of sympathizers. 
Location/Area of Operation
Based in Syrian-controlled areas of Lebanon; often transits  
Damascus. 
External Aid
Receives aid, including training and base camp facilities, from  
radical Palestinian terrorists, especially the PFLP. May also  
receive aid from Libya. Suspected of having sympathizers and support  
apparatus in Japan. 

     Jihad Group
a.k.a.: al-Jihad, Islamic Jihad, New Jihad Group, Vanguards of  
Conquest, Talaa'al al-Fateh 
Description
An Egyptian Islamic extremist group active since the late 1970s;  
appears to be divided into at least two separate factions: remnants  
of the original Jihad led by Abbud al-Zumar, currently imprisoned in  
Egypt, and a new faction calling itself Vanguards of Conquest  
(Talaa'al al-Fateh or the New Jihad Group), which appears to be led  
by Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri, who is currently outside Egypt, specific  
whereabouts unknown. In addition to the Islamic Group, the Jihad  
factions regard Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman as their spiritual leader.  
The goal of all Jihad factions is to overthrow the government of  
President Hosni Mubarak and replace it with an Islamic state. 
Activities
The Jihad groups specialize in armed attacks against high-level  
Egyptian Government officials. The original Jihad was responsible  
for the 1981 assassination of President Sadat. More recently, the  
newer Jihad group led by Zawahiri claimed responsibility for the 18  
August 1993 bomb attack in Cairo, which wounded Egyptian Interior  
Minister Hassan al-Alfi and killed five others, and the 25 November  
1993 car-bomb attack in Cairo on Prime Minister Sedky; although  
Sedky was unharmed, a teenage girl was killed and 18 others were  
injured. Unlike the Islamic Group÷
which mainly targets mid- and lower-level security personnel, Coptic  
Christians, and Western tourists÷the Jihad group appears to  
concentrate primarily on high-level, high-profile Egyptian  
Government officials, including cabinet ministers. It also seems  
more technically sophisticated in its attacks than the al-Gama'a al-
Islamiyya÷notably in its use of car bombs. 
Strength
Not known, but probably several thousand hardcore members and  
another several thousand sympathizers among the various factions. 
Location/Area of Operation
Operates mainly in the Cairo area. Also appears to have members  
outside Egypt, probably in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Sudan. 
External Aid
Not known. The Egyptian Government claims that Iran, Sudan, and  
militant Islamic groups in Afghanistan support the Jihad factions. 

     Kach and Kahane Chai 
Description
Stated goal of restoring the biblical state of Israel. Kach (founded  
by radical Israeli-American rabbi Meir Kahane) and its offshoot  
Kahane Chai, which means "Kahane Lives," (founded by Meir Kahane's  
son Binyamin following his father's assassination in the United  
States) were declared to be terrorist organizations on 13 March 1994  
by the Israeli Cabinet under the 1948 Terrorism Law. This followed  
the groups' statements in support of Dr. Baruch Goldstein's 25  
February attack on the al-Ibrahimi Mosque÷Goldstein was affiliated  
with Kach÷and their verbal attacks on the Israeli Government. 
Activities
Organize protests against the Israeli Government. Harass and  
threaten Palestinians in Hebron and the West Bank. Groups have  
threatened to attack Arabs, Palestinians, and Israeli Government  
officials. They also claimed responsibility for several shooting  
attacks on West Bank Palestinians in which four persons were killed  
and two wounded in 1993. 
Strength
Unknown. 
Location/Area of Operation
Israel and West Bank settlements, particularly Qiryat Arba in  
Hebron. 
External Aid
Receives support from Jewish people in the United States and Europe.  

     Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)
a.k.a.: Kurdistan Workers' Party 
Description
Marxist-Leninist insurgent group composed of Turkish Kurds  
established in 1974. In recent years has moved beyond rural-based  
insurgent activities to include urban terrorism. Seeks to set up an  
independent Marxist state in southeastern Turkey, where there is a  
predominantly Kurdish population. 
Activities
Primary targets are Turkish Government forces and civilians in  
eastern Turkey but becoming increasingly active in Western Europe  
against Turkish targets. Conducted coordinated attacks on Turkish  
diplomatic and commercial facilities in dozens of West European  
cities on 24 June and 4 November. In May 1993, began a campaign  
against Turkish tourism industry and kidnapped 19 Western tourists  
traveling in eastern Turkey in summer 1993; released all unharmed.  
Also has bombed tourist sites and hotels.  
Strength
Approximately 10,000 to 15,000 full-time guerrillas, 5,000 to 6,000  
of whom are in Turkey; 60,000 to 75,000 part-time guerrillas; and  
hundreds of thousands of sympathizers in Turkey and Europe. 
Location/Area of Operation
Operates in Turkey and Western Europe. 
External Aid
Receives safehaven and modest aid from Syria, Iraq, and Iran. 

Lautaro Youth Movement (MJL)
a.k.a.: The Lautaro faction of the United Popular Action Movement  
(MAPU/L) or Lautaro Popular Rebel Forces (FRPL) 
Description
Violent, anti-US extremist group that advocates the overthrow of the  
Chilean Government. Leadership largely from leftist elements but  
includes criminals and alienated youths. Became active in late  
1980s, but has been seriously weakened by government  
counterterrorist successes in recent years. 
Activities
Has been linked to assassinations of policemen, bank robberies, and  
attacks on Mormon churches. 
Strength
Unknown. 
Location/Area of Operation
Chile; mainly Santiago. 
External Aid
None. 

     The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
Other known front organizations: World Tamil Association (WTA),  
World Tamil Movement (WTM), the Federation of Associations of  
Canadian Tamils (FACT), the Ellalan Force 
Description
Founded in 1976, the LTTE is the most powerful Tamil group in Sri  
Lanka and uses overt and illegal methods to raise funds, acquire  
weapons, and publicize its cause of establishing an independent  
Tamil state. The LTTE began its armed conflict with the Sri Lankan  
Government in 1983 and relies on a guerrilla strategy that includes  
the use of terrorist tactics. 
Activities
The Tigers have integrated a battlefield insurgent strategy with a  
terrorist program that targets not only key personnel in the  
countryside but also senior Sri Lankan political and military  
leaders in Colombo. Political assassinations have become commonplace  
and culminated in May 1993 with the fatal bombing of President Rana-
singhe Premadasa. In April 1994, the Ellalan Force claimed credit  
for setting off three bombs at major tourist hotels in Colombo. 
Strength
Approximately 10,000 armed combatants in Sri Lanka; about 3,000 to  
6,000 form a trained cadre of fighters. The LTTE also has a  
significant overseas support structure for fundraising, weapons  
procurement, and propaganda activities. 
Location/Area of Operation
The Tigers control most of the northern and eastern coastal areas of  
Sri Lanka but have conducted operations throughout the island.  
Headquartered in the Jaffna peninsula, LTTE leader Velupillai  
Prabhakaran has established an extensive network of checkpoints and  
informants to keep track of any ``outsiders'' who enter the group's  
area of control. The LTTE prefers to attack vulnerable government  
facilities, then withdraw before reinforcements arrive. 
External Aid
The LTTE's overt organizations support Tamil separatism by lobbying  
foreign governments and the United Nations. The LTTE also uses its  
international contacts to procure weapons, communications, and bomb-
making equipment. The LTTE exploits large Tamil communities in North  
America, Europe, and Asia to obtain funds and supplies for its  
fighters in Sri Lanka. Information obtained since the mid-1980s  
indicates that some Tamil communities in Europe are also involved in  
narcotics smuggling. Tamils historically have served as drug  
couriers moving narcotics into Europe. 

     Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front (FPMR) 
Description
Original FPMR was founded in 1983 as armed wing of Chilean Communist  
Party and named for hero of Chile's war of independence against  
Spain. Group splintered into two factions in late 1980s, one of  
which became a political party in 1991. The dissident wing FPMR/D is  
one of Chile's most active terrorist groups. 
Activities
The dissident wing (FPMR/D) frequently attacks civilians and  
international targets, including US businesses and Mormon churches.  
In 1993, FPMR/D bombed two McDonalds restaurants and attempted to  
bomb a Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant. Successful government  
counterterrorist operations have significantly undercut  
organization. 
Strength
Now believed to have fewer than 500 members. 
Location/Area of Operation
Chile. 
External Aid
None. 

     Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO)
a.k.a.: The National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA, the militant wing  
of the MEK), the People's Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI), National Council  
of Resistance (NCR), Muslim Iranian Student's Society (front  
organization used to garner financial support)     
Description
Formed in the 1960s by the college-educated children of Iranian  
merchants, the MEK sought to counter what is perceived as excessive  
Western influence in the Shah's regime. In the 1970s, the MEK÷led by  
Masud Rajavi after 1978÷concluded that violence was the only way to  
bring about change in Iran. Since then, the MEK÷following a  
philosophy that mixes Marxism and Islam÷has developed into the  
largest and most active armed Iranian dissident group. Its history  
is studded with anti-
Western activity, and, most recently, attacks on the interests of  
the clerical regime in Iran and abroad. 
Activities
The MEK directs a worldwide campaign against the Iranian Government  
that stresses propaganda and occasionally uses terrorist violence.  
During the 1970s, the MEK staged terrorist attacks inside Iran to  
destabilize and embarrass the Shah's regime; the group killed  
several US military personnel and civilians working on defense  
projects in Tehran. In 1979 the group supported the takeover of the  
US Embassy in Tehran. In April 1992, the MEK carried out nearly  
simultaneous attacks on Iranian embassies in 13 different countries  
in North America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim. The attacks caused  
extensive property damage and demonstrated the group's ability to  
mount large-scale operations overseas. Iran's belief that the MEK  
was responsible for the bombing of the Mashhad Shrine and subsequent  
attacks against Iranian oil facilities led Tehran in November 1994  
to launch attacks against an MEK base. 
Strength
Several thousand fighters based in Iraq with an extensive overseas  
support structure. Most of the fighters are organized in the MEK's  
National Liberation Army (NLA). 
Location/Area of Operation
In the 1980s, the MEK's leaders were forced by Iranian security  
forces to flee to France. Most resettled in Iraq by 1987. Since the  
mid-1980s, the MEK has not mounted terrorists operations in Iran at  
a level similar to its activities in the 1970s. Aside from the  
National Liberation Army's attacks into Iran toward the end of the  
Iran-Iraq war, and occasional NLA cross-border incursions since, the  
MEK's attacks on Iran have amounted to little more than harassment.  
The MEK has had more success in confronting Iranian representatives  
overseas through propaganda and street demonstrations. 
External Aid
Beyond support from Iraq, the MEK uses front organizations to  
solicit contributions from expatriate Iranian communities. 

     MJL (see Lautaro Youth Movement) 

     Morazanist Patriotic Front (FPM) 
Description
A radical, leftist terrorist group that first appeared in the late  
1980s. Attacks made to protest US intervention in Honduran economic  
and political affairs. 
Activities
Attacks on US, mainly military, personnel in Honduras. Claimed  
responsibility for attack on a bus in March 1990 that wounded seven  
US servicemen. Claimed bombing of Peace Corps office in December  
1988; bus bombing that wounded three US servicemen in February 1989;  
attack on US convoy in April 1989; and grenade attack that wounded  
seven US soldiers in La Ceiba in July 1989. 
Strength
Unknown, probably relatively small. 
Location/Area of Operation
Honduras. 
External Aid
Had ties to former Government of Nicaragua and possibly Cuba. 

     MRTA (see Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement) 

     National Liberation Army (ELN)÷Bolivia includes Nestor Paz  
Zamora Commission (CNPZ) 
Description
ELN claims to be resuscitation of group established by Che Guevara  
in 1960s. Includes numerous small factions of indigenous subversive  
groups, including CNPZ, which is largely inactive today. 
Activities
ELN and CNPZ have attacked US interests in past years but focused  
almost exclusively on Bolivian domestic targets in 1993. 
Strength
Unknown; probably fewer than 100. 
Location/Area of Operation
Bolivia. 
External Aid
None. 

     National Liberation Army (ELN)÷Colombia 
Description
Rural-based, anti-US, Maoist-Marxist-Leninist guerrilla group formed  
in 1963. Attempted peace talks with the government ended in May  
1992. 
Activities
Periodically kidnaps foreign employees of large corporations and  
holds them for large ransom payments. Conducts frequent assaults on  
oil infrastructure and has inflicted major damage on pipelines since  
1986. Extortion and bombings against US and other foreign  
businesses, especially the petroleum industry. 
Strength
Has fallen off in recent years and now estimated at only about 700  
combatants. 
Location/Area of Operation
Colombia. 
External Aid
None. 

     New People's Army (NPA) 
Description
The guerrilla arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP),  
an avowedly Maoist group formed in December 1969 with the aim of  
overthrowing the government through protracted guerrilla warfare.  
Although primarily a rural-based guerrilla group, the NPA has an  
active urban infrastructure to carry out terrorism; uses city-based  
assassination squads called sparrow units. Derives most of its  
funding from contributions of supporters and so-called revolutionary  
taxes extorted from local businesses. 
Activities
The NPA is in disarray because of a split in the CPP, a lack of  
money, and successful government operations. With the US military  
gone from the country, NPA has engaged in urban terrorism against  
the police, corrupt politicians, drug traffickers, and other targets  
that evoked popular anger. Has vowed to kill US citizens involved in  
counterinsurgency campaign. Has assassinated 10 US military and  
private citizens since 1987. Has also attacked US businesses in  
rural areas that refused to pay so-called revolutionary taxes. 
Strength
16,000, plus support groups.
Location/Area of Operation
Philippines. 
External Aid
Receives funding from overseas fundraisers in Western Europe and  
elsewhere; also linked to Libya. Diverts some funding of  
humanitarian aid. 

     Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) 
Description
Terrorist group that broke away from the PFLP-GC in mid-1970s. Later  
split again into pro-PLO, pro-Syrian, and pro-Libyan factions. Pro-
PLO faction led by Muhammad Abbas (Abu Abbas), who became member of  
PLO Executive Committee in 1984 but left it in 1991. 
Activities
The Abu Abbasöled faction carried out abortive seaborne attack  
staged from Libya against Israel on 30 May 1990. Abbas's group was  
also responsible for October 1985 attack on the cruise ship Achille  
Lauro and the murder of US citizen Leon Klinghoffer. A warrant for  
Abu Abbas's arrest is outstanding in Italy. Others involved in the  
hijacking are wanted elsewhere. Openly supported Iraq during Gulf  
war. 
Strength
At least 50. 
Location/Area of Operation
PLO faction based in Tunisia until Achille Lauro attack. Now based  
in Iraq. 
External Aid
Receives logistic and military support mainly from PLO, but also  
from Libya and Iraq. 

     Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
On 9 September 1993, in letters to Israeli Prime Minister Rabin and  
Norwegian Foreign Minister Holst, PLO Chairman Arafat committed the  
PLO to cease all violence and terrorism. On 13 September 1993, the  
Declaration of Principles between the Israelis and Palestinians was  
signed in Washington, DC. Between 9 September and 31 December, the  
PLO factions loyal to Arafat complied with this commitment except  
for one, perhaps two, instances in which the responsible individuals  
apparently acted independently. Two groups under the PLO umbrella,  
the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and the  
Democratic Front for the Liberation of PalestineöHawatmeh faction  
(DFLP-H), suspended their participation in the PLO in protest of the  
agreement and continued their campaign of violence. The US  
Government continues to monitor closely PLO compliance with its  
commitment to abandon terrorism and violence. 

     Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) 
Description
The PIJ originated among militant Palestinian fundamentalists in the  
Gaza Strip during the 1970s. The PIJ is a series of loosely  
affiliated factions, rather than a cohesive group. The PIJ is  
committed to the creation of an Islamic Palestinian state and the  
destruction of Israel through holy war. Because of its strong  
support for Israel, the United States has been identified as an  
enemy of the PIJ. The PIJ also opposes moderate Arab governments  
that it believes have been tainted by Western secularism. 
Activities
The PIJ demonstrated its terrorist credentials when it attacked a  
tour bus in Egypt in February 1990 and killed 11 people, including  
nine Israelis. The PIJ also has carried out cross-border raids  
against Israeli targets in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The PIJ has  
threatened to attack US interests in Jordan. PIJ agents were  
arrested in Egypt in September 1991 while attempting to enter the  
country to conduct terrorism. 
Strength
Unknown. 
Location/Area of Operation
Primarily Israel and the occupied territories and other parts of the  
Middle East, including Jordan and Lebanon. The largest faction is  
based in Syria. 
External Aid
Probably receives financial assistance from Iran and possibly some  
assistance from Syria. 

     The Party of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge) 
Description
The Khmer Rouge is a Communist insurgency that is trying to  
destabilize the Cambodian Government. Under Pol Pot's leadership,  
the Khmer Rouge conducted a campaign of genocide in which more than  
1million persons were killed during its four years in power in the  
late 1970s. 
Activities
The Khmer Rouge now is engaged in a low-level insurgency against the  
Cambodian Government; although its victims are mainly Cambodian  
villagers, the Khmer Rouge has occasionally kidnapped and killed  
foreigners, including Westerners, traveling in remote rural areas. 
Strength
The Khmer Rouge is made up of approximately 8,000 guerrillas.
Location/Area of Operation
The Khmer Rouge operates in outlying provinces in Cambodia,  
particularly in pockets along the Thailand border. 
External Aid
The Khmer Rouge is not currently receiving external assistance.
PKK (see Kurdistan Workers' Party)
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) 
Description
Marxist-Leninist group that is a member of the PLO founded in 1967  
by George Habash. After Fatah, it is the most important military and  
political organization in the Palestinian movement. Advocates a Pan-
Arab revolution. Opposes the Declaration of Principles signed in  
1993 and has suspended participation in the PLO. 
Activities
Committed numerous international terrorist attacks between 1970 and  
1977. Since the death in 1978 of Wadi Haddad, its terrorist planner,  
PFLP has carried out numerous attacks against Israeli or moderate  
Arab targets. 
Strength
800. 
Location/Area of Operation
Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and the occupied territories. 
External Aid
Receives most of its financial and military assistance from Syria  
and Libya. 

     Popular Front for the Liberation of PalestineöGeneral Command  
(PFLP-GC) 
Description
Split from the PFLP in 1968, claiming that it wanted to focus more  
on fighting and less on politics. Violently opposed to Arafat's PLO.  
Led by Ahmad Jabril, a former captain in the Syrian Army. Closely  
allied with, supported by, and probably directed by Syria. 
Activities
Claims to have specialized in suicide operations. Has carried out  
numerous cross-border terrorist attacks into Israel, using unusual  
means, such as hot-air balloons and motorized hang gliders. Hafiz  
Kassem Dalkamoni, a ranking PFLP-GC official, was convicted in  
Germany in June 1991 for bombing US troop trains. He faces  
additional charges in Germany for other terrorist offenses,  
including manslaughter. 
Strength
Several hundred. 
Location/Area of Operation
Headquarters in Damascus with bases in Lebanon and cells in Europe. 
External Aid
Receives logistic and military support from Syria, its chief  
sponsor. Financial support from Libya. Safehaven in Syria. Support  
also from Iran. 

     Popular Front for the Liberation of PalestineöSpecial Command  
(PFLP-SC) 
Description
Marxist-Leninist group formed by Abu Salim in 1979 after breaking  
away from the now defunct PFLPöSpecial Operations Group. 
Activities
Has claimed responsibility for several notorious international  
terrorist attacks in Western Europe, including the bombing of a  
restaurant frequented by US servicemen in Torrejon, Spain, in April  
1985. Eighteen Spanish civilians were killed in the attack. 
Strength
50. 
Location/Area of Operation
Operates out of southern Lebanon, in various areas of the Middle  
East, and in Western Europe. 
External Aid
Probably receives financial and military support from Syria, Libya,  
and Iraq. 

     Popular Struggle Front (PSF) 
Description
Radical Palestinian terrorist group once closely involved in the  
Syrian-
dominated Palestinian National Salvation Front. Led by Dr. Samir  
Ghosheh. Rejoined the PLO in September 1991. Group is internally  
divided over the Declaration of Principles signed in 1993. 
Activities
Terrorist attacks against Israeli, moderate Arab, and PLO targets. 
Strength
Fewer than 300. 
Location/Area of Operation
Mainly Syria and Lebanon, and elsewhere in the Middle East. 
External Aid
Receives support from Syria and may now receive aid from the PLO. 

     Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA)
a.k.a.: The Provos 
Description
A radical terrorist group formed in 1969 as the clandestine armed  
wing of Sinn Fein, a legal political movement dedicated to removing  
British forces from Northern Ireland and unifying Ireland. Has a  
Marxist orientation. Organized into small, tightly knit cells under  
the leadership of the Army Council. 
Activities
Bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, extortion, and robberies.  
Targets senior British Government officials, British military and  
police in Northern Ireland, and Northern Irish Loyalist paramilitary  
groups. PIRA's operations on mainland Britain have included  truck  
bombings  and  bombing campaigns against train and subway stations  
and shopping areas. 
Strength
Several hundred, plus several thousand sympathizers. 
Location/Area of Operation
Northern Ireland, Irish Republic, Great Britain, and Western Europe. 
External Aid
Has received aid from a variety of groups and countries and  
considerable training and arms from Libya and, at one time, the PLO.  
Also is suspected of receiving funds and arms from sympathizers in  
the United States. Similarities in operations suggest links to ETA. 

     Red Army Faction (RAF) 
Description
The small and disciplined RAF is the successor to the Baader-Meinhof  
Gang, which originated in the student protest movement in the 1960s.  
Ideology is an obscure mix of Marxism and Maoism; committed to armed  
struggle. Organized into hardcore cadres that carry out terrorist  
attacks and a network of supporters who provide logistic and  
propaganda support. Has survived despite numerous arrests of top  
leaders over the years. 
Activities
Bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, and robberies. With decline  
of world Communism, has had trouble recruiting replacements for  
jailed members. Now concentrating on domestic targets, particularly  
officials involved in German or European unification and German  
security and justice officials. Carried out one operation in 1993,  
destroying a new prison with at least 400 pounds of commercial  
explosives. Police shootout with two members ended in death of GSG-9  
officer and group member Wolfgang Grams. Group temporarily  
galvanized afterward. RAF has targeted US and NATO facilities in the  
past. During the Gulf war, RAF shot up US Embassy in Bonn with  
assault rifle rounds. There were no casualties. 
Strength
10 to 20, plus several hundred supporters. 
Location/Area of Operations
Germany. 
External Aid
Self-sustaining, but during Baader-Meinhof period received support  
from Middle Eastern terrorists. East Germany gave logistic support,  
sanctuary, and training during the 1980s. 

     Red Brigades (BR) 
Description
Formed in 1969, the Marxist-Leninist BR seeks to create a  
revolutionary state through armed struggle and to separate Italy  
from the Western Alliance. In 1984 split into two factions: the  
Communist Combatant Party (BR-PCC) and the Union of Combatant  
Communists (BR-UCC). 
Activities
Original group concentrated on assassination and kidnapping of  
Italian Government and private-sector targets; it murdered former  
Prime Minister Aldo Moro in 1978, kidnapped US Army Brig. Gen. James  
Dozier in 1981, and claimed responsibility for murdering Leamon  
Hunt, US chief of the Sinai Multinational Force and Observer Group,  
in 1984. 
Strength
Probably fewer than 50, plus an unknown number of supporters. 
Location/Area of Operation
Based and operates in Italy. Some members probably living  
clandestinely in other European countries. 
External Aid
Currently unknown; original group apparently was self-sustaining but  
probably received weapons from other West European terrorist groups  
and from the PLO. 

     Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) 
Description
Established in 1966 as military wing of Colombian Communist Party.  
Goal is to overthrow government and ruling class. Organized along  
military lines; includes at least one urban front. 
Activities
Armed attacks against Colombian political and military targets. Many  
members have become criminals, carrying out kidnappings for profit  
and bank robberies. Foreign citizens often are targets of FARC  
kidnappings. Group traffics in drugs and has well-documented ties to  
narcotraffickers. 
Strength
Approximately 4,500 to 5,500 armed combatants and an unknown number  
of supporters, mostly in rural areas. 
Location/Area of Operation
Colombia. 
External Aid
None. 

     Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17 November) 
Description
A radical leftist group established in 1975 and named for the  
November 1973 student uprising protesting the military regime. Anti-
US, anti-
Turkish, anti-NATO; committed to violent overthrow of the regime,  
ouster of US bases, removal of Turkish military presence from  
Cyprus, and severing of Greece's ties to NATO and the European Union  
(EU). Organization is obscure, possibly affiliated with other Greek  
terrorist groups. 
Activities
Initial attacks were selected handgun assassinations of senior US  
officials, including US Embassy official Richard Welch in 1975 and  
US Navy Capt. George Tsantes in 1983. Began assassinating Greek  
officials and public figures in 1976 and added bombings, including  
attacks against US military buses in 1987 and assassination of US  
defense attache William Nordeen in 1988. Since 1990, has expanded  
targets to include EU facilities and foreign firms investing in  
Greece and added improvised rocket attacks to its methods. Such an  
attack against the Greek Finance Minister in 1992 killed a passer-
by, 17 November's first ``civilian'' casualty. In 1991 was  
responsible for at least five of the 15 terrorist attacks against  
Coalition targets in Greece during the Gulf war, including the  
assassination in March of a US Army sergeant. Also attacked two  
Turkish Embassy officials in 1991.  
Strength
Unknown, but presumed to be small. 
Location/Area of Operation Greece, primarily in Athens metropolitan  
area. 
External Aid
May receive support from other Greek terrorist group cadres. 

     Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path, SL) 
Description
Larger of Peru's two insurgencies, SL is among the world's most  
ruthless guerrilla organizations. Formed in the late 1960s by then  
university professor Abimael Guzman. Stated goal is to destroy  
existing Peruvian institutions and replace them with peasant  
revolutionary regime. Also wants to rid Peru of foreign influences.  
Guzman's capture in September 1992 was a major blow, as were arrests  
of other SL leaders, defections, and President Fujimori's amnesty  
program for repentant terrorists. 
Activities
SL engages in particularly brutal forms of terrorism, including the  
indiscriminate use of car bombs. Almost every institution in Peru  
has been a target of SL violence. Has bombed diplomatic missions of  
several countries represented in Peru. Carries out bombing campaigns  
and selective assassinations. Involved in cocaine trade. 
Strength
Approximately 1,500 to 2,500 armed militants; larger number of  
supporters, mostly in rural areas. 
Location/Area of Operation
Originally rural based, but has increasingly focused its terrorist  
attacks in the capital. 
External Aid
None. 

     17 November (see Revolutionary Organization 17 November) 

     Sikh Terrorism 
Description
Sikh terrorism is sponsored by expatriate and Indian Sikh groups who  
want to carve out an independent Sikh state called Khalistan (Land  
of the Pure) from Indian territory. Sikh violence outside India,  
which surged following the Indian Army's 1984 assault on the Golden  
Temple, Sikhism's holiest shrine, has decreased significantly since  
mid-1992, although Sikh militant cells are active internationally  
and extremists gather funds from overseas Sikh communities. Active  
groups include Babbar Khalsa, Azad Khalistan Babbar Khalsa Force,  
Khalistan Liberation Front, and Khalistan Commando Force.  Many of  
these groups operate under umbrella organizations, the most  
significant of which is the Second Panthic Committee. 
Activities
Sikh attacks in India are mounted against Indian officials and  
facilities, other Sikhs, and Hindus; they include assassinations,  
bombings, and kidnappings. Sikh extremists probably bombed the Air  
India jet downed over the Irish Sea in June 1985, killing 329  
passengers and crew. On the same day, a bomb planted by Sikhs on an  
Air India flight from Vancouver exploded in Tokyo's Narita Airport,  
killing two Japanese baggage handlers. In 1991, Sikh terrorists  
attempted to assassinate the Indian Ambassador in Romania once  
India's senior police officer in Punjab from 1986 to 1989 and  
kidnapped and held the Romanian Charge in New Delhi for seven weeks.  
In January 1993, Indian police arrested Sikhs in New Delhi as they  
were conspiring to detonate a bomb to disrupt India's Republic Day,  
and, in September 1993, Sikh militants attempted to assassinate the  
Sikh chief of the ruling Congress Party's youth wing with a bomb.  
Sikh attacks in India, ranging from kidnappings and assassinations  
to remote-controlled bombings, have dropped markedly since mid-1992,  
as Indian security forces have killed or captured a host of senior  
Sikh militant leaders. Total civilian deaths in Punjab have declined  
more than 95 percent since more than 3,300 civilians died in 1991.  
The drop results largely from Indian Army, paramilitary, and police  
successes against extremist groups. 
Strength
Unknown. 
Location/Area of Operation
Northern India, Western Europe, Southeast Asia, and North America. 
External Aid
Sikh expatriates have formed a variety of international  
organizations that lobby for the Sikh cause overseas. Most prominent  
are the World Sikh Organization and the International Sikh Youth  
Federation. 

     Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) 
Description
Traditional Marxist-Leninist revolutionary movement formed in 1983.  
Currently struggling to remain viable. Has suffered from defections  
and government counter-terrorist successes in addition to infighting  
and loss of leftist support. Objective remains to rid Peru of  
``imperialism'' and establish Marxist regime. 
Activities
Bombings, kidnappings, ambushes, assassinations. Previously  
responsible for large number of anti-US attacks; recent activity has  
dropped off dramatically. 
Strength
Unknown; greatly diminished in recent years. 
Location/Area of Operation
Peru; provided assistance in Bolivia to Bolivian ELN. 
External Aid
None. 

     Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army (EGTK) 
Description
Indigenous, anti-Western Bolivian subversive organization. 
Activities
Frequently attacks small, unprotected targets, such as power pylons,  
oil pipelines, and government offices. Has targeted Mormon churches  
with firebombings and attacked USAID motorpool in January 1993. 
Strength
Fewer than 100. 
Location/Area of Operation
Bolivia, primarily the Chapare region, near the Peru border, and the  
Altiplano. 
External Aid
None. 
 
Appendix C
Statistical Review 
 
Appendix D
International Terrorist Incidents, 1994 
[Editorâs Note:  Appendixes C and D are not available in this  
electronic version of the report] 
Department of State Publication 10239
Office of the Secretary
Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism 
[END OF PATTERNS OF GLOBAL TERRORISM, 1994] 
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